From Gutenberg to the Global Information Infrastructure: Access to Information in the Networked World

MIT Press
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Will the emerging global information infrastructure (GII) create a revolution in communication equivalent to that wrought by Gutenberg, or will the result be simply the evolutionary adaptation of existing behavior and institutions to new media? Will the GII improve access to information for all? Will it replace libraries and publishers? How can computers and information systems be made easier to use? What are the trade-offs between tailoring information systems to user communities and standardizing them to interconnect with systems designed for other communities, cultures, and languages? This book takes a close look at these and other questions of technology, behavior, and policy surrounding the GII. Topics covered include the design and use of digital libraries; behavioral and institutional aspects of electronic publishing; the evolving role of libraries; the life cycle of creating, using, and seeking information; and the adoption and adaptation of information technologies. The book takes a human-centered perspective, focusing on how well the GII fits into the daily lives of the people it is supposed to benefit. Taking a unique holistic approach to information access, the book draws on research and practice in computer science, communications, library and information science, information policy, business, economics, law, political science, sociology, history, education, and archival and museum studies. It explores both domestic and international issues. The author's own empirical research is complemented by extensive literature reviews and analyses.
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About the author

Christine L. Borgman is Professor and Presidential Chair in Information Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles. She is the author of From Gutenberg to the Global Information Infrastructure and Scholarship in the Digital Age (both winners of the “Best Information Science Book” award from ASIS&T), published by the MIT Press.

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Additional Information

Publisher
MIT Press
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Published on
Jan 24, 2003
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Pages
344
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ISBN
9780262250283
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Language
English
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Genres
Computers / Information Theory
Language Arts & Disciplines / Library & Information Science / General
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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The disparity in access to information is a worldwide phenomenon. Global Information Inequalities offers a captivating look into problems of information access across the world today. One of the unique strengths of the book is the use of examples of library initiatives from around the world to illustrate the range of possibilities for equitable access and library service delivery in a global context. It contains numerous examples of a wide variety of information problems and solutions ranging from developing literacy programs in rural communities in Tanzania, building school libraries in China, making government-related information more transparent in Chile, to exploring how digital technologies have the potential to revolutionize the lives of people with sensory-disabilities. The contributions in Global Information Inequalities address a number of core professional issues, including access to information, library services, collection development, global collaboration, intellectual property, and digital information. The contributors are from Argentina, Canada, Chile, China, Iceland, Malaysia, Peru, South Africa, Tanzania, United States, and Zambia, thereby providing a wide range of perspectives on librarianship. Written in a simple, thorough, and multidisciplinary approach, the book presents and discusses key issues in various library settings and from different perspectives. Overall, this work contributes to a global examination and exploration of libraries in various parts of the world. This book has a wide appeal and is applicable to various library environments (including academic, public, and special libraries).Provides readers with an overview of possibilities for equitable library service delivery in a global contextProvides readers with numerous examples and case studies particularly useful for practitionersExamples also provide unique examinations of country-specific issues in a global context
A call to redirect the intellectual focus of information retrieval and science (IR&S) toward the phenomenon of technology-mediated experience.

In this book, Sachi Arafat and Elham Ashoori issue a call to reorient the intellectual focus of information retrieval and science (IR&S) away from search and related processes toward the more general phenomenon of technology-mediated experience. Technology-mediated experience accounts for an increasing proportion of human lived experience; the phenomenon of mediation gets at the heart of the human-machine relationship. Framing IR&S more broadly in this way generalizes its problems and perspectives, dovetailing them with those shared across disciplines dealing with socio-technical phenomena. This reorientation of IR&S requires imagining it as a new kind of science: a science of technology-mediated experience (STME). Arafat and Ashoori not only offer detailed analysis of the foundational concepts underlying IR&S and other technical disciplines but also boldly call for a radical, systematic appropriation of the sciences and humanities to create a better understanding of the human-technology relationship.

Arafat and Ashoori discuss the notion of progress in IR&S and consider ideas of progress from the history and philosophy of science. They argue that progress in IR&S requires explicit linking between technical and nontechnical aspects of discourse. They develop a network of basic questions and present a discursive framework for addressing these questions. With this book, Arafat and Ashoori provide both a manifesto for the reimagining of their field and the foundations on which a reframed IR&S would rest.

The Experiential Library: Transforming Academic and Research Libraries through the Power of Experiential Learning features contributions—in a relatively conversational, practical, and "how-to" format—from various academic libraries across broad educational levels that have implemented experiential learning programs, services, or resources to enhance the learning and development of both students and library employees. As academic libraries and academic librarians are seeking ways to transform themselves and create collaborative synergies within and without their institutions, this timely book suggests exciting ways to integrate experiential learning into the library’s offerings.

Ranging from integrated service learning and Information Literacy instruction that "takes the class out of the classroom," to unique experiential approaches to programming like Course Exhibits and the Human Library, the book is a one-stop-shop for libraries looking to expand their repertoire. It will also help them create connections between experiential learning and their institutions' missions and contributions to student success, by grounding these programs and services on a sure methodological footing. Librarians and educators wishing to learn more about the connections between experiential learning/experiential education and academic libraries would benefit from the advice from authors in this book.

Covers experiential learning for academic and research librariesPresents diverse aspects of experiential learning in academic libraries across the spectrum of educational levelsOffers a one-stop-shop for librarians keen on bringing experiential learning to their institutionsAdds to current conversations in both LIS and experiential education, enabling further synergies in both disciplines
An examination of the uses of data within a changing knowledge infrastructure, offering analysis and case studies from the sciences, social sciences, and humanities.

“Big Data” is on the covers of Science, Nature, the Economist, and Wired magazines, on the front pages of the Wall Street Journal and the New York Times. But despite the media hyperbole, as Christine Borgman points out in this examination of data and scholarly research, having the right data is usually better than having more data; little data can be just as valuable as big data. In many cases, there are no data—because relevant data don't exist, cannot be found, or are not available. Moreover, data sharing is difficult, incentives to do so are minimal, and data practices vary widely across disciplines.

Borgman, an often-cited authority on scholarly communication, argues that data have no value or meaning in isolation; they exist within a knowledge infrastructure—an ecology of people, practices, technologies, institutions, material objects, and relationships. After laying out the premises of her investigation—six “provocations” meant to inspire discussion about the uses of data in scholarship—Borgman offers case studies of data practices in the sciences, the social sciences, and the humanities, and then considers the implications of her findings for scholarly practice and research policy. To manage and exploit data over the long term, Borgman argues, requires massive investment in knowledge infrastructures; at stake is the future of scholarship.

The challenges to humanity posed by the digital future, the first detailed examination of the unprecedented form of power called "surveillance capitalism," and the quest by powerful corporations to predict and control our behavior.

In this masterwork of original thinking and research, Shoshana Zuboff provides startling insights into the phenomenon that she has named surveillance capitalism. The stakes could not be higher: a global architecture of behavior modification threatens human nature in the twenty-first century just as industrial capitalism disfigured the natural world in the twentieth.
Zuboff vividly brings to life the consequences as surveillance capitalism advances from Silicon Valley into every economic sector. Vast wealth and power are accumulated in ominous new "behavioral futures markets," where predictions about our behavior are bought and sold, and the production of goods and services is subordinated to a new "means of behavioral modification."
The threat has shifted from a totalitarian Big Brother state to a ubiquitous digital architecture: a "Big Other" operating in the interests of surveillance capital. Here is the crucible of an unprecedented form of power marked by extreme concentrations of knowledge and free from democratic oversight. Zuboff's comprehensive and moving analysis lays bare the threats to twenty-first century society: a controlled "hive" of total connection that seduces with promises of total certainty for maximum profit--at the expense of democracy, freedom, and our human future.
With little resistance from law or society, surveillance capitalism is on the verge of dominating the social order and shaping the digital future--if we let it.
An exploration of the technical, social, legal, and economic aspects of the scholarly infrastructure needed to support research activities in all fields in the twenty-first century.

Scholars in all fields now have access to an unprecedented wealth of online information, tools, and services. The Internet lies at the core of an information infrastructure for distributed, data-intensive, and collaborative research. Although much attention has been paid to the new technologies making this possible, from digitized books to sensor networks, it is the underlying social and policy changes that will have the most lasting effect on the scholarly enterprise. In Scholarship in the Digital Age, Christine Borgman explores the technical, social, legal, and economic aspects of the kind of infrastructure that we should be building for scholarly research in the twenty-first century.

Borgman describes the roles that information technology plays at every stage in the life cycle of a research project and contrasts these new capabilities with the relatively stable system of scholarly communication, which remains based on publishing in journals, books, and conference proceedings. No framework for the impending “data deluge” exists comparable to that for publishing. Analyzing scholarly practices in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities, Borgman compares each discipline's approach to infrastructure issues. In the process, she challenges the many stakeholders in the scholarly infrastructure—scholars, publishers, libraries, funding agencies, and others—to look beyond their own domains to address the interaction of technical, legal, economic, social, political, and disciplinary concerns. Scholarship in the Digital Age will provoke a stimulating conversation among all who depend on a rich and robust scholarly environment.

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