Concepts and Applications in Environmental Geochemistry

Developments in Environmental Science

Book 5
Free sample

This volume is for environmental researchers and government policy makers who are required to monitor environmental quality for their environmental investigators and remediation plans. It uses concepts and applications to aid in the exchange of scientific information across all the environmental science disciplines ranging from geochemistry to hydrogeology and ecology to biotechnology. Focusing on issues such as metals, organics and nutrient contamination of water and soils, and interactions between soil-water-plants-chemicals, the book synthesizes the latest findings in this rapidly-developing, multi-disciplinary field. Cutting-edge environmental analytical methods are also presented, making this a must-have for professionals tasked with monitoring environmental quality. These concepts and applications help in decision making and problem solving in a single resource.

*Integrative approach promotes the exchange of scientific information among different disciplines
*New concepts and case studies make the text unique among existing resources
*Tremendous practical value in environmental quality and remediation with an emphasis on human health and ecological risk assessment
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Additional Information

Publisher
Elsevier
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Published on
Sep 14, 2011
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Pages
778
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ISBN
9780080549736
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Earth Sciences / Geology
Science / Environmental Science
Science / Life Sciences / Ecology
Technology & Engineering / Environmental / General
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Eligible for Family Library

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At 170 billion barrels, Canada's Oil Sands are the third largest reserves of developable oil in the world. The Oil Sands now produce about 1.6 million barrels per day, with production expected to double by 2025 to about 3.7 million barrels per day. The Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northeastern Alberta is the largest of the three oil sands deposits. Bitumen in the oil sands is recovered through one of two primary methods – mining and drilling. About 20 per cent of the reserves are close to the surface and can be mined using large shovels and trucks. Of concern are the effects of the industrial development on the environment. Both human-made and natural sources emit oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, trace elements and persistent organic compounds. Of additional concern are ground level ozone and greenhouse gases.

Because of the requirement on operators to comply with the air quality regulatory policies, and to address public concerns, the not-for-profit, multi-stakeholder Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) has since 1997 been closely monitoring air quality in AOSR. In 2008, WBEA assembled a distinguished group of international scientists who have been conducting measurements and practical research on various aspects of air emissions and their potential effects on terrestrial receptors. This book is a synthesis of the concepts and results of those on-going studies. It contains 19 chapters ranging from a global perspective of energy production, measurement methodologies and behavior of various air pollutants during fossil fuel production in a boreal forest ecosystem, towards designing and deploying a multi-disciplinary, proactive, and long-term environmental monitoring system that will also meet regulatory expectations.

Covers measurement of emissions from very large industrial sources in a region with huge international media profileValidation of measurement technologies can be applied globallyThe new approaches to ecological monitoring described can be applied in other forested regions
Simple, clear, and to the point, Probability and Statistics Applications for Environmental Science delineates the fundamentals of statistics, imparting a basic understanding of the theory and mechanics of the calculations. User-friendliness, uncomplicated explanations, and coverage of example applications in the environmental field set this book apart from other textbooks on the same subject.

Striking a balance between theory and applied mathematics, the material is divided into three parts. Part I sets the stage with coverage of principles and fundamentals, such as set notation, probability distributions, and the estimation of the mean and variance. Part II discusses traditional statistics applications, centering around the uses of probability distributions, including how they relate to reliability and failure theory. The authors elucidate many of the important distributions, Monte Carlo methods, and fault and event trees. Part III delves into what some have come to define as contemporary statistics. It covers hypothesis testing, Student's t and chi-square tests, regression analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and nonparametric tests.

The book's coverage is thorough, its presentation logical and geared to student's needs. It includes problems and solutions within the text and tables, a glossary of terms, and an introduction to design of experiments in the appendices. The authors, known for their meticulously accurate, articulate, and practical writing style, master the difficult task of explaining very complicated subject matter in a way that is easily understood. The book features a clear, concise presentation that makes both teaching and learning easier.
Biogeochemistry—winner of a 2014 Textbook Excellence Award (Texty) from the Text and Academic Authors Association—considers how the basic chemical conditions of the Earth, from atmosphere to soil to seawater, have been and are being affected by the existence of life. Human activities in particular, from the rapid consumption of resources to the destruction of the rainforests and the expansion of smog-covered cities, are leading to rapid changes in the basic chemistry of the Earth.

This expansive text pulls together the numerous fields of study encompassed by biogeochemistry to analyze the increasing demands of the growing human population on limited resources and the resulting changes in the planet's chemical makeup.

The book helps students extrapolate small-scale examples to the global level, and also discusses the instrumentation being used by NASA and its role in studies of global change. With extensive cross-referencing of chapters, figures and tables, and an interdisciplinary coverage of the topic at hand, this updated edition provides an excellent framework for courses examining global change and environmental chemistry, and is also a useful self-study guide.

Winner of a 2014 Texty Award from the Text and Academic Authors AssociationCalculates and compares the effects of industrial emissions, land clearing, agriculture, and rising population on Earth's chemistrySynthesizes the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur, and suggests the best current budgets for atmospheric gases such as ammonia, nitrous oxide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfideIncludes an extensive review and up-to-date synthesis of the current literature on the Earth's biogeochemistry
This book focuses on the development of DGT (diffusive gradients in thin films) and the related techniques for measuring and investigating the geochemical process and P transfer across the sediment/water or sediment/root interface in lakes. A series of DGT techniques such as new types of probes, test methods in sediment or the rhizosphere, DIFS (DGT induced fluxes in sediments and soils) model for kinetic P exchange, CID (computer imaging densitometry) for S(-II), and microchelex gel/LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) have been developed.

The corresponding chapters on the theory and methodology of DGT, the “internal P loading” or P transfer across sediment/root in two lakes, provide insights into the research method and conclusions, including the P release mechanism, the quantification of “internal P loading”, kinetic P exchange in DGT/sediment interface, Fe- or S(-II)-microniches at submillimeter scales in sediments for the prediction of P release, and DGT as a surrogate for the prediction of P uptake by roots.

It also offers new perspectives in the fields of P analysis and P process in micro-interfaces in lakes using DGT techniques. The P remobilization from Fe-bound P, the coupled Fe-S(-II)-P geochemical reaction and algae biomass breakdown causing P release, are elucidated using DGT methods in sediment layers. DGT parameters and curves for time or distance derived from DIFS can be used to assess kinetic P release in the sediment microzone. CID and LA-ICP-MS methods deliver Fe- and S(-II) images at submillimeter scales, which can be used for the quantification of flux related to microniche peaks and the prediction of P release from Fe-microniche or Fe-S(-II)-P geochemical reactions. DGT measurements in-situ in rhizosphere or rhizonbox can give CE (effective concentration) and CDGT values for the prediction of P accumulated in plant tissues.

This book provides a valuable reference resource for senior graduate students, lecturers and researchers in the fields of the geochemical process of eutrophic elements in lakes, lake eutrophication mechanism and environmental analysis.

This volume presents the recent developments in the field of arsenic in soil and groundwater. Arranged into nine sections, the text emphasizes the global occurrences of arsenic in the environment, particularly on its source, pathways, behavior, and effects it has on soils, plants, water, animals, and humans. It also covers the diverse issues of arsenic in the mining environment, arsenic emanating from hydrothermal springs, and the geochemical modeling of arsenic adsorption to oxide surfaces. Finally, the text includes different cost effective removal mechanisms of arsenic from drinking water using natural red earth, solar oxidation, and arsenic oxidation by ferrrate.

Written in simple English, and few technical terms, the book is designed to create interest within the countries with occurrences of arsenic in drinking water with
· an update the current status of knowledge on the dynamics of natural arsenic from the aquifers through groundwater to food chain and efficient techniques for arsenic removal.
· serve as a standard text book for graduate, postgraduate students and researchers in the field of Environmental Sciences and Hydrogeochemistry as well as researchers, environmental scientists and chemists, toxicologists, medical scientists and even for general public seeking an in-depth view of arsenic which had been classed as a carcinogen.
· bring awareness, among administrators, policy makers and company executives, on the problem and to improve the international cooperation
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