Political Barriers to Housebuilding in Britain

ISR Business and the Political-Legal Environment Studies

Book 3
Industrial Systems Research
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Political Barriers to Housebuilding in Britain: A Critical Case Study of Protectionism and its Industrial-Commercial Effects

For decades, political barriers have hampered housebuilding in Britain. Governments have blocked urban expansion, stymied the introduction of new low-cost production methods, and restricted the supply of new housing to the market in other ways. The results have included artificially inflated house prices and numerous households excluded from owner-occupation.

This book analyzes political barriers to housebuilding as a form of political-economic protectionism: the dysfunctional equivalent of controls on foreign goods imports or minimum wage tariff barriers to labour market entry and employment.


1.   Political barriers to housebuilding in Britain: critical overview

2.   Greenbelt barriers to urban expansion

3.   Housing output planning and quota fixing

4.   Housing development taxes and quasi-taxes

5.   New housing class discrimination 

6.   Controls on technological development and product innovation 

7.   The effects on the land market and new housing location 

8.   The effects on housebuilders and housing production 

9.   The effects on household consumer choice, house prices, and housing quality

10. The removal of political barriers to housebuilding 

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About the author

Lewis F Abbott is a business-economic researcher and consultant. He has authored and edited numerous books on industrial, commercial and related subjects.  

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Additional Information

Industrial Systems Research
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Published on
Aug 15, 2013
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Political Science / Public Policy / City Planning & Urban Development
Political Science / Public Policy / Economic Policy
Political Science / Public Policy / Environmental Policy
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Eligible for Family Library

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Statutory Minimum Wage Controls: A Critical Review of their Effects on Labour Markets, Employment and Incomes

"The patrimony of a poor man lies in the strength and dexterity of his hands; and to hinder him from employing this is a plain violation of this most sacred property.” (Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, 1776)

Around the world, minimum wage controls exclude low cost competitors from labour markets, hamper firms in reducing wage costs during trade downturns, and cause unemployment, price increases and poverty.

In the European Union, national minimum wage barriers to labour market entry and employment make a mockery of the Treaty of Rome guarantee of free trade and markets in labour services. In Britain, the National Minimum Wage has caused large-scale youth unemployment, transfer of manufacturing and service jobs abroad, short-term contract and casual working, and the closure of small shops, restaurants, pubs and marginally profitable businesses generally.

This study analyzes national minimum wage fixing as a special form of political-economic protectionism – the dysfunctional equivalent or analogue of such things as tariff barriers to low cost goods imports.


1. Minimum wage controls and their effects

Economic and political motives for minimum wage control* the general case against* unemployment effects* minimum wage-fixing as a form of protectionism and discrimination* minimum wage, maximum wage (“incomes policy”), and other forms of price control* negative income and welfare effects*

2. Minimum wage controls in particular countries

Comparative wage and labour market freedom in Britain* trade union attitudes towards state wage-fixing* minimum wage controls and their effects in the us and Europe* defining "pay" and other technical-administrative issues*

3. Legal aspects of minimum wage control

Legal, constitutional and rights issues* avoidance and evasion* challenging official wage-fixing and job losses in the courts*

4. Minimum wage control and unemployment

How minimum wages cause unemployment* international studies* recent research findings and forecasts*

5. Effects on employers and labour demand

Economics of labour demand* firms and industries most affected by statutory wage controls* employers' responses – from job redundancies and out-sourcing to changes in working practices, hours, and payment methods*

6. Effects on employees and labour supply

Economics of labour supply* employees most affected by wage control: occupational, skill, age, race, sex, and regional variables*

7. The effects on incomes and welfare

The case against using wage controls for income redistribution purposes* employment subsidies, tax cuts, and welfare payments as an alternative* productivity, supply and demand and other real industrial-economic causes of wage differentials* summary and conclusions*

The classic 1690 book is one of the most important and influential works on government ever published. The first part demolishes the main authoritarian/totalitarian ideology of its day: the doctrine of the divine right of kings to absolute arbitrary power over their subjects. The second sets out the real social origins, functions, and limits of government. Locke demonstrates that far from God and natural law ordaining all-powerful hereditary dictatorship, the only legitimate form of government is one established by the consent of the people and committed to upholding their fundamental human rights to life, liberty, and property.

The book justified the Glorious Revolution establishing parliamentary government in England and was an inspiration behind the American Declaration of Independence a century later. Around the world, it continues to have a profound influence on the theory and practice of limited representative government and the protection of basic rights and freedoms under the rule of law.

However, the book is now well over 300 years old and present-day readers find its language difficult to follow and understand in places. This version translates the work into current English and seeks to make its substantive content clearer.

Literalness and original word order and grammar are retained as far as possible. Nonetheless, the primary objective has been to improve the readability of the text in order to better convey its meaning. The considerable distance in time between the two documents has inevitably meant a considerable difference in conventional writing styles. In addition, much of Lockes analysis is intrinsically highly complex and subtle. Thus, this new version diverges significantly from the original throughout.
Two Treatises on Government: A Translation into Modern English

John Locke’s 1690 book is one of the most important and influential works on government ever published. The first part demolishes the main authoritarian/totalitarian ideology of its day: the doctrine of the divine right of kings to absolute arbitrary power over their subjects. The second sets out the real social origins, functions and limits of government.  Locke demonstrates that far from God and natural law ordaining all-powerful hereditary dictatorship, the only legitimate form of government is one with the consent of the people and committed to upholding their fundamental human rights to life, liberty, and property.

The book justified the Glorious Revolution establishing parliamentary government in England and was an inspiration behind the American Declaration of Independence a century later. Around the world, it continues to have a profound influence on the theory and practice of limited representative government and protecting basic rights and freedoms under the rule of law.

This is a current language version of the book - essentially translating the work into modern English to improve its readability and understandability.


Treatise 1

“The Divine Right of Kings”: A Refutation of the Doctrine of Sir Robert Filmer and His Followers

1. Introduction

2. Paternal and regal power

3. “Adam’s title to sovereignty by creation”

4. “Adam’s title to sovereignty by donation”

5. “Adam’s title to sovereignty by the subjection of Eve”

6. “Adam’s title to sovereignty by fatherhood”

7. Fatherhood and property as joint foundations of sovereignty

8. Conveying Adam’s sovereign monarchical power

9. Monarchy by inheritance from Adam

10. An heir to Adam’s monarchical power

11. Who is the heir?

Treatise 2

The Real Origins, Functions and Limits of Government

1. Political power

2. The state of nature

3. The state of war

4. Slavery

5. Property

6. Paternal power

7. Political or civil society

8. The beginning of political societies

9. The ends of political society and government

10. Forms of commonwealth

11. The limits of legislative power

12. The legislative, executive, and federative powers of the commonwealth

13. The subordination of powers of the commonwealth

14. Prerogative

15. Paternal, political, and despotic powers: a comparison

16. Conquest

17. Usurpation

18. Tyranny

19. The dissolution of government

The most important book yet from the author of the international bestseller The Shock Doctrine, a brilliant explanation of why the climate crisis challenges us to abandon the core “free market” ideology of our time, restructure the global economy, and remake our political systems.

In short, either we embrace radical change ourselves or radical changes will be visited upon our physical world. The status quo is no longer an option.

In This Changes Everything Naomi Klein argues that climate change isn’t just another issue to be neatly filed between taxes and health care. It’s an alarm that calls us to fix an economic system that is already failing us in many ways. Klein meticulously builds the case for how massively reducing our greenhouse emissions is our best chance to simultaneously reduce gaping inequalities, re-imagine our broken democracies, and rebuild our gutted local economies. She exposes the ideological desperation of the climate-change deniers, the messianic delusions of the would-be geoengineers, and the tragic defeatism of too many mainstream green initiatives. And she demonstrates precisely why the market has not—and cannot—fix the climate crisis but will instead make things worse, with ever more extreme and ecologically damaging extraction methods, accompanied by rampant disaster capitalism.

Klein argues that the changes to our relationship with nature and one another that are required to respond to the climate crisis humanely should not be viewed as grim penance, but rather as a kind of gift—a catalyst to transform broken economic and cultural priorities and to heal long-festering historical wounds. And she documents the inspiring movements that have already begun this process: communities that are not just refusing to be sites of further fossil fuel extraction but are building the next, regeneration-based economies right now.

Can we pull off these changes in time? Nothing is certain. Nothing except that climate change changes everything. And for a very brief time, the nature of that change is still up to us.
The famed political advisor to Uber, FanDuel, Lemonade, Tesla and other startups reveals what really happens at the intersection of politics, tech and business

Most new startups today are in highly regulated industries with strong incumbents - transportation, hotels, drones, energy, gaming, education, health care, cannabis, finance, liquor, insurance. The more startups try to snatch a piece of the establishment's pie, the more they risk running into a political wall. That's where Bradley Tusk comes in.

Described as "Silicon Valley's Political Savior" (Fast Company) "Uber's Political Genius" (Vanity Fair) and "Silicon Valley's Favorite Fixer" (TechCrunch) Tusk deploys the skills and knowledge he developed working with Chuck Schumer, Michael Bloomberg, Rod Blagojevich, and other political and business legends to help startups fight back. This book goes behind the scenes on how he helped stop the taxi industry from killing Uber in its infancy, how he held insurance companies at bay while startup Lemonade launched in each state, and how he helped online sports betting sites FanDuel and Draft Kings escape the regulatory death grip casinos tried to put on them.

As Tusk writes, "Every new company is essentially a tech startup. And when you disrupt someone in any industry, they don't say thank you. They punch you in the nose. These are the lessons startups need to learn to punch back and survive the clutches of politics." Combining a firsthand glimpse behind the curtain with tangible advice for how any new venture can play the political game, THE FIXER is a must-read for aspiring entrepreneurs.
This book surveys & analyses key aspects of the technological development process in manufacturing firms & industries. It covers the genesis of technical-product inventions & innovations; the impact of new technologies on jobs, firms, & industries; & major business-economic & other factors facilitating & hampering change. The findings of published research on the subject are reviewed; & detailed case studies presented of the introduction & utilization of new technologies in a wide range of firms in engineering, construction, food & drugs, textiles, petrochemicals, & other industries. Contents: 1. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDUSTRY: AN OVERVIEW Introduction* The sources of technological innovation* The impact of technology on industrial organization* Technology, society, & economic development* Technology & the growth & performance of manufacturing enterprises* The twenty-five firm survey* 2. THE ECONOMICS OF TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTIntroduction: economic theories of innovation* The significance of market & firm size* Other economic influences on technological development & business growth* Economic aspects of business growth, performance, & technological development in engineering* The economic costs & benefits of new technologies* The twenty-five firm survey* 3. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT & ORGANIZATION (1): GENERALThe impact of technology on the organization of industrial firms* The impact of organization on industrial technological development* Organization & the general growth & performance of firms* "Lean" manufacturing: the Toyota production model* The twenty-five firm survey* 4. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT & ORGANIZATION (2): CHANGE MANAGEMENT, JOB SATISFACTION, & PRODUCTIVITY Theories & research: an overview* The twenty-five firm survey* Engineering* Textiles* Chemicals & petroleum* Ocean tankers* Civil engineering & construction* 5. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT & ORGANIZATION (3): TWENTY-FIVE COMPANY CASE STUDIESIn-depth analyses of firms in the engineering, civil engineering & construction, textiles, food & drugs, chemicals, & petroleum industries* 6. TRADE UNIONS & TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTIntroduction* Trade unions & new technologies in the engineering, textiles, petrochemicals, & civil engineering & construction industries* 7. THE POLITICAL & LEGAL ENVIRONMENT Introduction* Current concerns* Government impacts on the engineering, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, & textile industries* 8. EDUCATION, TRAINING, & TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT Introduction & overview* Attempts to encourage more school leavers & college graduates into manufacturing* Education, training, & technological development in the twenty-five firm survey* The cases of engineering, textiles, & chemicals* 9. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT, THE LABOUR MARKET, & EMPLOYMENT Technological labour supplies & supply shortages* Salaries & other benefits in attracting, motivating, & retaining employees* The twenty-five firm survey* 10. FINANCE & INVESTMENT IN NEW TECHNOLOGYIntroduction: the contribution of investment to technological development* Investment in new technology in Britain* Banks, venture capitalists, & the stock market as sources of finance for new technology*
New York Times Bestseller • Notable Book of the Year • Editors' Choice Selection
One of Bill Gates’ “Amazing Books” of the Year
One of Publishers Weekly’s 10 Best Books of the Year
Longlisted for the National Book Award for Nonfiction
An NPR Best Book of the Year
Winner of the Hillman Prize for Nonfiction
Gold Winner • California Book Award (Nonfiction)
Finalist • Los Angeles Times Book Prize (History)
Finalist • Brooklyn Public Library Literary Prize

This “powerful and disturbing history” exposes how American governments deliberately imposed racial segregation on metropolitan areas nationwide (New York Times Book Review).


Widely heralded as a “masterful” (Washington Post) and “essential” (Slate) history of the modern American metropolis, Richard Rothstein’s The Color of Law offers “the most forceful argument ever published on how federal, state, and local governments gave rise to and reinforced neighborhood segregation” (William Julius Wilson). Exploding the myth of de facto segregation arising from private prejudice or the unintended consequences of economic forces, Rothstein describes how the American government systematically imposed residential segregation: with undisguised racial zoning; public housing that purposefully segregated previously mixed communities; subsidies for builders to create whites-only suburbs; tax exemptions for institutions that enforced segregation; and support for violent resistance to African Americans in white neighborhoods. A groundbreaking, “virtually indispensable” study that has already transformed our understanding of twentieth-century urban history (Chicago Daily Observer), The Color of Law forces us to face the obligation to remedy our unconstitutional past.
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