This book tells the story of the European People's Party: why it was founded, how it is currently organised and what its guiding ideas, values and principles are. It gives an up-to-date account of the party's contribution to European integration, its work with its member parties and its central role in organising the centre-right in Europe. Above all, this book is for everyone who wants to know what a European-level political party looks like, how it is structured and how it acts.
Thomas Jansen was Secretary General of the European People's Party (EPP) and the European Union of Christian Democrats (EUCD) between 1983 and 1994. Before he took up this position, he had been head of the Rome office of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation. After serving as Secretary General, Jansen worked in the Forward Studies Unit of the European Commission. Before his retirement in 2004, he served as head of the Office of the President of the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC).
Steven Van Hecke is a Senior Research Fellow at the Political Science Department of the University of Antwerp and at the KADOC Centre of Religion, Culture and Society of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. He teaches comparative and European Union politics. His area of research is European integration and political parties, and he has also published on transnational party federations.
In this book the author provides an introduction to the methods used to analyze evolutionary algorithms and other randomized search heuristics. He starts with an algorithmic and modular perspective and gives guidelines for the design of evolutionary algorithms. He then places the approach in the broader research context with a chapter on theoretical perspectives. By adopting a complexity-theoretical perspective, he derives general limitations for black-box optimization, yielding lower bounds on the performance of evolutionary algorithms, and then develops general methods for deriving upper and lower bounds step by step. This main part is followed by a chapter covering practical applications of these methods.
The notational and mathematical basics are covered in an appendix, the results presented are derived in detail, and each chapter ends with detailed comments and pointers to further reading. So the book is a useful reference for both graduate students and researchers engaged with the theoretical analysis of such algorithms.
Virtually all human societies were once organized tribally, yet over time most developed new political institutions which included a central state that could keep the peace and uniform laws that applied to all citizens. Some went on to create governments that were accountable to their constituents. We take these institutions for granted, but they are absent or are unable to perform in many of today's developing countries—with often disastrous consequences for the rest of the world.
Francis Fukuyama, author of the bestselling The End of History and the Last Man and one of our most important political thinkers, provides a sweeping account of how today's basic political institutions developed. The first of a major two-volume work, The Origins of Political Order begins with politics among our primate ancestors and follows the story through the emergence of tribal societies, the growth of the first modern state in China, the beginning of the rule of law in India and the Middle East, and the development of political accountability in Europe up until the eve of the French Revolution.
Drawing on a vast body of knowledge—history, evolutionary biology, archaeology, and economics—Fukuyama has produced a brilliant, provocative work that offers fresh insights on the origins of democratic societies and raises essential questions about the nature of politics and its discontents.
The Idea of a European Superstate reshapes the debate on European political integration. It throws down a gauntlet to eurosceptics and euro-enthusiasts alike. While employing the arguments of contemporary political philosophy and international relations, this book is written in an accessible fashion that anyone interested in European integration can understand.
In the midst of the current crisis that is threatening to derail the historical project of European unification, Jürgen Habermas has been one of the most perceptive critics of the ineffectual and evasive responses to the global financial crisis, especially by the German political class. This extended essay on the constitution for Europe represents Habermas’s constructive engagement with the European project at a time when the crisis of the eurozone is threatening the very existence of the European Union. There is a growing realization that the European treaty needs to be revised in order to deal with the structural defects of monetary union, but a clear perspective for the future is missing. Drawing on his analysis of European unification as a process in which international treaties have progressively taken on features of a democratic constitution, Habermas explains why the current proposals to transform the system of European governance into one of executive federalism is a mistake. His central argument is that the European project must realize its democratic potential by evolving from an international into a cosmopolitan community. The opening essay on the role played by the concept of human dignity in the genealogy of human rights in the modern era throws further important light on the philosophical foundations of Habermas’s theory of how democratic political institutions can be extended beyond the level of nation-states.
Now that the question of Europe and its future is once again at the centre of public debate, this important intervention by one of the greatest thinkers of our time will be of interest to a wide readership.