Interchange of Active and Passive Voice

English Daily Use

Book 12
Manik Joshi
5
Free sample

This Book Covers The Following Topics:

Active and Passive Voice
Interchange of Active and Passive Voice
1. First or Second Form of Verb
2. Auxiliary Verb ‘Be’ + -ING Form of Verb
3. Have/Has/Had + Past Participle
4. Present/Future Modals + Verb Word
5. Past Modals + Past Participle
6. Verb + Preposition
7. Main Verb + Object + Complement
8. Main Verb + Object + Object
9. Have/Has/Had + Infinitive (To + Verb)
10. Auxiliary Verb ‘Be’ + Infinitive (To + Verb)
11. Verb + Object + Infinitive (Without ‘To’)
12. There + Verb ‘Be’ + Noun + Infinitive
13. Interrogative Sentences
14. Imperative Sentences
15. Principal Clause + That + Noun Clause (Object)
16. Verb followed by --ING form or an Infinitive
17. Use of Prepositions
18. The Passive With Get
19. Middle Voice
Exercise -- 01
Exercise -- 02
Exercise -- 03

Sample This:

VOICE - Definition
Voice refers to the form of a verb that shows whether the subject of a sentence performs the action or is affected by it.

ACTIVE VOICE - Definition
The form of a verb in which subject is the person or thing that performs the action.
Example:
They finished the work.
[subject -- “they”, verb -- “finished”, object -- “work”]
In this sentence, the subject (they) acts on the object (work).

Other Examples:
The teacher praises him.
She posted the letter.
I buy new books.
We will celebrate his birthday.

PASSIVE VOICE - Definition
The form of a verb in which subject is affected by the action of the verb.
Important Note -- The object of the active voice becomes the subject in the passive voice.
Example:
The work was finished by them.
[subject -- “work”, passive verb -- “was finished”, object -- “them”]
In this example, the subject (work) is not the doer; it is being acted upon by the doer ‘them’)

Other Examples:
He is praised by the teacher.
The letter was posted by her
New books are bought by me.
His birthday will be celebrated by us.


WHEN TO USE PASSIVE VOICE
(1). You should use passive voice when you do not know the active subject.
(2). When you want to make the active object more important.
(3). When active subject is obvious.
(4). When you want to emphasize the action of the sentence rather than the doer of the action.
(5). Passive voice is frequently used to describe scientific or mechanical processes
(6). Passive voice is often used in news reports:
(7). When active voice does not sound good.
(8). When you want to make more polite or formal statements.
(9). You can use passive voice to avoid responsibility.
(10). You can also use passive voice for sentence variety in your writing.
(11). You can also use passive voice when you want to avoid extra-long subjects.

Changing Active Voice Into Passive Voice
Rule 1:
Move the object of the active voice into the position of subject (front of the sentence) in the passive voice. And move the subject of the active voice into the position of object in the passive voice.

Rule 2:
Passive voice needs a helping verb to express the action. Put the helping verb in the same tense as the original active sentence. The main verb of the active voice is always changed into past participle (third form of verb) in different ways.

Rule 3:
Place the active sentence's subject into a phrase beginning with the preposition ‘by’.

Rule 4:
If the object in an active voice sentence is a pronoun (me, us, you, him, her, they, it), it changes in passive voice sentence as follows:
me -- I; us -- we; you -- you; him -- he; her -- she; them -- they; it – it

Rule 5:
Subject- Verb Agreement
Make the first verb agree with the new subject in passive voice.

Rule 6:
When there are two objects (direct object and indirect object), only one object is interchanged. The second object remains unchanged.

Following Tenses Cannot Be Changed Into Passive Voice:
1. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
2. Past Perfect Continuous Tense
3. Future Continuous Tense
4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense
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About the author

Manik Joshi was born on Jan 26, 1979 at Ranikhet and is permanent resident of Haldwani, Kumaon zone of India. He is an Internet Marketer by profession. He is interested in domaining (business of buying and selling domain names), web designing (creating websites), and various online jobs (including 'self book publishing'). He is science graduate with ZBC (zoology, botany, and chemistry) subjects. He is also an MBA (with specialization in marketing). He has done three diploma courses in computer too. ManikJoshi.com is the personal website of the author.

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Additional Information

Publisher
Manik Joshi
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Published on
Oct 25, 2014
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Pages
61
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ISBN
9781492157076
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Language
English
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Genres
Language Arts & Disciplines / Public Speaking
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This content is DRM protected.
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This Book Covers The Following Topics:

What is “Repetition of Words”?
Structure (1) ---- Word + and + Word
Structure (2) ---- Comparative + and + Comparative
Structure (3) ---- Word + after + Word
Structure (4) ---- Word + by + Word
Structure (5) ---- Word + to + Word
Structure (6) ---- Word + on/upon + Word
Structure (7) ---- Word + against/of/for/in/with + Word
Structure (8) ---- The more, less, etc…, the more, less, etc…
Structure (9) ---- Combination of the Same Words
Structure (10) ---- Repetition of Various Words
Structure (11) ---- Repetition of Words More than Once
Structure (12) ---- Repetition of ‘Group of Words’
Structure (13) ---- Repetition of ‘Two Different Words’
Structure (14) ---- Miscellaneous Patterns
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)

What is “Repetition of Words”?

Repetition in English Language is the repeating of a word, within a sentence in order to PROVIDE EMPHASIS. ‘Repetition of words’ could be classified into many groups based on the placement of the words in a sentence. Different terms have been devised to denote different kinds of repetitions. Some of these terms are as follows: Adnominatio, Conduplicatio, Diacope, Epistrophe, Mesodiplosis, Palilogia, Polyptoton, Symploce, etc.

Not going into the details of these ‘hard-to-pronounce’ terms, I have covered only most popular patterns of ‘Repetition of words’ in this book.

Structure (1) ---- Word + and + Word

This pattern is generally used to show ‘continuation or repetition of an activity’, or ‘presence of many things or people of the same kind’.

1. -- She asked and asked about the money.
2a. -- Stars, planets, and galaxies emerged and evolved billions and billions of years ago.
2b. -- They have got billions and billions of dollars lying around in vaults.
3. -- There has been campaign and campaign against us for a very long time.
4. -- Wastage of water must be discouraged and discouraged.
5. -- Workers dug and dug the road.
6. -- We have eras and eras coming.
7. -- He called after her, “Where are you going?” She went further and further.
8a. -- His confidence grew and grew.
8b. -- Once he started telling family about his challenge, the support just grew and grew.
9a. -- ‘How long did the match last?’ ‘Oh, hours and hours’
9b. -- Oats are a complex carbohydrate which means they will fuel your body for hours and hours.
10. -- Merit and merit alone can be criterion.
11. -- The road went on for miles and miles.
12. -- My travel plan was mired and mired in utter confusion.
13. -- He has nurtured and nurtured his reputation as a master tactician.
14. -- They played and played cards all night.

NOTE:
(A). ‘Again and again’
[meaning -- many times]
She was wiping her tears again and again.
Many people do not repeat their mistakes again and again.

(B). ‘By and by’
[meaning -- after a short period; before long; soon | eventually]
By and by you will make your deficiency.
The hours just kept on going by and by.

(C). ‘Half and half’
[meaning -- in equal parts]
We are lucky that it is an affordable rent, and sharing half and half helps

(D). ‘Less and less’
[meaning -- continuing to become smaller]
We are having less and less snow each year.
Old people seem to sleep less and less actually.

(E). ‘More and more’
[meaning -- continuing to become larger in amount or number]
You always ask for more and more.
More and more girls are giving priority to their career.

(F). ‘Neck and neck’
[meaning -- level with somebody in competition]
Democrats and Republicans were neck and neck on 50 seats.
These two candidates are neck and neck in recent polls.

NOTE: Great Stress—
Word + And + Word + And + Word
1a. -- He just smacked him with a ruler again and again and again.
1b. -- If at first you don't succeed, try again and again and again.
2. -- Their pain and the anger grew and grew and grew,
3. -- They are paying him millions and millions, and more millions.
4. -- There is a huge problem in this town and it has been going on and on and on.
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

1. Agreeing Or Disagreeing In English
A. Agreeing In English
B. Disagreeing In English

2. Agreements and Disagreements With Statements
A1. Affirmative Addition to Affirmative Remarks - I
A2. Affirmative Addition to Affirmative Remarks – II
(Agreement with Affirmative Remarks)

B1. Negative Addition to Negative Remarks - I
B2. Negative Addition to Negative Remarks - II
(Agreement with Negative Remarks)

C1. Negative Addition to Affirmative Remarks - I
C2. Negative Addition to Affirmative Remarks - II
(Disagreement with Affirmative Remarks)

D1. Affirmative Addition to Negative Remarks - I
D2. Affirmative Addition to Negative Remarks - II
(Disagreement with Negative Remarks)

Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)


Sample This:

1. Agreeing Or Disagreeing In English

A. Agreeing In English

Expressions to show agreement:

Absolutely!
Exactly!
I agree entirely.
I agree to some extent.
I agree with you entirely.
I agree with you in part/principle.
I agree with you up to a point.
I am of the same opinion.
I assume so.
I believe so.
I completely agree (with you).
I couldn't agree more. [used to show total agreement]
I see exactly what you mean!
I simply must agree with that.
I think so.
I totally agree!
I was just going to say that.
It is absolutely clear.
Me too!
No doubt about it.
That seems obvious.
That’s exactly what I think.
That’s right!
That’s true.
That's for sure.
That's quite true.
That's so true.
There is no doubt about it that.
True enough.
Yes, I agree!
Yes, OK.
You are absolutely right.
You are right. That's a good point.
You could be right.
You have a point there.


A1. Affirmative Addition to Affirmative Remarks - I

(Agreement with Affirmative Remarks - I)

PATTERN – 1

USING ‘SAME SUBJECT’ IN AFFIRMATIVE ADDITION

STRUCTURE: Yes/So/Of course, etc. + Subject + Verb- ‘Be/Do/Have/Modal’
NOTE: You can also use phrase “That’s true!”

Example 1:
Affirmative Remark – She is originally from Britain.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
Yes, she is. [yes + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!

Example 2:
Affirmative Remark – Authorities are gathering evidences.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
So, they (= authorities) are. [so + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!

Example 3:
Affirmative Remark – People across the world are taking to yoga and meditation.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
Yes, they (= people) are. [yes + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!

Example 4:
Affirmative Remark – She was the most studious student of the batch.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
Of course, she was. [of course + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!

Example 5:
Affirmative Remark – The police were seeking an arrest warrant for a suspect.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
Yes, they (the police) were. [yes + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

What are “Tenses”?
AGREEMENT between SUBJECT and VERB
TWENTY-FOUR Auxiliary Verbs
REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS
PRESENT TENSE
Present Indefinite Tense
Present Continuous/Progressive Tense
Present Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense
PAST TENSE
Past Indefinite Tense
Past Continuous/Progressive Tense
Past Perfect Tense
Past Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense
FUTURE TENSE
Future Indefinite Tense
Future Continuous/Progressive Tense
Future Perfect Tense
Future Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense
Useful Notes
Exercises

Sample This:

Tenses could be defined as “any of the form of a verb that may be used to show the time of the action or an event or state expressed by the verb”.

THERE ARE THREE KINDS OF TENSES:

The Past Tense – The form of a verb that usually expresses an action that happened in the past
[Action happened before present]

The Present Tense – The form of a verb that usually expresses an action that happens at this time
[Action happens in present]

The Future Tense – The form of a verb that usually expresses an action that will happen in future
[Action will happen after present]


EACH OF THESE THREE KINDS OF SENTENCES HAS FOUR TYPES OF FORMS:
Indefinite or Simple Form
Continuous or Progressive Form
Perfect Form
Perfect Continuous or Perfect Progressive Form


EACH OF THESE FOUR TYPES OF FORMS HAS FOUR KINDS OF STATEMENTS:
Affirmative Statement --
Used to Show ‘Agreement’
Negative Statement --
Used to Show ‘Disagreement’
Interrogative Statement --
Used to Ask ‘Question’
Interrogative-Negative Statement --
Used to Ask ‘Question’ and Show ‘Disagreement’

Present Indefinite Tense

Expresses –
Permanent situation [in the past, present and future]
Example: Our family lives in Seattle.

General truth (fact or statement)
Example: Clean water is fundamental to public health.
Example: Many barrages have no utility and causes floods.

Habitual action [actions that occurs regularly]
Example: She listens to music every day.

‘Future meaning’ (timetable, planned event, etc.)
Example: My shop closes at 9pm.
Example: The train arrives at 7:30pm.

Traditions, rituals, customs
Example: Indians celebrate festival of light in the month of Oct-Nov.

Commands and Instructions [Imperative Sentences]
[Note: In imperatives, subject ‘you’ remains hidden]
Example: Condemn perpetrators of terrorism.
Example: Promote values of humanity and tolerance.
Example: Tell us about the exact nature of your work.

Used in if-clause of present and future real conditional sentences
Example: If I go there, I meet him.
Example: If things don't work out, we won't be panicked.

Headlines in news reporting [Use of simple present tense instead of simple past tense is common in news headlines]
Example: Flight skids on landing at airport.
Example: Thunder storm brings relief to residents.


(A). AFFIRMATIVE PATTERN –
subject + first form of main verb + other words
Singular Verb is used with subject ‘He and She’ + All Singular Subjects.
Plural Verb is used with subject ‘I, We, You and They’ + All Plural Subjects.
Examples:
He/She talks. I/We/You/They talk.
We seek opportunity to chart out our own course.
Lean margin of victory or defeat gives an impression of a tough contest.
Nowadays, voters value development over other issues.
They want civic amenities and employment opportunities.


(B). NEGATIVE PATTERN –
subject + auxiliary verb ‘do/does’ + not + first form of main verb + other words
Auxiliary Verb ‘Does’ is used with subject ‘He and She’ + All Singular Subjects.
Auxiliary Verb ‘Do’ is used with subject ‘I, We, You and They’ + All Plural Subjects.
Examples:
He/She does not talk. I/We/You/They do not talk.
Most buses do not cater to interior parts of the villages.
He does not know what to say.
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

Verb ‘To Be’
Verb ‘To Be’ -- Negative Patterns
Verb ‘To Be’ -- Interrogative Patterns
1A. English Grammar – ‘Am’
1B. AM + -ING Form of Verb
1C. AM + Being + Past Participle
1D. AM + Past Participle
2A. English Grammar – ‘Is’
2B. IS + -ING Form of Verb
2C. IS + Being + Past Participle
2D. IS + Past Participle
3A. English Grammar – ‘Are’
3B. ARE + -ING Form of Verb
3C. ARE + Being + Past Participle
3D. ARE + Past Participle
4A. English Grammar – ‘Was’
4B. WAS + -ING Form of Verb
4C. WAS + Being + Past Participle
4D. WAS + Past Participle
5A. English Grammar – ‘Were’
5B. WERE + -ING Form of Verb
5C. WERE + Being + Past Participle
5D. WERE + Past Participle
Useful Notes
(1): Question Tags
(2): Short Answers (Ellipsis]
(3): Addition to Remarks
(4): There Is/Was and There Are/Were
(5): Subjunctive Mood – ‘Were’
(6): Be + Going To + Verb Word
(7): ‘Used to’ Vs. ‘Be + Used to’
(8): Be + To + Verb Word
(9): Be + ‘Being”+ Adjective
(10): Mixed Sentences
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) to 2(E)



Sample This:

Verb ‘To Be’

The Verb ‘to be’ is used to represent the following English verbs:
‘Am’, ‘Is’, ‘Are’, ‘Was’, ‘Were’
The verb ‘to be’ is used as both linking verb and auxiliary verb.

LINKING VERB:
A verb that connects a subject with the complement (adjective or noun) that describes it.
Example: He is an engineer. [In this sentence, subject (he) and noun (engineer) is connected by linking verb ‘is’. There is no main verb in this sentence.]
Some more examples:
I am happy. [linking verb – am]
Is he good boy? [linking verb – is]
We are very proud of ourselves. [linking verb – are]
She was intelligent. [linking verb – was]
They were not late by half an hour. [linking verb – were]

AUXILIARY VERB:
A verb which is used with main verb to show tenses, etc.
Example: He is going to office. [In this sentence, -ing form of main verb ‘go’ has been used with auxiliary verb ‘is’.
Some more examples:
I am studying a book. [auxiliary verb – am | main verb – study (-ing form)]
He is working on his project [auxiliary verb – is | main verb – work (-ing form)]
We are not expected to tell the secret. [auxiliary verb – are | main verb – expect (past participle form)]
She was taught by me. [auxiliary verb – was | main verb – teach (past participle form)]
Were they burdened by high taxation [auxiliary verb – were | main verb – burden (past participle form)]


IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT VERB ‘TO BE’

‘AM’ –
Singular Verb
Used In Present Tense
Used with Subject ‘I’

‘IS’ –
Singular Verb
Used In Present Tense
Used with Subject ‘He’ ‘She’, ‘It’ and other Singular Subjects

‘ARE’ –
Plural Verb
Used In Present Tense
Used with Subject ‘We’, ‘You’, ‘They’ and other Plural Subjects

‘WAS’ –
Singular Verb
Used In Past Tense
Used with Subject ‘I’, ‘He’, She’, ‘It’ and other Singular Subjects

‘WERE’ –
Plural Verb
Used In Past Tense
Used with Subject ‘We’, ‘You’ and other Plural Subjects
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

English Grammar – ‘DO/DOES/DID’

English Grammar – ‘DO’
VERB ‘DO’ -- (A) – Affirmative Sentences
VERB ‘DO’ -- (B) – Negative Sentences
VERB ‘DO’ -- (C) – Interrogative Sentences
VERB ‘DO’ -- (D) – 'Short Answers’ and ‘Question Tags’

English Grammar – ‘DOES’
VERB ‘DOES’ -- (A) – Affirmative Sentences
VERB ‘DOES’ -- (B) – Negative Sentences
VERB ‘DOES’ -- (C) – Interrogative Sentences
VERB ‘DOES’ -- (D) – 'Short Answers’ and ‘Question Tags’

English Grammar – ‘DID’
VERB ‘DID’ -- (A) – Affirmative Sentences
VERB ‘DID’ -- (B) – Negative Sentences
VERB ‘DID’ -- (C) – Interrogative Sentences
VERB ‘DID’ -- (D) – 'Short Answers’ and ‘Question Tags’

Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) to 2(D)


Sample This:

English Grammar – ‘DO/DOES/DID’

Verb 'Do’ is used as an AUXILIARY VERB as well as an MAIN (ORDINARY) VERB.
MAIN VERB: When used as main verb, verb ‘do’ is followed by an object.
AUXILIARY VERB: ‘Auxiliary verb’ is a verb which is used with main verb to show tenses, etc.]

He does not do these kinds of things. [In this sentence, ‘Does’ has been used as an ‘Auxiliary Verb’, while ‘Do’ has been used as a ‘Main Verb’]
They do not do nation-building. [In this sentence, ‘Do’ has been used as both an ‘Auxiliary Verb’ and a “Main Verb’]

NOTE: Verb ‘do’ has the following forms:
(1). Present form – Do or Does
[‘Do’ is used with ‘You, I, We, They’ and all other plural subjects in present tense. ‘Does’ is used with ‘He, She, It’ and all other singular subjects in present tense.]

(2). Past form – Did
[‘Did’ is used with ‘You, I, We, They, He, She, It’ and all other singular and plural subjects in past tense.]

(3). Past Participle form – Done
[Past participles are accompanied by auxiliary verbs ‘HAVE’ or ‘BE’ (in the correct tense)]
You have done your country proud.
This type of job is done in this factory.

Main Verb ‘Do’ may denote the following actions –
to find the answer to something: - Can they do this puzzle?
to perform an activity or a task: - Sometimes you like to do things that are a little scary.
to produce something: - He did a painting last night.
to study something: - I am doing English these days.
to talk about household chores (cleaning, washing, etc.): - They will have to do (wash) dishes.
to work at something as a job: - What do you do for your livelihood?

Main Verb ‘Do’ is also used to show the following actions:
to attend, to cook, to copy somebody’s behavior, to travel, to visit somewhere as a tourist, to cheat, to punish, to steal, etc.

Some more sentences with ‘MAIN VERB’ – DO/DOES/DID/DONE:
She is happy that she will be able to do something for the poor and downtrodden.
We are ready to do whatever it takes to avoid being suspended from competition.
I like to do extensive research before I invest hard-earned money on a new purchase.
It's no secret we do things we know we shouldn't.
It is not uncommon to come across people who do jobs that have nothing to do with their academic degree.
What ultraviolet light does to skin to cause sunburn?
What caffeine does to your brain?
It is not yet clear what exactly this software did.
Work was done according to the rules.
He has done an obligation to me.
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

What is “Repetition of Words”?
Structure (1) ---- Word + and + Word
Structure (2) ---- Comparative + and + Comparative
Structure (3) ---- Word + after + Word
Structure (4) ---- Word + by + Word
Structure (5) ---- Word + to + Word
Structure (6) ---- Word + on/upon + Word
Structure (7) ---- Word + against/of/for/in/with + Word
Structure (8) ---- The more, less, etc…, the more, less, etc…
Structure (9) ---- Combination of the Same Words
Structure (10) ---- Repetition of Various Words
Structure (11) ---- Repetition of Words More than Once
Structure (12) ---- Repetition of ‘Group of Words’
Structure (13) ---- Repetition of ‘Two Different Words’
Structure (14) ---- Miscellaneous Patterns
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)

What is “Repetition of Words”?

Repetition in English Language is the repeating of a word, within a sentence in order to PROVIDE EMPHASIS. ‘Repetition of words’ could be classified into many groups based on the placement of the words in a sentence. Different terms have been devised to denote different kinds of repetitions. Some of these terms are as follows: Adnominatio, Conduplicatio, Diacope, Epistrophe, Mesodiplosis, Palilogia, Polyptoton, Symploce, etc.

Not going into the details of these ‘hard-to-pronounce’ terms, I have covered only most popular patterns of ‘Repetition of words’ in this book.

Structure (1) ---- Word + and + Word

This pattern is generally used to show ‘continuation or repetition of an activity’, or ‘presence of many things or people of the same kind’.

1. -- She asked and asked about the money.
2a. -- Stars, planets, and galaxies emerged and evolved billions and billions of years ago.
2b. -- They have got billions and billions of dollars lying around in vaults.
3. -- There has been campaign and campaign against us for a very long time.
4. -- Wastage of water must be discouraged and discouraged.
5. -- Workers dug and dug the road.
6. -- We have eras and eras coming.
7. -- He called after her, “Where are you going?” She went further and further.
8a. -- His confidence grew and grew.
8b. -- Once he started telling family about his challenge, the support just grew and grew.
9a. -- ‘How long did the match last?’ ‘Oh, hours and hours’
9b. -- Oats are a complex carbohydrate which means they will fuel your body for hours and hours.
10. -- Merit and merit alone can be criterion.
11. -- The road went on for miles and miles.
12. -- My travel plan was mired and mired in utter confusion.
13. -- He has nurtured and nurtured his reputation as a master tactician.
14. -- They played and played cards all night.

NOTE:
(A). ‘Again and again’
[meaning -- many times]
She was wiping her tears again and again.
Many people do not repeat their mistakes again and again.

(B). ‘By and by’
[meaning -- after a short period; before long; soon | eventually]
By and by you will make your deficiency.
The hours just kept on going by and by.

(C). ‘Half and half’
[meaning -- in equal parts]
We are lucky that it is an affordable rent, and sharing half and half helps

(D). ‘Less and less’
[meaning -- continuing to become smaller]
We are having less and less snow each year.
Old people seem to sleep less and less actually.

(E). ‘More and more’
[meaning -- continuing to become larger in amount or number]
You always ask for more and more.
More and more girls are giving priority to their career.

(F). ‘Neck and neck’
[meaning -- level with somebody in competition]
Democrats and Republicans were neck and neck on 50 seats.
These two candidates are neck and neck in recent polls.

NOTE: Great Stress—
Word + And + Word + And + Word
1a. -- He just smacked him with a ruler again and again and again.
1b. -- If at first you don't succeed, try again and again and again.
2. -- Their pain and the anger grew and grew and grew,
3. -- They are paying him millions and millions, and more millions.
4. -- There is a huge problem in this town and it has been going on and on and on.
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

How to Start a Sentence
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘AS’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘AFTER’ and ‘BEFORE’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘BY’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘FOR/FROM
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘IF’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘OF/ON/OUT’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘TO’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘IN’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘WITH’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘QUESTION WORDS’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘ING’ FORM of VERBS
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘PAST PARTICIPLES’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘-LY Words’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘PRONOUNS’
Start a Sentence – Miscellaneous
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)

Sample This:

There are different ways to start a sentence in English. Using pronoun (I, we, you, they, he, she, it) is the most popular way to begin a sentence. But there are many other words which are widely used to start a sentence. They might be question words (what, where, etc.). They might be words formed from verbs, ending in –ing, -ed, -en, etc. Besides, words such as ‘to’ ‘in’ ‘with’, ‘if’, ‘after’ are also used to begin a sentence.
Here, you will learn various words and phrases to start a sentence with.

Important Note:
Starting a sentence with ‘and’ or ‘but’ is correct or not!

Using ‘And’ or ‘But’ to begin a sentence is generally considered grammatically Incorrect. But there is no hard and fast rule in this regard. So, you can use ‘And’ or ‘But’ to begin a sentence. But avoid excessive use of these words to begin a sentence. Use these words in the beginning of a sentence only when they really give strength to your language.

Note: It is said that a sentence should not be begun with a conjunction of any kind, especially one of the FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). But this is not hard and fast rule. Particularly in spoken English, starting a sentence with ‘And’ or ‘But’ is common.


How to start a sentence -- Using ‘AS’

As a matter of fact no notice was given to anyone.
As a policeman myself, I am aware of all the laws.
As against last time four days, the fair will last for five days this year.
As always, he won the match.
As an interim arrangement, we directed the authorities not to return the land.
As fate would have it, he crossed the international border.
As for David, he is doing fine.
As he got busy, she picked up his son.
As he grew older, he developed his communications skills.
As if the bad power situation in the city wasn’t enough, the hike in power tariff has come as the last straw for residents.
As in the past, party president distanced herself from the government’s unpopular decision.
As long as here is violence by unruly mobs, use of police force is inevitable.
As often happened, he forgot to send me reply.
As part of the deal, they will hand-over control of five west bank towns.
As penance, he vowed to never scold any kid ever again.
As per his version, nobody had got injured in the incident.
As per rules, the same bill should be passed by the two Houses of the Parliament before it is sent to the President for his signature and promulgation for implementation.
As sanitary workers are absent on most of the days, sweeping of that road is also irregular resulting in trash along the road.
As the bus was nearing, / As the bus neared him, he moved aside.
As the day progressed, over a hundred men protestors gathered at the office.
As the electric cables are hanging loosely, it may anytime lead to major accident if any passer-by comes into contact.
As the mercury levels are dropping each day, difficulties for the poor are constantly rising.
As the war widened, they had to leave the city.
As we progresses, it is going to become more and more difficult.
As you know, I have sent him a letter.
HOMONYMS
Homonym a word that is spelt like another word (or pronounced like it) but which has a different meaning, for example Key meaning ‘set of answer to problems’ and Key meaning ‘button on computer keyboard’.

The state of being a homonym is called homonymy.

Very Important Note:

In Strict Sense, Homonyms have same spelling, same pronunciation, and different meaning.

HOMONYMS in Strict Sense:

Same Spelling / Same Pronunciation / Different meaning
Homonyms are also known as “Multiple Meaning Words”.

Examples: fare, principal, etc.

Fare -- a passenger | Fare -- price
Principal -- most important | Principal -- head of a school


In Wider Sense, Homonyms can also include words that have same or similar pronunciation (but different spelling) or same spelling (but different pronunciation).
In first situation, they are called ‘HOMOPHONES’
In second situation, they are called ‘HOMOGRAPHS’

HOMONYMS In Wider Sense:

HOMOPHONES:
Different Spelling / Same or Similar Pronunciation / Different meaning
Note: ‘Homophones’ are also called ‘Heterographs’.
Homophones are also known as “Sound-Alike Words”.

Examples: ad/add, know/no, etc.

ad -- advertisement | add -- to include
know -- to have information | no -- refusal


HOMOGRAPHS:
Same Spelling / Different Pronunciation / Different meaning
Note: ‘Homographs’ are also called ‘Heterophones’.

Examples: bow, lead, etc.

Bow (noun) -- [Pronunciation -- boʊ] -- a weapon used for shooting arrows
Bow (verb) -- [Pronunciation -- baʊ] -- to move your head forwards and downwards

Lead (noun) -- [Pronunciation -- led] -- a metallic element
Lead (verb) -- [Pronunciation -- li:d] -- to go in front


100 HOMONYMS ALONG WITH THEIR MEANINGS:
Sample This:

01. Accident
1. Accident -- an event in which injury or damage is caused in or by vehicle
2. Accident -- something that happens unexpectedly

02. Action
1. Action -- a legal process
2. Action -- fighting in a war

03. Alight
1. Alight -- on fire
2. Alight -- to get out of a vehicle

04. Angle
1. Angle -- inclination of two lines with each, measure in degrees
2. Angle -- to catch fish

05. Arch
1. Arch -- curve; semicircle
2. Arch -- mischievous


600 HOMOPHONE PAIRS ALONG WITH THEIR MEANINGS:
Sample This:

01. Abhorrent / Aberrant
1. Abhorrent -- causing hatred for moral reasons
2. Aberrant -- unusual and socially unacceptable

02. Accede / Exceed
1. Accede -- to agree
2. Exceed -- to surpass

03. Accept / Except
1. Accept -- to admit
2. Except -- apart from

04. Acclamation / Acclimation
1. Acclamation -- loud and enthusiastic welcome
2. Acclimation -- process of getting used to a new climate or situation

05. Adapt / Adept / Adopt
1. Adapt -- to adjust or modify
2. Adept -- skillful
3. Adopt -- to become legal parents of somebody’s child


150 HOMOGRAPHS ALONG WITH THEIR MEANINGS:
Sample This:

01. Absent
1. Absent (adjective) -- not present
2. Absent (verb) -- to not be in a place

02. Abuse
1. Abuse (noun) -- misuse
2. Abuse (verb) -- to misuse something

03. Accent
1. Accent (noun) -- pronunciation
2. Accent (verb) -- to put emphasis on a part of something

04. Address
1. Address (noun) -- details of the place where you live or work; postal address
2. Address (verb) -- to make a formal speech

05. Advocate
1. Advocate (noun) -- supporter of something
2. Advocate (verb) -- to support something publicly
THIS BOOK CONTAINS MEANINGS OF MORE THAN 1400 ADVANCED ENGLISH WORDS (including phrasal verbs and idioms).

English Words And Meanings, Advance English Words And Their Meanings, Learn English Words For Improving Your English, English Words And Meanings From Letter A To Letter Z

Sample This:

("sb" implies somebody, "sth" implies something)

abase yourself to accept sb's power over you
knuckle under to sb/sth to accept sb/sth else's authority
submissive too willing to accept sb else's authority
subservient to sth submissive, less important than sth else

abashed ashamed and embarrassed
bashful shy and easily embarrassed
put sb on the spot to make sb feel embarrassed by asking difficult question

about turn / volte face complete change of opinion, etc.
turn about sudden and complete change in sth

abstemious not allowing yourself to have much food or alcohol or enjoyable activities
austere without any decorations; (of a person) strict and serious; abstemious

ad-lib to give a speech or a performance without preparation or practice
improvise to make or do sth using whatever is available, to ad-lib

abuse unfair or cruel treatment of sb/sth
oppress to treat sb cruelly, to weigh down
persecute to treat sb cruelly

acclaim to praise sb publicly, praise and approval
commendation / plaudits praise and approval

accolade praise or award of honour
laurels honour and praise given to sb because of sth they have achieved

acrid bitter smell or taste
acrimony bitter feelings or words

adolescent young person who is developing from a child into an adult
teens years of a person's life when they are between 13 and 19 years old

affected pretended
disaffected unsatisfied

affront to insult or offend sb
take umbrage at sth to feel offended or upset by sth

aft in the stern of the ship or aircraft
abaft in the stern of a ship
stern the back end of a boat or ship

agglomeration group of things put together in no particular order
conglomeration mixture of different things found all together

a la carte food which is selected from the list of dishes and prices
table d' hot plate of food with fixed price

agnosia inability to recognize people and things
analgesia loss of the ability to feel pain while still conscious
apoplexy inability to feel, move because of injury in the brain
asphyxia difficulty in breathing which may cause death or unconsciousness
dyslexia difficulty in reading and spelling but no effect in intelligence

agoraphobia fear of being in the crowd
claustrophobia fear of being in a small confined place

alimony money, which is given to former husband or wife after the end of the marriage
palimony money which is given to former partner after the end of a relationship

altercation noisy argument or disagreement
argy-bargy noisy disagreement

alumna former woman student
alumnus former male student

amble / saunter / stroll to walk in a slow relaxed way
ramble to walk for pleasure
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

1. Agreeing Or Disagreeing In English
A. Agreeing In English
B. Disagreeing In English

2. Agreements and Disagreements With Statements
A1. Affirmative Addition to Affirmative Remarks - I
A2. Affirmative Addition to Affirmative Remarks – II
(Agreement with Affirmative Remarks)

B1. Negative Addition to Negative Remarks - I
B2. Negative Addition to Negative Remarks - II
(Agreement with Negative Remarks)

C1. Negative Addition to Affirmative Remarks - I
C2. Negative Addition to Affirmative Remarks - II
(Disagreement with Affirmative Remarks)

D1. Affirmative Addition to Negative Remarks - I
D2. Affirmative Addition to Negative Remarks - II
(Disagreement with Negative Remarks)

Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)


Sample This:

1. Agreeing Or Disagreeing In English

A. Agreeing In English

Expressions to show agreement:

Absolutely!
Exactly!
I agree entirely.
I agree to some extent.
I agree with you entirely.
I agree with you in part/principle.
I agree with you up to a point.
I am of the same opinion.
I assume so.
I believe so.
I completely agree (with you).
I couldn't agree more. [used to show total agreement]
I see exactly what you mean!
I simply must agree with that.
I think so.
I totally agree!
I was just going to say that.
It is absolutely clear.
Me too!
No doubt about it.
That seems obvious.
That’s exactly what I think.
That’s right!
That’s true.
That's for sure.
That's quite true.
That's so true.
There is no doubt about it that.
True enough.
Yes, I agree!
Yes, OK.
You are absolutely right.
You are right. That's a good point.
You could be right.
You have a point there.


A1. Affirmative Addition to Affirmative Remarks - I

(Agreement with Affirmative Remarks - I)

PATTERN – 1

USING ‘SAME SUBJECT’ IN AFFIRMATIVE ADDITION

STRUCTURE: Yes/So/Of course, etc. + Subject + Verb- ‘Be/Do/Have/Modal’
NOTE: You can also use phrase “That’s true!”

Example 1:
Affirmative Remark – She is originally from Britain.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
Yes, she is. [yes + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!

Example 2:
Affirmative Remark – Authorities are gathering evidences.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
So, they (= authorities) are. [so + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!

Example 3:
Affirmative Remark – People across the world are taking to yoga and meditation.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
Yes, they (= people) are. [yes + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!

Example 4:
Affirmative Remark – She was the most studious student of the batch.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
Of course, she was. [of course + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!

Example 5:
Affirmative Remark – The police were seeking an arrest warrant for a suspect.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
Yes, they (the police) were. [yes + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!
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