An Introduction to Non-Classical Logic: From If to Is, Edition 2

Cambridge University Press
Free sample

This revised and considerably expanded 2nd edition brings together a wide range of topics, including modal, tense, conditional, intuitionist, many-valued, paraconsistent, relevant, and fuzzy logics. Part 1, on propositional logic, is the old Introduction, but contains much new material. Part 2 is entirely new, and covers quantification and identity for all the logics in Part 1. The material is unified by the underlying theme of world semantics. All of the topics are explained clearly using devices such as tableau proofs, and their relation to current philosophical issues and debates are discussed. Students with a basic understanding of classical logic will find this book an invaluable introduction to an area that has become of central importance in both logic and philosophy. It will also interest people working in mathematics and computer science who wish to know about the area.
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About the author

Graham Priest is Boyce Gibson Professor of Philosophy, University of Melbourne. His most recent publications include Towards Non-Being (2005) and Doubt Truth to be a Liar (2006).

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Additional Information

Publisher
Cambridge University Press
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Published on
Apr 10, 2008
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Pages
582
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ISBN
9781139469678
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Language
English
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Genres
Mathematics / Logic
Philosophy / General
Philosophy / Logic
Philosophy / Movements / Analytic
Science / Philosophy & Social Aspects
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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This book presents a systematic treatment of deductive aspects and structures of fuzzy logic understood as many valued logic sui generis. Some important systems of real-valued propositional and predicate calculus are defined and investigated. The aim is to show that fuzzy logic as a logic of imprecise (vague) propositions does have well-developed formal foundations and that most things usually named `fuzzy inference' can be naturally understood as logical deduction.
There are two main groups of intended readers. First, logicians: they can see that fuzzy logic is indeed a branch of logic and may find several very interesting open problems. Second, equally important, researchers involved in fuzzy logic applications and soft computing. As a matter of fact, most of these are not professional logicians so that it can easily happen that an application, clever and successful as it may be, is presented in a way which is logically not entirely correct or may appear simple-minded. (Standard presentations of the logical aspects of fuzzy controllers are the most typical example.) This fact would not be very important if only the bon ton of logicians were harmed; but it is the opinion of the author (who is a mathematical logician) that a better understanding of the strictly logical basis of fuzzy logic (in the usual broad sense) is very useful for fuzzy logic appliers since if they know better what they are doing, they may hope to do it better. In addition, a better mutual understanding between (classical) logicians and researchers in fuzzy logic, promises to lead to deeper cooperation and new results.
This volume celebrates the work of Petr Hájek on mathematical fuzzy logic and presents how his efforts have influenced prominent logicians who are continuing his work. The book opens with a discussion on Hájek's contribution to mathematical fuzzy logic and with a scientific biography of him, progresses to include two articles with a foundation flavour, that demonstrate some important aspects of Hájek's production, namely, a paper on the development of fuzzy sets and another paper on some fuzzy versions of set theory and arithmetic.

Articles in the volume also focus on the treatment of vagueness, building connections between Hájek's favorite fuzzy logic and linguistic models of vagueness. Other articles introduce alternative notions of consequence relation, namely, the preservation of truth degrees, which is discussed in a general context, and the differential semantics. For the latter, a surprisingly strong standard completeness theorem is proved. Another contribution also looks at two principles valid in classical logic and characterize the three main t-norm logics in terms of these principles.

Other articles, with an algebraic flavour, offer a summary of the applications of lattice ordered-groups to many-valued logic and to quantum logic, as well as an investigation of prelinearity in varieties of pointed lattice ordered algebras that satisfy a weak form of distributivity and have a very weak implication.

The last part of the volume contains an article on possibilistic modal logics defined over MTL chains, a topic that Hájek discussed in his celebrated work, Metamathematics of Fuzzy Logic, and another one where the authors, besides offering unexpected premises such as proposing to call Hájek's basic fuzzy logic HL, instead of BL, propose a very weak system, called SL as a candidate for the role of the really basic fuzzy logic. The paper also provides a generalization of the prelinearity axiom, which was investigated by Hájek in the context of fuzzy logic.

The term "fuzzy logic," as it is understood in this book, stands for all aspects of representing and manipulating knowledge based on the rejection of the most fundamental principle of classical logic---the principle of bivalence. According to this principle, each declarative sentence is required to be either true or false. In fuzzy logic, these classical truth values are not abandoned. However, additional, intermediate truth values between true and false are allowed, which are interpreted as degrees of truth. This opens a new way of thinking---thinking in terms of degrees rather than absolutes. For example, it leads to the definition of a new kind of sets, referred to as fuzzy sets, in which membership is a matter of degree. The book examines the genesis and development of fuzzy logic. It surveys the prehistory of fuzzy logic and inspects circumstances that eventually lead to the emergence of fuzzy logic. The book explores in detail the development of propositional, predicate, and other calculi that admit degrees of truth, which are known as fuzzy logic in the narrow sense. Fuzzy logic in the broad sense, whose primary aim is to utilize degrees of truth for emulating common-sense human reasoning in natural language, is scrutinized as well. The book also examines principles for developing mathematics based on fuzzy logic and provides overviews of areas in which this has been done most effectively. It also presents a detailed survey of established and prospective applications of fuzzy logic in various areas of human affairs, and provides an assessment of the significance of fuzzy logic as a new paradigm.
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