Robert Justin Goldstein is emeritus professor of political science at Oakland University in Michigan and currently research associate at the Center for Russia, E. European & Eurasian Studies at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. Professor Goldstein has authored or edited about 15 books, all focused on civil liberties in modern European and American history, including Political Censorship of the Arts & the Press in 19th-Century Europe (1989), Censorship of Political Caricature in 19th-Century France (1989), (ed.) The War for the Public Mind: Political Censorship in 19th-Century Europe (2000), (ed.) The Frightful Stage: Political Censorship of the Theater in 19th-Century Europe (2008) and (co-ed.), Political Censorship of the Visual Arts in19th-Century Europe: Arresting Images (2015).
As a result of the massive transformation of European life in the post-Napoleonic period and the simultaneously rapid growth in industrialization, urbanization, literacy, transportation, and communication, the average European emerged quite suddenly as a potential player who could no longer be ignored by the ruling elite.