Nanoscale Science and Technology

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Nanotechnology is a vital new area of research and development addressing the control, modification and fabrication of materials, structures and devices with nanometre precision and the synthesis of such structures into systems of micro- and macroscopic dimensions. Future applications of nanoscale science and technology include motors smaller than the diameter of a human hair and single-celled organisms programmed to fabricate materials with nanometer precision.

Miniaturisation has revolutionised the semiconductor industry by making possible inexpensive integrated electronic circuits comprised of devices and wires with sub-micrometer dimensions. These integrated circuits are now ubiquitous, controlling everything from cars to toasters. The next level of miniaturisation, beyond sub-micrometer dimensions into nanoscale dimensions (invisible to the unaided human eye) is a booming area of research and development. This is a very hot area of research with large amounts of venture capital and government funding being invested worldwide, as such Nanoscale Science and Technology has a broad appeal based upon an interdisciplinary approach, covering aspects of physics, chemistry, biology, materials science and electronic engineering. Kelsall et al present a coherent approach to nanoscale sciences, which will be invaluable to graduate level students and researchers and practising engineers and product designers.
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John Wiley & Sons
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Published on
Nov 1, 2005
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Science / Chemistry / General
Technology & Engineering / Nanotechnology & MEMS
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The present work reflects a multi-disciplinary effort to address the topic of confined hydrosystems developed with a cross-fertilization panel of physics, chemists, biologists, soil and earth scientists. Confined hydrosystems include all situations in natural settings wherein the extent of the liquid phase is limited so that the solid-liquid and/or liquid-air interfaces may be critical to the properties of the whole system. Primarily, this so-called “residual” solution is occluded in pores/channels in such a way that decreases its tendency to evaporation, and makes it long-lasting in arid (Earth deserts) and hyper-arid (Mars soils) areas. The associated physics is available from domains like capillarity, adsorption and wetting, and surface forces. However, many processes are still to understand due to the close relationship between local structure and matter properties, the subtle interplay between the host and the guest, the complex intermingling among static reactivity and migration pathway.

Expert contributors from Israel, Russia, Europe and US discuss the behaviour of water and aqueous solutes at different scale, from the nanometric range of carbon nanotubes and nanofluidics to the regional scale of aquifers reactive flow in sedimentary basins. This scientific scope allowed the group of participants with very different background to tackle the confinement topic at different scales. The book is organized according to four sections that include: i) flow, from nano- to mega-scale; ii) ions, hydration and transport; iii) in-pores/channels cavitation; iv) crystallization under confinement. Most of contributions relates to experimental works at different resolution, interpreted through classic thermodynamics and intermolecular forces. Simulation techniques are used to explore the atomic scale of interfaces and the migration in the thinnest angstrom-wide channels.

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