Design and Optimization in Organic Synthesis

Data Handling in Science and Technology

Book 8
Elsevier
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This is the first general textbook on experimental design and optimization in organic synthesis. The book presents a unified methodology for carrying out systematic studies when the objective is to develop efficient and optimum synthetic methods. Strategies are included both for exploring the experimental conditions and for systematic studies of entire reaction systems (substrates, reagent(s) and solvents). The methodology is based on multivariate statistical techniques.


The following topics are treated in depth: classical two-level designs for screening experiments, gradient methods (steepest ascent, simplex methods) as well as response surface techniques for optimization, principal components analysis and PLS modelling.


The book is intended as a hands-on text for chemists and engineers engaged in developing synthetic methods in industrial research, e.g. in fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals production, as well as for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and researchers in an academic environment.

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Additional Information

Publisher
Elsevier
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Published on
Nov 21, 1991
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Pages
552
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ISBN
9780080868356
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Language
English
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Genres
Mathematics / Probability & Statistics / General
Science / Chemistry / Analytic
Science / Chemistry / Organic
Science / Chemistry / Physical & Theoretical
Social Science / Research
Technology & Engineering / Chemical & Biochemical
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Available on Android devices
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Eligible for Family Library

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Reflecting the myriad changes and advancements in the technologies involved in FTIR, particularly the development of diamond ATRs, this second edition of Fundamentals of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy has been extensively rewritten and expanded to include new topics and figures as well as updates of existing chapters.

Designed for those new to FTIR, but with enough reference material to appeal to journeyman and expert spectroscopists, this book does not demand any extensive familiarity with chemistry or physics. Specializing in concise and comprehensible explanations of FTIR topics, the author introduces the field of infrared spectroscopy, including the strengths and weaknesses of FTIR as a chemical analysis technique. He then describes the instrument itself and explores topics such as how an interferometer generates a spectrum, optimization of spectral quality, and which tests are used to monitor instrument health.

The book discusses how to properly use spectral processing to increase the information of a spectrum without damaging the data and takes considerable care in instructing on sample preparation, as good sample preparation constitutes half the battle in extracting good data. The final chapters examine single analyte quantitative analysis and conclude with an overview of infrared microscopy.

Drawing on the experience and knowledge of the author as both a professor and practitioner, Fundamentals of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy offers up-to-date information given in clear, easily understood language to appeal to beginner and expert spectroscopists alike. The author maintains a website and blog with supplemental material. His training course schedule is also available online.
Although sampling errors inevitably lead to analytical errors, the importance of sampling is often overlooked. The main purpose of this book is to enable the reader to identify every possible source of sampling error in order to derive practical rules to (a) completely suppress avoidable errors, and (b) minimise and estimate the effect of unavoidable errors. In short, the degree of representativeness of the sample can be known by applying these rules.


The scope covers the derivation of theories of probabilistic sampling and of bed-blending from a complete theory of heterogeneity which is based on an original, very thorough, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the concepts of homogeneity and heterogeneity. All sampling errors result from the existence of one form or another of heterogeneity. Sampling theory is derived from the theory of heterogeneity by application of a probabilistic operator to a material whose heterogeneity has been characterized either by a simple scalar (a variance: zero-dimensional batches) or by a function (a variogram: one-dimensional batches). A theory of bed-blending (one-dimensional homogenizing) is then easily derived from the sampling theory.


The book should be of interest to all analysts and to those dealing with quality, process control and monitoring, either for technical or for commercial purposes, and mineral processing.


Although this book is primarily aimed at graduates, large portions of it are suitable for teaching sampling theory to undergraduates as it contains many practical examples provided by the author's 30-year experience as an international consultant. The book also contains useful source material for short courses in Industry.

Now available is the second edition of a book which has been described as "...an exceptionally lucid, easy-to-read presentation... would be an excellent addition to the collection of every analytical chemist. I recommend it with great enthusiasm." (Analytical Chemistry)

N.R. Draper reviewed the first edition in Publication of the International Statistical Institute "...discussion is careful, sensible, amicable, and modern and can be recommended for the intended readership."

The scope of the first edition has been revised, enlarged and expanded. Approximately 30% of the text is new. The book first introduces the reader to the fundamentals of experimental design. Systems theory, response surface concepts, and basic statistics serve as a basis for the further development of matrix least squares and hypothesis testing. The effects of different experimental designs and different models on the variance-covariance matrix and on the analysis of variance (ANOVA) are extensively discussed. Applications and advanced topics (such as confidence bands, rotatability, and confounding) complete the text. Numerous worked examples are presented.

The clear and practical approach adopted by the authors makes the book applicable to a wide audience. It will appeal particularly to those with a practical need (scientists, engineers, managers, research workers) who have completed their formal education but who still need to know efficient ways of carrying out experiments. It will also be an ideal text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students following courses in chemometrics, data acquisition and treatment, and design of experiments.

Nothing is more important to business success than innovation . . . And here’s what you can do about it on Monday morning with the definitive how-to book from the world’s leading authority on innovation


When it comes to innovation, Curt Carlson and Bill Wilmot of SRI International know what they are talking about—literally. SRI has pioneered innovations that day in and day out are part of the fabric of your life, such as:

•The computer mouse and the personal computer interface you use at home and work

•The high-definition television in your living room

•The unusual numbers at the bottom of your checks that enable your bank to maintain your account balance correctly

•The speech-recognition system used by your financial services firm when you call for your account balance or to make a transaction.

Each of these innovations—and literally hundreds of others—created new value for customers. And that’s the central message of this book. Innovation is not about inventing clever gadgets or just “creativity.” It is the successful creation and delivery of a new or improved product or service that provides value for your customer and sustained profit for your organization. The first black-and-white television, for example, was just an interesting, cool invention until David Sarnoff created an innovation—a network—that delivered programming to an audience.

The genius of this book is that it provides the “how” of innovation. It makes innovation practical by getting two groups who are often disconnected—the managers who make decisions and the people on the front lines who create the innovations—onto the same page. Instead of smart people grousing about the executive suite not recognizing a good idea if they tripped over it and the folks on the top floor wondering whether the people doing the complaining have an understanding of market realities, Carlson and Wilmot’s five disciplines of innovation focus attention where it should be: on the creation of valuable new products and services that meet customer needs.

Innovation is not just for the “lone genius in the garage” but for you and everyone in your enterprise. Carlson and Wilmot provide a systematic way to make innovation practical, one intimately tied to the way things get done in your business.


Teamwork isn't enough; Creativity isn't enough; A new product idea isn't enough

True innovation is about delivering value to customers. Innovation reveals the value-creating processes used by SRI International, the organization behind the computer mouse, robotic surgery, and the domain names .com, .org, and .gov. Curt Carlson and Bill Wilmot show you how to use these practical, tested processes to create great customer value for your organization.


From the Hardcover edition.
Helps apply the research findings of behavioral neuroscience to daily life.

The ninth edition of Foundations of Behavioral Neuroscience offers a concise introduction to behavioral neuroscience. The text incorporates the latest studies and research in the rapidly changing fields of neuroscience and physiological psychology. The theme of strategies of learning helps readers apply these research findings to daily life. Foundations of Behavioral Neuroscience is an ideal choice for the instructor who wants a concise text with a good balance of human and animal studies.

MyPsychLab is an integral part of the Carlson program. Key learning applications include the MyPsychLab Brain.

Teaching & Learning Experience

Personalize Learning – MyPsychLab is an online homework, tutorial, and assessment program. It helps students prepare for class and instructor gauge individual and class performance. Improve Critical Thinking –Each chapter begins with a list of Learning Objectives that also serve as the framework for the Study Guide that accompanies this text. Engage Students –An Interim Summary follows each major section of the book. The summaries provide useful reviews and also break each chapter into manageable chunks. Explore Theory/Research – APS Reader, Current Directions in Biopsychology in MyPsychLab Support Instructors – A full set of supplements, including MyPsychLab, provides instructors with all the resources and support they need.

0205962092 / 9780205962099 Foundations of Behavioral Neuroscience Plus NEW MyPsychLab with eText -- Access Card Package

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There is an old Jewish adage that pretty much sums up Israel’s experience among the nations for the last 2,000 years.  “Scratch a gentile,” the saying goes, “and you’re sure to find an anti-Semite.”

That notion is given credence by the fact that the first two millennia of the Jewish-Christian encounter culminated in the systematic slaughter of six-million Jews in the heart of Christendom.

But Dr. Paul R. Carlson, author of Christianity After Auschwitz, is cautiously optimistic that the dawn of this new millennium may lead to Jewish-Christian amity as the Church faces up to its past sins and seeks to work with the Synagogue against those demonic forces which threaten civilization itself.

However, as Carlson illustrates, the genocidal germ that gave birth to Hitler’s criminal regime still flourishes among countless Christians, many of whom would passionately deny they harbor any anti-Semitic notions or sentiments.

While the book is addressed primarily to Carlson’s fellow evangelicals, both Jews and Christians will discover that it provides the general reader with an overview of those critical issues which scholars alone have in the past wrestled with in the post-Holocaust Jewish-Christian encounter.

At the outset, Carlson is quick to concede that the late Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik, a scion of the great Chechnowa Rebbe, was certainly correct when he insisted that “Christians have never tried to penetrate the soul of the Jews.

“They have read the Bible but neglected the oral tradition by which we interpret it,” he noted.  “This makes a different Bible altogether.

For example, says Rav Soloveitchik: “To equate Judaism with legalism the way Christian theologians are prone to do is like equating mathematics with a compilation of mathematical equations.”

By the same token, old stereotypes die hard.

“The Jew has been pictured as the arch-capitalist and the arch-Bolshevik and chastised for being both, whipsawed by contending forces,” says Nathan C. Belth.  “The Soviet authorities [saw] Jews as a threat to the state, and Alexander Solzhenitsyn, who castigate[d] Soviet terror, sees Jews as libertarians who brought on socialism, after, of course, rejecting Christ.”

Since time-immemorial, anti-Semites have also portrayed the Jew as the greedy, shady businessman or banker.  But they conveniently forget stories such as that of Haym Salomon [1740-1785], the Jewish broker whose financial aid staved off starvation and desertion among American troops during our War for Independence.

At one critical point, Robert Morris, the American financier and statesman, sent a messenger to alert Haym Salomon of the plight of the cash-strapped Colonial forces.  The man brought the news to Salomon while he was attending Yom Kippur services at Mikveh Israel Synagogue in Philadelphia.  The congregation was shocked at the intrusion on the holiest day of the Jewish year; but Haym Salomon quietly informed the messenger: “Tell Mr. Morris our country’s appeal will not be in vain.”

But that old canard about Jews and their money remains grist for the anti-Semite’s mill.

By the same token, Jews have not been entirely blameless when it comes to their own stereotypes of Christians, particularly evangelicals.

Nathan Perlmutter confessed as much during his tenure as national director of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) of B’nai B’rith.

“Our image of the fundamentalist and the evangelical is a kind of collage assembled out of bits and pieces from Theodore Dreiser, Sinclair Lewis and Erskine Caldwell . . . ,” he admitted.  “Even after all this time memories of the great swarm of sex-ridden, Bible-thumping caricatures continue to exert a pervasive power.”

But evangelicals would be among the first to admit that Jews have come a long way since the days of the infamous Toledot Yeshu, or Life of Jesus, which depicted the Galilean in scandalous terms.

Indeed, the Israeli author Shalom Ben-Chorin is representative of those Jewish intellectuals who now believe that “it is time for Jesus to come home again.”  

Meanwhile, few Christians realize just how vulnerable many Jews feel in what they perceive to be “Christian America.”  That perception is heightened by the 1992 American Jewish Year Book finding that “roughly 12 percent of Americans of Jewish heritage are now Christians.”

“There is another way of looking at what I have called a disaster in the making,” says former US Assistant Secretary of State Elliott Abrams, author of Faith or Fear: How Jews Can Survive in a Christian America

“Of the 6.8 million people who are Jews or of Jewish descent, 1.1 million say they have no religion and 1.3 million have joined another religion, adding up to 2.4 million,” Abrams observes.  “This means that one-third of the people in America of Jewish ethnic origin no longer report Judaism as their current religion (Abrams italics).

Such statistics illustrate why Jewish leaders unanimously condemn those Christian missionary agencies which specifically target Jews for conversion.  They have been particularly incensed by one recent evangelical effort, known as Peace 2000, which aimed to convert every Jew in Israel to Christianity by the dawn of the new millennium.

“Centuries of martyrdom are the price which the Jewish people has paid for survival,” says Brandeis scholar Marshall Sklare.  “And the apostate, at one stroke, makes a mockery of Jewish history.

“But if the convert is contemptible in Jewish eyes,” Sklare adds, “the missionary — all the more, the missionary of Jewish descent -- is seen as pernicious, for he forces the Jew to relive the history of his martyrdom, all the while pressing the claim that in approaching the Jew he does so out of love.

“What kind of love is it, Jews wonder, that would deprive a man of his heritage,” Sklare asks.  “Furthermore, given the history of Christian treatment of the Jews, would it not seem time at last to recognize that the Jew has paid his dues and earned the right to be protected from obliteration by Christian love as well as destruction by Christian hate?”

The distinguished Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel was even more pointed about the matter.  “I had rather enter Auschwitz,” he once remarked, “than be an object of conversion.”

All of this leads to the opening chapter of Christianity After Auschwitz, which introduces Christians to Emil Fackenheim’s “Eleventh Commandment” — or 614th Mitzvoth — which decrees that Jews are not permitted to grant Hitler any posthumous victories through intermarriage, assimilation, or conversion to a faith not their own.  In a word, they are commanded to remain Jews.

By the same token, Jewish scholars are quick to recognize that any “open and honest” dialogue will at some point involve a frank discussion of the similarities and differences between the Jewish and Christian perception[s] of the Messianic hope.

With that understanding, the second chapter deals with the remarkable career of the late Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, the seventh and last Grand Rebbe of the Chabad Lubavitch Hasidim.  Many of his talmidim, or disciples, believe he will ultimately be revealed as King-Messiah.  His life and work are considered within the context of that of Jesus of Nazareth, as well as those of several pseudo-messiahs who have troubled Israel down through the centuries

The author then makes it clear that Jesus himsel

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