Immunological and Environmental Studies On Giardia Duodenalis: Giardiasis

Anchor Academic Publishing
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Giardia duodenalis (synonyms G. lamblia or G. intestinalis), the only species belonging to the genus Giardia found in humans, is a pathogenic protozoan with a worldwide distribution having a more relevant prevalence in warm climate and in children. G. duodinalis is a water-borne flagellated parasite that causes giardiasis in humans. In addition, giardiasis affects domestic and wild mammals “e.g., cats, dogs, cattle, deer, and beavers” (Thompson, 2000). Host-to-host transference of Giardia cysts takes place via the fecal-oral route. This allows the protozoan to infect the next generation of hosts through a diverse range of mechanisms: person to person, animal to human or by contact with contaminated water and food. Outbreaks commonly occur in areas with inadequate water treatment, especially developing countries, where infection rates can be higher than 50% of the total population. It is well documented that in developing countries, infections are associated with poor sanitary conditions, poor water quality and overcrowding. Giardia is one of the leading protozoan causes of gastrointestinal illness worldwide and has joined the ranks of the WHO Neglected Diseases Initiative. Giardiasis constitutes an important public health problem in Egyptian children. Contamination of the Nile River with fecal materials including viruses and pathogenic protozoa still represents an environmental health hazard in Egypt, especially in rural areas. The clinical features of giardiasis range from acute or chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, flatulence, vomiting, weight loss, to absence of symptoms and signs. In the diagnosis of Giardia, stool examination is the traditional, safest and easiest method. Microscopy of Giardia cysts and trophozoites is more straightforward, and there is little risk of confusion with other parasites. Moreover, only “ghost” cysts with an empty appearance are sometimes not recognized as Giardia parasites. However, the sensitivity of microscopy is quite low due to the intermittent excretion of Giardia cysts, the microscopical examination of a single stool specimen has a low sensitivity and may therefore miss up to 50% of Giardia infections. And thus, it is recommended that at least three samples be examined in order to rule out giardiasis which is time consuming and delay the diagnosis.
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About the author

Dr. Alyaa Ahmed Farid, born in Cairo, Egypt. B.Sc in Chemistry- Zoology, M.Sc& Ph.D in Immunology, Cairo University. Lecturer of Immunology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University.

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Additional Information

Publisher
Anchor Academic Publishing
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Published on
Dec 7, 2015
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Pages
89
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ISBN
9783954894673
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Language
English
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Genres
Medical / General
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Eligible for Family Library

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Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation from the year 2014 in the subject Medicine - Biomedical Engineering, Cairo University (Faculty of Science), course: Immunology, language: English, abstract: P. aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium that causes a variety of diseases in compromised hosts. Bacterial endotoxins such as LPS are the major outer surface membrane components present in almost all gram-negative bacteria and act as extremely strong stimulators of innate immunity and inflammation of the airway. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of combined administration of Gentamicin (GENT) as antibiotic and Dexamethasone (DEXA) as ant-inflammatory drug on some physiological, immunological and histological parameters. After determination of LD50 of P. aeruginosa, mice groups were injected with DEXA, GENT and LPS alone or in combination. LPS single injection caused a significant increase of total protein, globulin, total leukocyte count, lymphocytes, neutrophils and level of IgM and IgG. DEXA induced an increase of serum total lipid, ALT and AST levels, neutrophilia and lymphopenia. GENT administration increased serum total protein, globulin, total lipid, ALT and AST levels. Physiological and immunological examination demonstrated that combined treatment has a significant effect as decreaseing serum total protein, globulin, lymphocytes and IgG level than single treatment. Histological examination demonstrated that the inflammation of thymus, spleen, lymph node and liver decreases in mice received combined treatment than those received individual treatment. Concurrent administration of DEXA and GENT has greatest effect in protecting organs against damage in case of endotoximia.
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