An Inventory of the Ancient Monuments in Glamorgan: Volume III - Part 1b: Medieval Secular Monuments the Later Castles from 1217 to the present

An Inventory of the Ancient Monuments in Glamorgan

Book 3
Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments in Wales
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 Forty-three castles and fortified sites here described were
founded or given their most significant fabric after 1217. They include
tower-houses, strong houses, possible castles, and twenty masonry castles
ranging from the great Clare works at Caerphilly and Morlais to the small
modestly fortified sites at Barry and Weobley, and the exceptional fortified
priory at Ewenny. The density and variety of the medieval fortifications in
Glamorgan are unrivalled, and their study is enriched by an exceptional range
of works on the history and records of a historic county formed by merging the
lordships of Glamorgan and Gower. Part la described the early castles and traced
their role in the Norman conquest and settlement of the fertile southern
lowlands down to 1217, when the Clares inherited Glamorgan. In that year the
Welsh had expelled the English from Gower and remained unconquered in the
Glamorgan uplands. Gower was soon lost again, and under  two redoubtable Clare lords the Glamorgan
uplands were appropriated in the mid-13th century and secured in a notable
programme of castle works. The castle-building of Earl Richard de Clare
(1243-62) and his son, Gilbert, the 'Red Earl' (1263-95), as they achieved this
'second conquest of Glamorgan', foreshadowed the later campaigns of Edward I
against Gwynedd. At Caerphilly, above all, Earl Gilbert's castle deserves
comparison with the great Edwardian works; it introduced defensive features
later to be adopted by King Edward's Savoyard master masons. Gower sites
considered include the impressive masonry castles at Oystermouth and Penrice. A
notable ornately arcaded domestic range at Swansea is the only surviving
vestige of the chief castle of Gower, which is tentatively described from a
variety of records. AH the illustrated descriptions incorporate detailed
historical accounts. The introductory survey outlines the later descent of
Glamorgan and Gower to the end of the 15th century, and along with the
sectional preambles it provides general discussion of the sites.

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Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments in Wales
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Published on
Dec 31, 2000
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This Inventory forms Part ii of Volume IV of the series
planned for the county of Glamorgan. Volume III is intended to survey the
secular monuments of the Middle Ages: Part i, defensive, and Part ii,
nondefensive. Volume IV is intended to survey the secular monuments of the
period between the Reformation and the Industrial Revolution: Part i The
Greater Houses, and Part ii The Farmhouses and Cottages. When complete, the
series should provide a comprehensive description of the surviving dwellings of
the people of Glamorgan, both fortified and unfortified, from the time of the
Norman invasion until the accession of George III, together with a few selected
monuments of later date. In Part i of the present volume were described the
principal residences of the major land-owning families built between ca. 1540
and 1760. In all, 42 houses were fully illustrated and described. In Part ii
will be found some of the secondary residences of those families, as well as
houses of lesser landowners, but chiefly recorded here are the houses of minor
gentry and the tenant farmers, yeomen, and husbandmen, effectively the 'middle
class' of rural society. In all, 1,136 houses have been noted. In addition a
selection of farmbuildings has been included, a total of 342 being noted.


Map of Ecclesiastical Parishes

List of Maps

Chairman's Preface

Report, with List of Monuments selected by the Commissioners as especially
worthy of preservation

List of Commissioners and Staff

Presentation of Material

Abbreviated Titles of References

Historical Survey

Architectural Survey

Maps illustrating Building Features

Illustrated Inventory arranged by Plan Types

MED Medieval Houses

AL Sub-medieval, 'Direct-Entry' Houses with Lateral Chimney

A Sub-medieval, 'Direct-Entry' Houses with Chimneys on the End Gable or on the
Cross Wall away from the Entry

B Sub-medieval, 'Hearth-passage', End-entry and Chimney-backing-onto-the-entry

BL Sub-medieval, 'Hearth-passage' Houses: Long-houses

C Sub-medieval, 'Lobby-entry' Houses

E Sub-medieval, 'Offset-entry' Houses

H Sub-medieval, 'Gable-end-entry' Houses

U Sub-medieval, 'Unit-system' Houses

R Renaissance 'Central-planned,' Symmetrical Houses

MISC Miscellaneous Domestic Remains

L Llantwit Major

CB Cowbridge

F Farm Buildings

List of Sites

List of Ecclesiastical Parishes, with incidence of monuments

List of Civil Parishes with incidence of monuments



Map of Civil Parishes

Fifty-seven castles founded in Glamorgan by 1217 are here
described. These include mottes. castle-ringworks, and presumed Welsh
earthworks, all without masonry, as well as sixteen masonry castles ranging
from well known sites at Cardiff, Coity, and Ogmore, to the Welsh stone castle
now identified at Plas Baglan. Later defensive monuments will be described in
part lb.

Glamorgan castles occur in unrivalled density, their study
enriched by an exceptional range of works on local history and records. County
borders embrace the lordships ot'Gower and Glamorgan. Most castles lie in the
fertile lowlands where Norman rule was imposed. Welsh independence endured in
the uplands until the mid-13th-century conquests of the Clare lords. When they
inherited Glamorgan in 1217 Norman rule had survived unbroken in the lowlands
from the late-11th century, if not in Gower. Profusely illustrated descriptions
incorporate comprehensive historical accounts. The Introductory Survey and Sectional
Preambles discuss the evidence, illustrated by maps and diagrams. Significant
conclusions emerge: William the Conqueror founded Cardiff in 1081; Glacial
drift provides a determinant for the segregation of mottes and
castle-ringworks; Roman roads, forts, and river crossings influenced Norman
settlement; Early Masonry Castles, rare in Wales, were numerous in Glamorgan.
Castle of the lords of Glamorgan are of particular interest, especially
Newcastle, which might be attributed to Henry II. These lords included King
John (1189-1216) and leading magnates of the realm: Rufus's favourite, Robert
Fitzhamon (1093-1107); Robert, earl of Gloucester, base son of Henry I (fa.
1J13-47); and later, the great Clare earls (1217-1314) and Edward II's
favourite, Hugh Despenser (1317-26).


Map of sites treated in this Part (la) of Volume IIII

Chairman's Preface

Report, with a List of Monuments selected by the Commissioners

as most worthy of preservation

List of Commissioners and Staff

Authorship and Compilation

Presentation of Material

Introductory Survey

I The Division of the material; Parts la and lb Explained

II The Geographical Background

III The Historical Background (1072-1217)

IV The Early Castles Discussed

Inventory of the Early Castles

Section MO: Mottes without Masonry

Section CR: Castle-Ringworks without Masonry

Section UW: Unclassified, probably Welsh Castles

Section VE: Vanished Early Castles

Section MM: Masonry Castles Built Over Mottes

Section MR: Masonry Castles built over Castle-ringworks

Section EM: Early Masonry Castles

Abbreviated Titles of References

Map and List of Ecclesiastical Parishes, with incidence of Monuments

Map and List of Civil Parishes, with incidence of Monuments

Index of National Grid References for sites treated in Part la

Glossary: General

Glossary: Welsh Terms and Place-name Elements

List of Figures, including maps and photographs

General Index

Alphabetical List of sites treated in Part 1 b of Volume III

Map of sites treated in Part lb of Volume III

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