Negative Forms In English

English Daily Use

Book 4
Manik Joshi
2
Free sample

This Book Covers The Following Topics:

BY NO MEANS
LITTLE
BUT NOT
NEVER
NO/NOT/NEVER ------- NOR
NO/NOT/NEVER ------- OR
NEITHER ------- NOR
NOBODY/NO ONE
NOTHING
NO DOUBT
NO LONGER
NO MATTER + Question Word
NOT + LONG AGO
NOT/NOT ONLY & BUT
NOT + -ING form of Verb
NOT TO + MAIN VERB
RARELY
SELDOM
MISCELLANY
TENSE - Negative Statements
Present Tense – Negative Statements
Past Tense – Negative Statements
Future Tense – Negative Statements
Negative Forms of Modals
Exercises: 1
Exercises: 2

Sample This:


BY NO MEANS
Meaning: Not At All

Based on a rough count, by no means definitive, they had about 625 tents set up last year.
By no means am I saying this is a bad thing, but it is not a choice that I made.
By no means did we settle on anything.
By no means does he think children need to go through terrible times to be better people.
By no means is he guaranteed to win.
By no means is this fight over or even anywhere near under control.
By no means let him dominate the conversation.
By no means should individuals or groups be allowed to go that building.
By no means should we be complacent with being second.


LITTLE
Meaning: Small

[Little + Auxiliary Verb + Subject]
Little do managers and executives realize that delay is in itself a decision!
Little do they know that she is better qualified than any of them in survival skills.
Little do they know that the journey ahead is not going to be easy.
Little do they know that their loss is actually a win for all of us, including for them.
Little do we realize the exact meaning or the appropriate use of many terms.


BUT NOT

But not for a minute did he make me feel angry.
Embassy shutdowns happen, but not usually on this scale.
Gender equality is still a goal, but not a present reality, for university campuses around the world.
He could be right, but not for the reason he thinks.
He has time for sports but not for family.
He is clearly the strongest but not superhuman.
He looks comfortable but not great.


NEVER
Meaning: Not At Any Time/Not On Any Occasion

Contractor left the work midway and never came back to finish it.
He gave a press conference explaining he never did anything wrong in his career.
He had to come clean but he never did.
He never does anything for us.
He never does anything truly charitable.
He never went to class.
He said he would text me after the weekend but never did.
He thought he was never in with a chance of becoming a mayor last year.
His wife is soft-spoken and never hurt anyone.
I am ashamed that I saw injustice and never did anything about it.
I am not sure he will even make the team, never mind have a big role.
I am sure I will never forget this moment.
I could never go back.
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About the author

Manik Joshi was born on Jan 26, 1979 at Ranikhet and is permanent resident of Haldwani, Kumaon zone of India. He is an Internet Marketer by profession. He is interested in domaining (business of buying and selling domain names), web designing (creating websites), and various online jobs (including 'self book publishing'). He is science graduate with ZBC (zoology, botany, and chemistry) subjects. He is also an MBA (with specialization in marketing). He has done three diploma courses in computer too.

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Additional Information

Publisher
Manik Joshi
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Published on
Oct 25, 2014
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Pages
48
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ISBN
9781492741930
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Language
English
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Genres
Language Arts & Disciplines / Public Speaking
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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This Book Covers The Following Topics:

1. What is an “Exclamation”?
2. Exclamatory Sentences
3. Exclamatory Sentences with ‘What’
4. Exclamatory Sentences with ‘How’
5. Exclamatory Sentences with So and Such
6. Exclamations in Declarative Sentences
7. Exclamations in Interrogative Sentences
8. Exclamations in Imperative Sentences
9. Detailed List of Interjections
10. Using ‘Common Words’ as Exclamations
11. Useful Exclamatory Phrases/Sentences
12. Other Patterns
13. List of Emotions Shown by Exclamations
Exercise: 1
Exercise: 2

Sample This:

1. What is an “Exclamation”?

DEFINITION: An exclamation (or interjection) is a short sound, word or phrase which is spoken suddenly to express strong emotion.
Or
Exclamatory words that can stand alone as a sentence while expressing emotions or reactions are called exclamations (or interjections).

Exclamation mark (!) should be written after an exclamation. “Exclamation Mark” is called "Exclamation Point" in American English.

There are many exclamatory words (interjections or exclamations) which are often used in daily life. Some of these words express one strong emotion while others express two or more strong emotions. They do not have a grammatical purpose in the sentence and are not associated to the other parts of the sentence. They do not play the role of a subject or a verb. They can stand by themselves, or are placed before, after or in middle of a sentence to express a strong emotion or feeling.

Examples:
Exclamatory Word -- Alas!
Represents feeling of ‘Sadness, Sorry’

Exclamatory Word -- Um!
Represents feeling of ‘Hesitation’

Exclamatory Word -- Yum!
Represents feeling of ‘Pleasant Taste or Smell’

You can use exclamations to show the following emotions:

admiration, affection, anger, annoyance, anticipation, apathy, approval, attention, awe, confusion, delight, despair, disappointment, disapproval, discontent, dislike, distress, eagerness, elation, enjoyment, excitement, fear, frustration, grief, happiness, humour, hurt, irritation, joy, love, mourning, pain, panic, pleasure, pride, remorse, respect, shame, shock, sorrow, sorry, surprise, sympathy, terror, wonder, etc.

IMPORTANT NOTES:

(1). Use Of An Exclamation (Interjection) In A Sentence

(a). Beginning A Sentence With An Interjection
When you begin a sentence with an interjection you can place either comma (,) or exclamatory mark (point) (!) after the interjection.

Examples:
Ah, what a wonderful gift!
Comma (,) after an interjection expresses less emotion.

Ah! What a wonderful gift!
Exclamatory mark (point) (!) after an interjection expresses more emotion.

Note: Both the sentences have exclamatory mark at the end.

Obviously, both are exclamatory sentences. But second one is more emphatic. Also note: if you put comma after an interjection then next word in the sentence will begin from small letter but if you put exclamatory mark after an interjection then next word in the sentence will begin from capital letter.

Important Note: You can also end the sentence with period (.) or question mark (?) to show mild emotion.
Ah, what a wonderful gift.
Ah! What a wonderful gift.

Wow, We won.
Oh, did you go there?

(B). Use Of An Interjection In The Middle Of A Sentence

Examples:
Hundreds of people, alas, feared killed in a massive landslide.
Albert Einstein was born in...er…Germany.
You deleted my folder…um…my file!

(C). Use Of An Interjection At The End Of A Sentence

Example:
So got married, huh!
What do you think of me, eh?

This Book Covers The Following Topics:

What are “Causative Sentences”?
Causative Sentences -- HAVE
Structure 1(A) ---- Active Causative Structure
Structure 1(B) ---- Passive Causative Structure
Structure 2(A) ---- Active Causative Structure
Structure 2(B) ---- Passive Causative Structure
Structure 3(A) ---- Active Causative Structure
Structure 3(B) ---- Passive Causative Structure
Causative Verb ‘Have’ and Tense Change
Causative Sentences -- GET
Structure (1) ---- Active Causative Structure
Structure (2) ---- Passive Causative Structure
Causative Verb ‘Get’ and Tense Change
Causative Sentences -- MAKE
Causative Sentences -- LET
Causative Sentences -- HELP
Sentences with Verb ‘Cause’
Other ‘Causative Verbs’
Use of ‘Modal Verbs’ with Causative Verbs
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)
Exercises: 3(A) and 3(B)
Exercises: 4(A) and 4(B)


Sample This:

What are “Causative Sentences”?

In a causative, a person or thing does not perform an action directly. The subject (person or thing) causes it to happen by forcing, persuading, assisting, etc. an agent (another person or thing) to perform it. The subject (person or thing) does not carry out an action oneself but rather has the action done by an agent (another person or thing).

Examples:
Faulty design caused a bridge to collapse.
Modern lifestyles cause children and adults to spend most of their time indoors.
Rain caused water to collect on the road.
She caused needle to run.


Causative verbs – Have, Get, Make, Let, Help -- Comparison
Causative ‘Have’ has less force and authority than Causative ‘Get’.
Causative ‘Get’ has less force and authority than Causative ‘Make’

Causative Verb ‘Have’ -- used to express “arrangement/duty/responsibility” [Less Forceful]
Causative Verb ‘Get’ -- used to express “encouragement/persuasion". [Forceful]
Causative Verb ‘Make’ -- used to express "compulsion/insistence/requirement” [Most Forceful]
Causative Verb ‘Let’ -- used to express “permission". [No Force]
Causative Verb ‘Help’ -- used to express “assistance". [No Force]

Causative ‘Have’ is more formal than causative ‘Get’.
In the imperative form, causative ‘Get’ is more frequent than causative ‘Have’.


Types of Causative Verbs
Causative structures are of two types –
(1). ‘Active’ in Nature – (Done By Somebody/Something)
(2). ‘Passive’ in Nature – (Done To Somebody/Something)
Passive causatives are used to take attention away from the doer of the action, and give more attention to the action being done.

ALSO NOTE:
“Have somebody do something” is more common in American English.
“Get somebody to do something” is more common in British English.

All causative verbs are transitive.


CAUSATIVE VERB – HAVE
Structure 1(A) ---- Active Causative Structure

Subject + Have (Causative Verb) + Agent (Someone/Something) + Base Form of Verb + Object (Someone/Something)

Example: I have him take my photograph. (Present)
Explanation:
I arrange for my photograph to be taken by him.
[I cause him to take my photograph.]
Therefore, this is like active causative structure.

Example: I had him take my photograph. (Past)
Explanation:
I arranged for my photograph to be taken by him.
[I caused him to take my photograph.]
Therefore, this is like active causative structure.

Example: I will have him take my photograph. (Future)
Explanation:
I will arrange for my photograph to be taken by him.
[I will cause him to take my photograph.]
Therefore, this is like active causative structure.

OTHER EXAMPLES:

CAUSATIVE - HAVE --
Have/Has + Someone/Something + Base Form of Verb
Note: This pattern may denote past, present, or future tense based on another verb in the sentence.

Her desire to have me write a memoir only raised my stress level.
We are so blessed to have her sing on one of our songs.
It is one thing to have somebody else ask him about what he has done and it is quite another to have me ask him.
He refused to have investigation officers search his home.
Conditional sentences– conditional in English grammar | English conditional sentence- formation, structure, pattern | real and unreal conditional sentences | if clause | present conditionals- (i) present real conditional sentences (ii) present unreal conditional sentences | past conditionals- (i) past real conditional sentences (ii) past unreal conditional sentences | future conditionals- (i) future real conditional sentences, (ii) future unreal conditional sentences | continuous forms of conditional sentences, mixed conditional sentences | use of were to, 'special force' - conditional sentences, conditional- wish, miscellaneous usage- as though, as if, even if, only if, unless, happen, provided that, otherwise, or else | more than 500 conditional sentences | get fluent with conditional sentences | complete guide for English conditional sentences


Sample This:

Present Real Conditional Sentences

The Present Real Conditional Is Used To Talk About What You Normally Do In Real-Life Situations.

STRUCTURE
[First Part – If / When + Subject + Present Verb…,   Second Part – Simple Present]
OR
[First Part – Simple Present,   Second Part – If / When + Subject + Present Verb…]

Whether Use “If” OR “When”?
"If" implies - things don’t happen regularly.
“When” implies - things happen regularly.

If you eat too much fast food, it makes you overweight.
Or [It makes you overweight if you eat too much fast food.]

If you put salt on salad, they taste nicer.
Or [They taste nicer if you put salt on salad.]

When I have a free time, I often sit in the library. [Regularly]
Or [I often sit in the library when I have a free time.]

MORE EXAMPLES:
[First Part – If / When + Subject + Present Verb…,   Second Part – Simple Present]
If I move to school, I never take my mobile.
If you want to be a super achiever, first recognize your own capabilities.
If it melts, it raises the sea level.
If something bad happens anywhere, it is natural to be sad.
If you heat water, it boils.
If office closes early, we definitely go to library.
If you need help, call me.
If I don’t come on time, you are supposed to leave the office.
If you feel sleepy, just go to bed.
If that isn’t absolute verification, I don’t know what is.
If the contractors fail to achieve the target within the specified period, they are liable to pay damages.
If you don't get the first good, be content with the second good. [Note: Use of Imperative Sentence]
If you are working for something with convictions, you are satisfied.
If proper punishment is not awarded to the accused, the faith of the society is shaken in the legal system of the country. [Note: Use of passive voice – is + awarded, and is + shaken]
If uranium is bombarded with neutron, it absorbs some.
If a Swedish govt. is interested in such a deal at all, Sweden can negotiate for itself a better deal.
If a person is abused repeatedly then that person has the right to object and right to argue also.
If my statement has pained someone then I regret it.
If they have done something wrong that doesn’t mean I have also done something wrong.
If the refugee cannot afford to pay, she may be refused access to the hospital or have her refugee card confiscated.


[First Part – Simple Present,   Second Part – If / When + Subject + Present Verb…]
I have come to bother you if you don’t mind.
We don’t even know if any person by that name exists.
Their wages are cut if they do not report for duty on time.
You learn a language better if you visit the country where it is spoken.
Agency works under pressure if one goes by what ex-Director says.
I apologize if at all the article hurt anyone.
Power companies can hike the tariffs if the cost of imported coal rises.
Hang me if I am guilty.
I meet him if I go there.
Butter dissolves if you leave it in sun.
Plants die if you don’t water them.
Milk goes off if you don’t keep it in a cool place.
Ask the officer if you have any problem.
I don’t mind if you sit in my cabin.
Customers get upset if they are being overcharged.
I have no problem if her name is disclosed.
They promised to slash power rates if they are elected.
Existing laws can be deterrent if time-based trial is conducted.
Do you mind if I turn on the radio for a while.
A death row convict cannot be executed if he is not physically and mentally fit.
A student may not be motivated to work hard if promotion is guaranteed.
Many of the deaths can be avoided if bikers wear the helmet.
I go by taxi when the bus is late.

This Book Covers The Following Topics:

Patterns For Creating Long Sentences
01 -- Using ‘-ING Form of Verbs’ (I)
02 -- Using ‘-ING Form of Verbs’ (II)
03 -- Using ‘-ING Form of Verbs’ (III)
04 -- Using ‘With + -ING Form of Verbs’
05 -- Using ‘Series’
06 -- Using ‘From – To’
07 -- Using ‘Connecting Words or Phrases’
08 – Using ‘Parenthesis’
09 – Miscellaneous Patterns


Sample This:

01 -- Using ‘-ING Form of Verbs’ (I)

Example 01:
The ongoing drought in the state is being described as the country's worst in many decades, causing agricultural distress and forcing villagers to move to urban areas looking for work.
Main verb – described
-ING form of verbs – causing, forcing
Explanation:
The ongoing drought in the state is being described as the country's worst in many decades.
Drought is causing agricultural distress.
Drought is also forcing villagers to move to urban areas looking for work.

Example 02:
Offering huge relief to ten thousand families belonging to the below poverty line category in the state, minister directed Power Corporation Limited to waive pending domestic power bills for last 10 months.
Main verb – directed
-ING form of verbs – offering, belonging
Explanation:
Minister directed Power Corporation Limited to waive pending domestic power bills for last 10 months.
Minister offered huge relief to ten thousand families.
Families belonged to the below poverty line category in the state.

Example 03:
A deadly winter storm blanketed a huge swath of the US, grounding flights, turning highways into the ice rinks and knocking out power to tens of thousands preparing for the New Year holiday.
Main verb – blanketed
-ING form of verbs – grounding, turning, knocking, preparing
Explanation:
A deadly winter storm blanketed a huge swath of the US.
Storm grounded flights.
Storm turned highways into the ice rinks.
Storm knocked out power to tens of thousands who were preparing for the New Year holiday.

Example 04:
From undertaking constructions activities when it did not have funds, never submitting utilization certificates for works it did, charging high centage than all other procuring excess expenditure and rarely accounting for unspent balances, the department indulged in financial jugglery that could put the best accountants to shame.
Main verb – indulged
-ING form of verbs – undertaking, submitting, charging, accounting
Explanation:
The department indulged in financial jugglery that could put the best accountants to shame.
Department undertook constructions activities when it did not have funds.
Department never submitted utilization certificates for works it did.
Department charged high centage than all other procuring excess expenditure.
Department rarely accounted for unspent balances.

Example 05:
City continued to reel under massive traffic jams due to water-logging as heavy rains lashed the city for second consecutive day, flooding several arterial roads and leaving commuters stranded for hours while exposing civic bodies’ lack of preparedness to deal with the perennial problem.
Main verbs – continued, lashed
-ING form of verbs – flooding, leaving, exposing
Explanation:
City continued to reel under massive traffic jams due to water-logging.
Heavy rains lashed the city for second consecutive day.
Heavy rains flooded several arterial roads.
Heavy rains left commuters stranded for hours.
Heavy rains exposed civic bodies’ lack of preparedness to deal with the perennial problem.
How to use numbers correctly when writing, writing numbers in English sentences, use of numbers in English conversation | use of numbers in daily English | Types of Numbers, Standard words for numbers, Various expressions, structure (1) ---- multiple number [in the beginning or middle of the sentence], structure (2) ---- multiple number + of + noun, structure (3) ---- multiple number + of + noun + of, structure (4) ---- multiple number (less) + of + multiple number (more), structure (5) ---- multiple number (less) + of + multiple number (more) + of + noun, structure (6) ---- multiple number + and + multiple number, structure (7) ---- number + times, structure (8) ---- half/double/twice/thrice/fraction, structure (09) ---- number + as many + (noun, etc. + as), structure (10) ---- as much (as), structure (11) ---- number + ‘as likely’ or ‘more likely’


Sample This:

Structure (1) -- Multiple Number [In the Beginning or Middle of Sentence]

Hundreds gathered in front of the parliament building early on Monday.
Hundreds injured in two days of clashes.
Thousands evacuated after explosions at munitions depot.
Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of Cubans and Haitians have lost their lives at sea seeking freedom and opportunity.

Millions marched against government in over 400 cities.
Industry produced several hundred million units a year.
Exact loss of the property is not yet known but rough estimates put the losses to ten million dollars.
More than three million Australians lack access to critical financial services.
Trillions dong spent to build ports which have been left idle.
Trillions will need to be spent on infrastructure very soon.
Agriculture and tourism are a trillion dollar economy.
Mobiles are a multi-trillion-dollar industry, even bigger than pharmaceuticals.
It would add more than a trillion dollars to the economy every year.
There are spiral galaxies out there with more than a trillion stars, and giant elliptical galaxies with 100 trillion stars.
Our inability to comprehend the sheer magnitude of 1 billion has been eclipsed by our inability to comprehend 1 trillion.
Global loss to fraud ran into trillions.
She said she would have donated most of her $4 trillion to charity.
The universe is estimated to be somewhere between 13 billion to 14 billion years old.


Structure (2) -- Multiple Number + of + Noun

2-A. HUNDREDS OF
Hundreds of stocks saw much more dramatic gains.
Hundreds of new jobs were being created every year.
Hundreds of homes destroyed in wildfires.
Hundreds of police officers had taken off their bullet-proof vests.
Hundreds of students participated in the competition.
Hundreds of wannabe leaders are roaming our streets.
Hundreds of candidates were standing for parliamentary elections.
Hundreds of angry residents surrounded the police post to protest against the incident and demanded the arrest of the culprits.
Hundreds of railway officials would be deployed to manage the smooth running of special trains.
Hundreds of residents remained without electricity and water Monday evening.
Hundreds of riot police continued to fire tear gas and jets of water during the agitation.
Hundreds of protestors from a wide variety of activist groups staged protests.
He has received hundreds of awards.
Stories behind these and the hundreds of other Asian bus accidents are same.
He was welcomed to University by hundreds of students and fans.
The flames torched hundreds of homes now.
The explosion killed 15 people and destroyed or damaged hundreds of homes.
Medical laboratory admitted to paying bribes to hundreds of doctors in the city.
Many have walked hundreds of miles fleeing fighting in the capital.
Just one severe typhoon could leave behind hundreds of people dead.
Wildfires fueled by hot, gusty winds were burning hundreds of acres and forcing evacuations.
He posted hundreds of messages on a public Internet forum.
The process will involve hundreds of community meetings.
There's little sense in having hundreds of followers who don't know what you do.
Every year, hundreds of people across the country get infected with contagious diseases.
He had hundreds of hats which were on display at the museum.
There are hundreds of young writers in India.
What about the hundreds of illegal refineries 'discovered' every day?
The Corps of Engineers operates hundreds of reservoirs across the nation.
We found maps of hundreds of houses.
Heavy rainfall, cloud bursts, landslides and floods have caused widespread loss of life and property displacing hundreds of people.
The fire has wiped out hundreds of homes.
The police raid left hundreds of protesters injured.
A squall line is a line of thunderstorms that extend for hundreds of miles.
Police detained hundreds of illegal migrants.
Many hundreds of fun activities exist on each Hawaiian Island.

This Book Covers The Following Topics:

1. What is an “Exclamation”?
2. Exclamatory Sentences
3. Exclamatory Sentences with ‘What’
4. Exclamatory Sentences with ‘How’
5. Exclamatory Sentences with So and Such
6. Exclamations in Declarative Sentences
7. Exclamations in Interrogative Sentences
8. Exclamations in Imperative Sentences
9. Detailed List of Interjections
10. Using ‘Common Words’ as Exclamations
11. Useful Exclamatory Phrases/Sentences
12. Other Patterns
13. List of Emotions Shown by Exclamations
Exercise: 1
Exercise: 2

Sample This:

1. What is an “Exclamation”?

DEFINITION: An exclamation (or interjection) is a short sound, word or phrase which is spoken suddenly to express strong emotion.
Or
Exclamatory words that can stand alone as a sentence while expressing emotions or reactions are called exclamations (or interjections).

Exclamation mark (!) should be written after an exclamation. “Exclamation Mark” is called "Exclamation Point" in American English.

There are many exclamatory words (interjections or exclamations) which are often used in daily life. Some of these words express one strong emotion while others express two or more strong emotions. They do not have a grammatical purpose in the sentence and are not associated to the other parts of the sentence. They do not play the role of a subject or a verb. They can stand by themselves, or are placed before, after or in middle of a sentence to express a strong emotion or feeling.

Examples:
Exclamatory Word -- Alas!
Represents feeling of ‘Sadness, Sorry’

Exclamatory Word -- Um!
Represents feeling of ‘Hesitation’

Exclamatory Word -- Yum!
Represents feeling of ‘Pleasant Taste or Smell’

You can use exclamations to show the following emotions:

admiration, affection, anger, annoyance, anticipation, apathy, approval, attention, awe, confusion, delight, despair, disappointment, disapproval, discontent, dislike, distress, eagerness, elation, enjoyment, excitement, fear, frustration, grief, happiness, humour, hurt, irritation, joy, love, mourning, pain, panic, pleasure, pride, remorse, respect, shame, shock, sorrow, sorry, surprise, sympathy, terror, wonder, etc.

IMPORTANT NOTES:

(1). Use Of An Exclamation (Interjection) In A Sentence

(a). Beginning A Sentence With An Interjection
When you begin a sentence with an interjection you can place either comma (,) or exclamatory mark (point) (!) after the interjection.

Examples:
Ah, what a wonderful gift!
Comma (,) after an interjection expresses less emotion.

Ah! What a wonderful gift!
Exclamatory mark (point) (!) after an interjection expresses more emotion.

Note: Both the sentences have exclamatory mark at the end.

Obviously, both are exclamatory sentences. But second one is more emphatic. Also note: if you put comma after an interjection then next word in the sentence will begin from small letter but if you put exclamatory mark after an interjection then next word in the sentence will begin from capital letter.

Important Note: You can also end the sentence with period (.) or question mark (?) to show mild emotion.
Ah, what a wonderful gift.
Ah! What a wonderful gift.

Wow, We won.
Oh, did you go there?

(B). Use Of An Interjection In The Middle Of A Sentence

Examples:
Hundreds of people, alas, feared killed in a massive landslide.
Albert Einstein was born in...er…Germany.
You deleted my folder…um…my file!

(C). Use Of An Interjection At The End Of A Sentence

Example:
So got married, huh!
What do you think of me, eh?

This Book Covers The Following Topics:

How to Start a Sentence
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘AS’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘AFTER’ and ‘BEFORE’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘BY’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘FOR/FROM
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘IF’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘OF/ON/OUT’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘TO’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘IN’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘WITH’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘QUESTION WORDS’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘ING’ FORM of VERBS
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘PAST PARTICIPLES’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘-LY Words’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘PRONOUNS’
Start a Sentence – Miscellaneous
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)

Sample This:

There are different ways to start a sentence in English. Using pronoun (I, we, you, they, he, she, it) is the most popular way to begin a sentence. But there are many other words which are widely used to start a sentence. They might be question words (what, where, etc.). They might be words formed from verbs, ending in –ing, -ed, -en, etc. Besides, words such as ‘to’ ‘in’ ‘with’, ‘if’, ‘after’ are also used to begin a sentence.
Here, you will learn various words and phrases to start a sentence with.

Important Note:
Starting a sentence with ‘and’ or ‘but’ is correct or not!

Using ‘And’ or ‘But’ to begin a sentence is generally considered grammatically Incorrect. But there is no hard and fast rule in this regard. So, you can use ‘And’ or ‘But’ to begin a sentence. But avoid excessive use of these words to begin a sentence. Use these words in the beginning of a sentence only when they really give strength to your language.

Note: It is said that a sentence should not be begun with a conjunction of any kind, especially one of the FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). But this is not hard and fast rule. Particularly in spoken English, starting a sentence with ‘And’ or ‘But’ is common.


How to start a sentence -- Using ‘AS’

As a matter of fact no notice was given to anyone.
As a policeman myself, I am aware of all the laws.
As against last time four days, the fair will last for five days this year.
As always, he won the match.
As an interim arrangement, we directed the authorities not to return the land.
As fate would have it, he crossed the international border.
As for David, he is doing fine.
As he got busy, she picked up his son.
As he grew older, he developed his communications skills.
As if the bad power situation in the city wasn’t enough, the hike in power tariff has come as the last straw for residents.
As in the past, party president distanced herself from the government’s unpopular decision.
As long as here is violence by unruly mobs, use of police force is inevitable.
As often happened, he forgot to send me reply.
As part of the deal, they will hand-over control of five west bank towns.
As penance, he vowed to never scold any kid ever again.
As per his version, nobody had got injured in the incident.
As per rules, the same bill should be passed by the two Houses of the Parliament before it is sent to the President for his signature and promulgation for implementation.
As sanitary workers are absent on most of the days, sweeping of that road is also irregular resulting in trash along the road.
As the bus was nearing, / As the bus neared him, he moved aside.
As the day progressed, over a hundred men protestors gathered at the office.
As the electric cables are hanging loosely, it may anytime lead to major accident if any passer-by comes into contact.
As the mercury levels are dropping each day, difficulties for the poor are constantly rising.
As the war widened, they had to leave the city.
As we progresses, it is going to become more and more difficult.
As you know, I have sent him a letter.
What are “Capitonyms”?

CAPITONYMS ----
[Capital- capital letter; -Onym: Name]
Capitonym is a word that changes its meaning (and sometimes pronunciation) based on whether or not it is capitalized.
Capitonym [singular] | Capitonyms [plural]
Capitonyms may be nouns, pronouns, verbs, or adjectives.

Characteristics of Capitonyms:
Same spelling except for capitalization
Different meaning when capitalized
Same or different pronunciation

Examples:
Polish and polish
Polish: connected with Poland [adjective]
polish: to make a surface smooth and glossy [verb]

Piedmonts and piedmonts
Piedmont: a region of North West Italy (noun)
piedmont: a slope leading from the foot of mountains to a region of flat land (noun)

Traveler and traveler
Traveler: traveling people of Irish origin [noun]
traveler: a person who is traveling [noun]

Roman and roman
Roman: connected with the Rome
roman: the ordinary type of printing [adjective]

Rosemary and rosemary
Rosemary: a common first name for females in English speaking countries [noun]
rosemary: a bush with small narrow leaves that smell sweet and are used in cooking as a herb [noun]

Regency and regency
Regency: in the style of the period 1811–20 in Britain [adjective]
regency: government by a regent (a person who rules a country in place of the king or queen) [noun]

Scot and scot
Scot: a native of Scotland [noun]
scot: a charge, tax, or payment [noun]

Self and self
Self: a popular American magazine [noun]
self: character or personality [noun]

Warren and warren
Warren: a common name in English speaking countries [noun]
warren: a system of holes and underground tunnels where wild rabbits live [noun]

******

Capitonyms are case-sensitive words. However, when capitonyms appear at the beginning of a sentence, there is no way to understand which meaning is being referred to except the context in which they are used.
Capitonyms also create confusion in the aspect of listening. Because there is no way to understand which meaning is being referred to except the context in which they are used.

Capitonyms generally occurs due to one form being a proper noun. Proper noun is a word that is the name of a person, a place, an establishment, etc. and is written with a capital letter.
Thus, capitonyms may include:
A name of a person (Jack/jack)
A name of a place, city, country, etc. (Japan/japan)
A name of a language (Ewe/ewe)
A name of a company (Fiat/fiat)
A name of a publication (Time/time)
A name of a river/lake/hill/mountain, etc.

DETAILED LIST OF PAIRS OF CAPITONYMS
The Art of Public Speaking is a fantastic introduction to public speaking by the master of the art, Dale Carnegie. Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners. It is closely allied to "presenting", although the latter has more of a commercial connotation.

In public speaking, as in any form of communication, there are five basic elements, often expressed as "who is saying what to whom using what medium with what effects?" The purpose of public speaking can range from simply transmitting information, to motivating people to act, to simply telling a story. Good orators should be able to change the emotions of their listeners, not just inform them. Public speaking can also be considered a discourse community. Interpersonal communication and public speaking have several components that embrace such things as motivational speaking, leadership/personal development, business, customer service, large group communication, and mass communication. Public speaking can be a powerful tool to use for purposes such as motivation, influence, persuasion, informing, translation, or simply entertaining. A confident speaker is more likely to use this as excitement and create effective speech thus increasing their overall ethos.

Dale Breckenridge Carnegie (originally Carnagey until 1922 and possibly somewhat later) (November 24, 1888 – November 1, 1955) was an American writer, lecturer, and the developer of famous courses in self-improvement, salesmanship, corporate training, public speaking, and interpersonal skills. Born in poverty on a farm in Missouri, he was the author of How to Win Friends and Influence People (1936), a massive bestseller that remains popular today. He also wrote How to Stop Worrying and Start Living (1948), Lincoln the Unknown (1932), and several other books.

Perhaps one of Carnegie’s most successful marketing moves was to change the spelling of his last name from “Carnagey” to Carnegie, at a time when Andrew Carnegie (unrelated) was a widely revered and recognized name. By 1916, Dale was able to rent Carnegie Hall itself for a lecture to a packed house. Carnegie's first collection of his writings was Public Speaking: a Practical Course for Business Men (1926), later entitled Public Speaking and Influencing Men in Business (1932). His crowning achievement, however, was when Simon & Schuster published How to Win Friends and Influence People. The book was a bestseller from its debut in 1936, in its 17th printing within a few months. By the time of Carnegie's death, the book had sold five million copies in 31 languages, and there had been 450,000 graduates of his Dale Carnegie Institute. It has been stated in the book that he had critiqued over 150,000 speeches in his participation in the adult education movement of the time. During World War I he served in the U.S. Army.

One of the core ideas in his books is that it is possible to change other people's behavior by changing one's reaction to them.
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

What are “Causative Sentences”?
Causative Sentences -- HAVE
Structure 1(A) ---- Active Causative Structure
Structure 1(B) ---- Passive Causative Structure
Structure 2(A) ---- Active Causative Structure
Structure 2(B) ---- Passive Causative Structure
Structure 3(A) ---- Active Causative Structure
Structure 3(B) ---- Passive Causative Structure
Causative Verb ‘Have’ and Tense Change
Causative Sentences -- GET
Structure (1) ---- Active Causative Structure
Structure (2) ---- Passive Causative Structure
Causative Verb ‘Get’ and Tense Change
Causative Sentences -- MAKE
Causative Sentences -- LET
Causative Sentences -- HELP
Sentences with Verb ‘Cause’
Other ‘Causative Verbs’
Use of ‘Modal Verbs’ with Causative Verbs
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)
Exercises: 3(A) and 3(B)
Exercises: 4(A) and 4(B)


Sample This:

What are “Causative Sentences”?

In a causative, a person or thing does not perform an action directly. The subject (person or thing) causes it to happen by forcing, persuading, assisting, etc. an agent (another person or thing) to perform it. The subject (person or thing) does not carry out an action oneself but rather has the action done by an agent (another person or thing).

Examples:
Faulty design caused a bridge to collapse.
Modern lifestyles cause children and adults to spend most of their time indoors.
Rain caused water to collect on the road.
She caused needle to run.


Causative verbs – Have, Get, Make, Let, Help -- Comparison
Causative ‘Have’ has less force and authority than Causative ‘Get’.
Causative ‘Get’ has less force and authority than Causative ‘Make’

Causative Verb ‘Have’ -- used to express “arrangement/duty/responsibility” [Less Forceful]
Causative Verb ‘Get’ -- used to express “encouragement/persuasion". [Forceful]
Causative Verb ‘Make’ -- used to express "compulsion/insistence/requirement” [Most Forceful]
Causative Verb ‘Let’ -- used to express “permission". [No Force]
Causative Verb ‘Help’ -- used to express “assistance". [No Force]

Causative ‘Have’ is more formal than causative ‘Get’.
In the imperative form, causative ‘Get’ is more frequent than causative ‘Have’.


Types of Causative Verbs
Causative structures are of two types –
(1). ‘Active’ in Nature – (Done By Somebody/Something)
(2). ‘Passive’ in Nature – (Done To Somebody/Something)
Passive causatives are used to take attention away from the doer of the action, and give more attention to the action being done.

ALSO NOTE:
“Have somebody do something” is more common in American English.
“Get somebody to do something” is more common in British English.

All causative verbs are transitive.


CAUSATIVE VERB – HAVE
Structure 1(A) ---- Active Causative Structure

Subject + Have (Causative Verb) + Agent (Someone/Something) + Base Form of Verb + Object (Someone/Something)

Example: I have him take my photograph. (Present)
Explanation:
I arrange for my photograph to be taken by him.
[I cause him to take my photograph.]
Therefore, this is like active causative structure.

Example: I had him take my photograph. (Past)
Explanation:
I arranged for my photograph to be taken by him.
[I caused him to take my photograph.]
Therefore, this is like active causative structure.

Example: I will have him take my photograph. (Future)
Explanation:
I will arrange for my photograph to be taken by him.
[I will cause him to take my photograph.]
Therefore, this is like active causative structure.

OTHER EXAMPLES:

CAUSATIVE - HAVE --
Have/Has + Someone/Something + Base Form of Verb
Note: This pattern may denote past, present, or future tense based on another verb in the sentence.

Her desire to have me write a memoir only raised my stress level.
We are so blessed to have her sing on one of our songs.
It is one thing to have somebody else ask him about what he has done and it is quite another to have me ask him.
He refused to have investigation officers search his home.
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