Adams's account highlights Britain and the United States from early modern times onward. Locating the roots of the Industrial Revolution in British economic and social institutions, he goes on to consider the new forms of enterprise in which it was embodied and its loss of momentum in the later nineteenth century. He then turns to the early United States, whose path toward industrialization initially involved considerable "technology transfer" from Britain. Propelled by the advent of mass production, world industrial leadership passed to the United States around the end of the nineteenth century. Government-supported research and development, guided partly by military interests, helped secure this leadership.
Today, as Adams shows, we find ourselves in a profoundly changed era. The United States has led the way to a strikingly new multinational pattern of opportunity and risk, where technological primacy can no longer be credited to any single nation. This recent trend places even more responsibility on the state to establish policies that will keep markets open for its companies and make its industries more competitive. Adams concludes with an argument for active government support of science and technology research that should be read by anyone interested in America's ability to compete globally.
The lives and ideas of some of the world's best-known philosophers are presented. Why read philosohy? Because, says the author, all of our most cherished beliefs are born in it. Our goverment, our relgions, our freedoms, our science, our system of justice, all come form philosophy. The daily newspapers are teaming with phlosophical speculations: civil rights, the rights of poor and underprivileged, poltical freedoms, the enviroment.
Philosophy is an attempt to understand what life means, it is a look for a reason for living, it is a search for reasonsfor why we live as we do or why we want to change life as we know it. It is an attempt to place ourselves in the world and in the universe and then find out what that world and universe are.
Since veryearly times men have pondered the questions that philosophy raises. many questions and answers that people talk about today were first discussed long ago. This book is an attempt to show what people ver aperiod of 2,500 years and from many parts of the world have said about ideas that are as important now as they ever were.
The author has condensed the biographies and thoughts of men like Aristotle, Augustine, Confucius and Kierkegaard into easy-to-read, concise and thuought-provoking chapters.
In this engaging and provocative work, David N. Livingstone traces the history of the idea of non-adamic humanity, and the debates surrounding it, from the Middle Ages to the present day. From a multidisciplinary perspective, Livingstone examines how this alternative idea has been used for cultural, religious, and political purposes. He reveals how what began as biblical criticism became a theological apologetic to reconcile religion with science—evolution in particular—and was later used to support arguments for white supremacy and segregation.
From heresy to orthodoxy, from radicalism to conservatism, from humanitarianism to racism, Adam's Ancestors tells an intriguing tale of twists and turns in the cultural politics surrounding the age-old question, "Where did we come from?"
The Klaus Tschira Foundation supports diverse symposia, the essence of which is published in this Springer series (www.kts.villa-bosch.de).
The particulars of place—whether in Edinburgh, Belfast, Toronto, Princeton, or Columbia, South Carolina—shaped the response to Darwin’s theories. Were they tolerated, repudiated, or welcomed? Livingstone shows how Darwin was read in different ways, with meaning distilled from Darwin's texts depending on readers' own histories—their literary genealogies and cultural preoccupations. That the theory of evolution fared differently in different places, Livingstone writes, is "exactly what Darwin might have predicted. As the theory diffused, it diverged."
Dealing with Darwin shows the profound extent to which theological debates about evolution were rooted in such matters as anxieties over control of education, the politics of race relations, the nature of local scientific traditions, and challenges to traditional cultural identity. In some settings, conciliation with the new theory, even endorsement, was possible—demonstrating that attending to the specific nature of individual communities subverts an inclination to assume a single relationship between science and religion in general, evolution and Christianity in particular.
Livingstone concludes with contemporary examples to remind us that what scientists can say and what others can hear in different venues differ today just as much as they did in the past.-- John Hedley Brooke, University of Oxford