Large Carnivores and the Conservation of Biodiversity

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Large Carnivores and the Conservation of Biodiversity brings together more than thirty leading scientists and conservation practitioners to consider a key question in environmental conservation: Is the conservation of large carnivores in ecosystems that evolved with their presence equivalent to the conservation of biological diversity within those systems? Building their discussions from empirical, long-term data sets, contributors including James A. Estes, David S. Maehr, Tim McClanahan, AndrFs J. Novaro, John Terborgh, and Rosie Woodroffe explore a variety of issues surrounding the link between predation and biodiversity: What is the evidence for or against the link? Is it stronger in marine systems? What are the implications for conservation strategies? Large Carnivores and the Conservation of Biodiversity is the first detailed, broad-scale examination of the empirical evidence regarding the role of large carnivores in biodiversity conservation in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems. It contributes to a much more precise and global understanding of when, where, and whether protecting and restoring top predators will directly contribute to the conservation of biodiversity. Everyone concerned with ecology, biodiversity, or large carnivores will find this volume a unique and thought-provoking analysis and synthesis.
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About the author

JUSTINA C. RAY is director of the Wildlife Conservation Society Canada. KENT H. REDFORD is vice president for international programs at the Wildlife Conservation Society. ROBERT S. STENECK is professor at the University of Maine's School of Marine Sciences at the Darling Marine Center, Walpole, Maine. JOEL BERGER is senior scientist for the Wildlife Conservation Society.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Island Press
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Published on
Apr 9, 2013
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Pages
526
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ISBN
9781597266093
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Language
English
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Genres
Nature / Animals / Wildlife
Nature / Environmental Conservation & Protection
Nature / General
Science / Environmental Science
Science / Life Sciences / Biological Diversity
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Migrating wildlife species across the globe face a dire predicament as their traditional migratory routes are cut off by human encroachment. Forced into smaller and smaller patches of habitat, they must compete more aggressively for dwindling food resources and territory. This is more than just an unfortunate side effect of human progress. As key species populations dwindle, ecosystems are losing resilience and face collapse, and along with them, the ecosystem services we depend on. Healthy ecosystems need healthy wildlife populations. One possible answer? Wildlife corridors that connect fragmented landscapes.

This new and expanded second edition of Corridor Ecology: Linking Landscapes for Biodiversity Conservation and Climate Adaptation captures the many advances in the field over the past ten years. It builds on concepts presented in the first edition on the importance and practical details of maintaining and restoring land connectivity. New to this edition is a guest-edited chapter on ecological connectivity in oceans, including a detailed discussion on pelagic marine corridors and how coastal corridors can provide critical connectivity between marine protected areas. Another new chapter considers the effects of climate change on habitat and offers recommendations on designing effective corridors as landscapes change with shifting climate conditions. The book also includes a discussion of corridors in the air for migrating flying species, from birds to bats, butterflies, and even plant propagules—a concept so new that a term to describe it has yet to be coined. All chapters are thoroughly revised and updated.

Practitioners as well as serious scholars of landscape ecology and the science of protecting biodiversity will find this new edition of corridor ecology science an indispensable resource.
8 SHORT REVIEW AND CONCLUSIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM (“Conceptions and Methods of Nature Conservation in Europe”, Cluj-Napoca, September 16–19th, 2004) 1 1 2 Vasile CRISTEA , Dan GAFTA , John R. AKEROYD 1. “Babe -Bolyai” University, Department of Taxonomy and Ecology, Republicii str., 42, 400015 Cluj-Napoca (ROMANIA) 2. Plant Talk, Lawn Cottage, West Tisbury, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP3 6SG, UK 1. General review of the symposium Organized by the Chair of Taxonomy and Ecology of the University „Babe -Bolyai” (Cluj-Napoca, Romania), in co-operation with the Romanian Society of Phytosociology and the International Federation of Phytosociology, this international symposium was dedicated to Prof. dr. h.c. Franco PEDROTTI th (University of Camerino, Italy), on the occasion of his 70 birthday. Drawn from four continents, the 84 participants (of whom over 50% were young people under 35 years old) represented 12 countries: Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Germany, Italy, Japan, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, UK and USA, thus covering a large part of Earth’s bio-geographical regions. The opening ceremony took place in the University’s imposing Aula Magna and included two welcome speeches on behalf of the Rector and the President of the Nature Monument Committee, a Laudatio to Prof. F. Pedrotti and a short folk music recital. The symposium programme was composed of two plenary sessions, four short communication sessions (divided into two sections: A – General aspects of nature protection; B – Nature conservation in practice) and a poster session. The seven plenary lectures, presented by R. Pott (Hannover, Germany), E.
"Extraordinary. . . . Berger is a hero of biology who deserves the highest honors that science can bestow."—Tim Flannery, New York Review of Books

On the Tibetan Plateau, there are wild yaks with blood cells thinner than those of horses’ by half, enabling the endangered yaks to survive at 40 below zero and in the lowest oxygen levels of the mountaintops. But climate change is causing the snow patterns here to shift, and with the snows, the entire ecosystem. Food and water are vaporizing in this warming environment, and these beasts of ice and thin air are extraordinarily ill-equipped for the change. A journey into some of the most forbidding landscapes on earth, Joel Berger’s Extreme Conservation is an eye-opening, steely look at what it takes for animals like these to live at the edges of existence. But more than this, it is a revealing exploration of how climate change and people are affecting even the most far-flung niches of our planet.

Berger’s quest to understand these creatures’ struggles takes him to some of the most remote corners and peaks of the globe: across Arctic tundra and the frozen Chukchi Sea to study muskoxen, into the Bhutanese Himalayas to follow the rarely sighted takin, and through the Gobi Desert to track the proboscis-swinging saiga. Known as much for his rigorous, scientific methods of developing solutions to conservation challenges as for his penchant for donning moose and polar bear costumes to understand the mindsets of his subjects more closely, Berger is a guide par excellence. He is a scientist and storyteller who has made his life working with desert nomads, in zones that typically require Sherpas and oxygen canisters. Recounting animals as charismatic as their landscapes are extreme, Berger’s unforgettable tale carries us with humor and expertise to the ends of the earth and back. But as his adventures show, the more adapted a species has become to its particular ecological niche, the more devastating climate change can be. Life at the extremes is more challenging than ever, and the need for action, for solutions, has never been greater.
Trophic cascades—the top-down regulation of ecosystems by predators—are an essential aspect of ecosystem function and well-being. Trophic cascades are often drastically disrupted by human interventions—for example, when wolves and cougars are removed, allowing deer and beaver to become destructive—yet have only recently begun to be considered in the development of conservation and management strategies.

Trophic Cascades is the first comprehensive presentation of the science on this subject. It brings together some of the world’s leading scientists and researchers to explain the importance of large animals in regulating ecosystems, and to relate that scientific knowledge to practical conservation.

Chapters examine trophic cascades across the world’s major biomes, including intertidal habitats, coastal oceans, lakes, nearshore ecosystems, open oceans, tropical forests, boreal and temperate ecosystems, low arctic scrubland, savannas, and islands. Additional chapters consider aboveground/belowground linkages, predation and ecosystem processes, consumer control by megafauna and fire, and alternative states in ecosystems. An introductory chapter offers a concise overview of trophic cascades, while concluding chapters consider theoretical perspectives and comparative issues.

Trophic Cascades provides a scientific basis and justification for the idea that large predators and top-down forcing must be considered in conservation strategies, alongside factors such as habitat preservation and invasive species. It is a groundbreaking work for scientists and managers involved with biodiversity conservation and protection.
At dawn on a brutally cold January morning, Joel Berger crouched in the icy grandeur of the Teton Range. It had been three years since wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone after a sixty-year absence, and members of a wolf pack were approaching a herd of elk. To Berger’s utter shock, the elk ignored the wolves as they went in for the kill. The brutal attack that followed—swift and bloody—led Berger to hypothesize that after only six decades, the elk had forgotten to fear a species that had survived by eating them for hundreds of millennia.

Berger’s fieldwork that frigid day raised important questions that would require years of travel and research to answer: Can naive animals avoid extinction when they encounter reintroduced carnivores? To what extent is fear culturally transmitted? And how can a better understanding of current predator-prey behavior help demystify past extinctions and inform future conservation?

The Better to Eat You With is the chronicle of Berger’s search for answers. From Yellowstone’s elk and wolves to rhinos living with African lions and moose coexisting with tigers and bears in Asia, Berger tracks cultures of fear in animals across continents and climates, engaging readers with a stimulating combination of natural history, personal experience, and conservation. Whether battling bureaucracy in the statehouse or fighting subzero wind chills in the field, Berger puts himself in the middle of the action. The Better to Eat You With invites readers to join him there. The thrilling tales he tells reveal a great deal not only about survival in the animal kingdom but also the process of doing science in foreboding conditions and hostile environments.
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