Reliability and Statistics in Transportation and Communication

Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems

Book 36
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This book reports on cutting-edge theories and methods for analyzing complex systems, such as transportation and communication networks and discusses multi-disciplinary approaches to dependability problems encountered when dealing with complex systems in practice. The book presents the most noteworthy methods and results discussed at the International Conference on Reliability and Statistics in Transportation and Communication (RelStat), which took place in Riga, Latvia on October 18 – 21, 2017. It spans a broad spectrum of topics, from mathematical models and design methodologies, to software engineering and data security issues, as well as practical problems in technical systems, such as transportation, and telecommunications.
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Jan 23, 2018
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Language Arts & Disciplines / Library & Information Science / General
Mathematics / Probability & Statistics / General
Technology & Engineering / Civil / General
Technology & Engineering / Civil / Highway & Traffic
Technology & Engineering / General
Technology & Engineering / Telecommunications
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This book is a collation of numerous valuable guidelines for making decisions based on recent advances and improvement of transport systems. Offering know-how and discussing practical examples as well as decision-making support systems it is of interest of those who face the challenge of seeking solutions to contemporary transport system problems on a daily basis, including local authorities involved in planning and preparation of development strategies for specific transport related areas (in both urban and regional dimension) as well as representatives of business and industry who participate directly in the implementation of traffic engineering solutions. The guidelines are provided in individual chapters, making it possible to address the given problem in an advanced manner and simplify the choice of appropriate strategies (including those related to increasing competitiveness of public transport; identifying bus lines to potentially be serviced by electric buses; pedestrian traffic solutions; developing bike-sharing systems; safety conditions in road tunnels; integrating supply chains or route planning support by means of technologically advanced systems and applications). On the other hand, since the book also addresses the new approach to theoretical models (including traffic flow surveys and measurements, transport behaviours, capacity models, delay modelling and road condition modelling), it appeals to researchers and scientists studying this body of problems.

The book entitled Recent Advances in Traffic Engineering for Transport Networks and Systems includes selected papers submitted to and presented at the 14th Scientific and Technical Conference “Transport Systems. Theory and Practice” organised by the Department of Transport Systems and Traffic Engineering at the Faculty of Transport of the Silesian University of Technology. The conference was held on 18–20 September 2017 in Katowice (Poland).

Adaptive Control of Linear Hyperbolic PDEs provides a comprehensive treatment of adaptive control of linear hyperbolic systems, using the backstepping method. It develops adaptive control strategies for different combinations of measurements and actuators, as well as for a range of different combinations of parameter uncertainty. The book treats boundary control of systems of hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs) with uncertain parameters.

The authors develop designs for single equations, as well as any number of coupled equations. The designs are accompanied by mathematical proofs, which allow the reader to gain insight into the technical challenges associated with adaptive control of hyperbolic PDEs, and to get an overview of problems that are still open for further research. Although stabilization of unstable systems by boundary control and boundary sensing are the particular focus, state-feedback designs are also presented. The book also includes simulation examples with implementational details and graphical displays, to give readers an insight into the performance of the proposed control algorithms, as well as the computational details involved. A library of MATLAB® code supplies ready-to-use implementations of the control and estimation algorithms developed in the book, allowing readers to tailor controllers for cases of their particular interest with little effort. These implementations can be used for many different applications, including pipe flows, traffic flow, electrical power lines, and more.

Adaptive Control of Linear Hyperbolic PDEs is of value to researchers and practitioners in applied mathematics, engineering and physics; it contains a rich set of adaptive control designs, including mathematical proofs and simulation demonstrations. The book is also of interest to students looking to expand their knowledge of hyperbolic PDEs.

This book offers a detailed investigation of breakdowns in traffic and transportation networks. It shows empirically that transitions from free flow to so-called synchronized flow, initiated by local disturbances at network bottlenecks, display a nucleation-type behavior: while small disturbances in free flow decay, larger ones grow further and lead to breakdowns at the bottlenecks. Further, it discusses in detail the significance of this nucleation effect for traffic and transportation theories, and the consequences this has for future automatic driving, traffic control, dynamic traffic assignment, and optimization in traffic and transportation networks. Starting from a large volume of field traffic data collected from various sources obtained solely through measurements in real world traffic, the author develops his insights, with an emphasis less on reviewing existing methodologies, models and theories, and more on providing a detailed analysis of empirical traffic data and drawing consequences regarding the minimum requirements for any traffic and transportation theories to be valid.

The book

- proves the empirical nucleation nature of traffic breakdown in networks

- discusses the origin of the failure of classical traffic and transportation theories

- shows that the three-phase theory is incommensurable with the classical traffic theories, and

- explains why current state-of-the art dynamic traffic assignments tend to provoke heavy traffic congestion,

making it a valuable reference resource for a wide audience of scientists and postgraduate students interested in the fundamental understanding of empirical traffic phenomena and related data-driven phenomenology, as well as for practitioners working in the fields of traffic and transportation engineering.

"Anyone who has ever driven on a U.S. interstate highway or eaten at an exit-ramp McDonald’s will come away from this book with a better understanding of what makes modern America what it is." – Chicago Tribune

"A fascinating work... with a subject central to contemporary life but to which few, if any, have devoted so much thoughtful analysis and good humor." – Minneapolis Star-Tribune

"Divided Highways is the best and most important book yet published about how asphalt and concrete have changed the United States. Quite simply, the Interstate Highway System is the longest and largest engineered structure in the history of the world, and it has enormously influenced every aspect of American life. Tom Lewis is an engaging prose stylist with a gift for the telling anecdote and appropriate example."—Kenneth T. Jackson, Harvard Design Magazine

"Lewis provides a comprehensive and balanced examination of America’s century-long infatuation with the automobile and the insatiable demands for more and better road systems. He has written a sprightly and richly documented book on a vital subject."—Richard O. Davies, Journal of American History

"Lewis describes in a convincing, lively, and well-documented narrative the evolution of America’s roadway system from one of the world’s worst road networks to its best."—John Pucher, Journal of the American Planning Association

"This brightly written history of the U.S. federal highway program is like the annual report of a successful company that has had grim second thoughts. The first half recounts progress made, while the second suggests that the good news is not quite what it seems."—Publishers Weekly

"Lewis is a very talented and engaging writer, and the tale he tells—the vision for the Interstates, Congressional battles, construction, and the impact of new highways on American life—is important to understanding the shape of the contemporary American landscape."—David Schuyler, Arthur and Katherine Shadek Professor of the Humanities and American Studies at Franklin & Marshall College, author of Sanctified Landscape: Writers, Artists, and the Hudson River Valley, 1820–1909

In Divided Highways, Tom Lewis offers an encompassing account of highway development in the United States. In the early twentieth century Congress created the Bureau of Public Roads to improve roads and the lives of rural Americans. The Bureau was the forerunner of the Interstate Highway System of 1956, which promoted a technocratic approach to modern road building sometimes at the expense of individual lives, regional characteristics, and the landscape. With thoughtful analysis and engaging prose Lewis charts the development of the Interstate system, including the demographic and economic pressures that influenced its planning and construction and the disputes that pitted individuals and local communities against engineers and federal administrators. This is a story of America’s hopes for its future life and the realities of its present condition.

Originally published in 1997, this book is an engaging history of the people and policies that profoundly transformed the American landscape—and the daily lives of Americans. In this updated edition of Divided Highways, Lewis brings his story of the Interstate system up to date, concluding with Boston’s troubled and yet triumphant Big Dig project, the growing antipathy for big federal infrastructure projects, and the uncertain economics of highway projects both present and future.

Roads matter to people. This claim is central to the work of Penny Harvey and Hannah Knox, who in this book use the example of highway building in South America to explore what large public infrastructural projects can tell us about contemporary state formation, social relations, and emerging political economies.Roads focuses on two main sites: the interoceanic highway currently under construction between Brazil and Peru, a major public/private collaboration that is being realized within new, internationally ratified regulatory standards; and a recently completed one-hundred-kilometer stretch of highway between Iquitos, the largest city in the Peruvian Amazon, and a small town called Nauta, one of the earliest colonial settlements in the Amazon. The Iquitos-Nauta highway is one of the most expensive roads per kilometer on the planet.Combining ethnographic and historical research, Harvey and Knox shed light on the work of engineers and scientists, bureaucrats and construction company officials. They describe how local populations anticipated each of the road projects, even getting deeply involved in questions of exact routing as worries arose that the road would benefit some more than others. Connectivity was a key recurring theme as people imagined the prosperity that will come by being connected to other parts of the country and with other parts of the world. Sweeping in scope and conceptually ambitious, Roads tells a story of global flows of money, goods, and people—and of attempts to stabilize inherently unstable physical and social environments.
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