The Structure and Function of Plastids

Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration

Book 23
Springer Science & Business Media
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The Structure and Function of Plastids provides a comprehensive look at the biology of plastids, the multifunctional biosynthetic factories that are unique to plants and algae. Fifty-nine international experts have contributed 28 chapters that cover all aspects of this large and diverse family of plant and algal organelles.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Sep 7, 2007
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Pages
578
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ISBN
9781402040610
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Life Sciences / Biochemistry
Science / Life Sciences / Botany
Science / Life Sciences / Cell Biology
Science / Life Sciences / Microbiology
Science / Life Sciences / Molecular Biology
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Sulfur is one of the most versatile elements in life due to its reactivity in different oxidation and reduction states. In phototrophic organisms, the redox properties of sulfur in proteins, and of sulfur-containing metabolites, are particularly important in the interaction between the reductive assimilation processes of photosynthesis and reactive oxygen species that arise as by-products of electron transport chains. Thiol groups in proteins and metabolites are targets of reactive oxygen species, resulting in potential damage and at the same time giving rise to redox signal cascades that trigger repair reactions and adaptation to environmental stress. Further, reduced sulfur compounds play a prominent role as electron donors for photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation in anoxygenic phototrophic sulfur bacteria. Interest in the investigation of the multiple functions of sulfur-related processes has increased exponentially in recent years, especially in molecular and cellular biology, biochemistry, agrobiotechnology and ecology. This book provides, for the first time, in-depth and integrated coverage of the functions of sulfur in phototrophic organisms including bacteria, plants and algae; it bridges gaps between biochemistry and cellular biology of sulfur in these organisms, and of biology and environments dominated by them. This book is designed to be a comprehensive resource on sulfur in phototrophic organisms for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, beginning researchers and teachers in the area of photosynthesis, bacterial energy metabolism, biotechnology, plant nutrition, plant production and plant molecular physiology.
Mitochondria in plants, as in other eukaryotes, play an essential role in the cell as the major producers of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. However, mitochondria also play crucial roles in many other aspects of plant development and performance, and possess an array of unique properties which allow them to interact with the specialized features of plant cell metabolism. The two main themes running through the book are the interconnection between gene regulation and protein function, and the integration of mitochondria with other components of plant cells.

The book begins with an overview of the dynamics of mitochondrial structure, morphology and inheritance. It then discusses the biogenesis of mitochondria, the regulation of gene expression, the mitochondrial genome and its interaction with the nucleus, and the targeting of proteins to the organelle. This is followed by a discussion of the contributions that mutations, involving mitochondrial proteins, have made to our understanding of the way the organelle interacts with the rest of the plant cell, and the new field of proteomics and the discovery of new functions. Also covered are the pathways of electron transport, with special attention to the non-phosphorylating bypasses, metabolite transport, and specialized mitochondrial metabolism.

In the end, the impact of oxidative stress on mitochondria and the defense mechanisms, that are employed to allow survival, are discussed. This book is for the use of advanced undergraduates, graduates, postgraduates, and beginning researchers in the areas of molecular and cellular biology, integrative biology, biochemistry, bioenergetics, proteomics and plant and agricultural sciences.

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