Enclosed with the book is a copy of a miniprogram (CHAOS) for an IBM PC, or fully compatible computers, which is an interactive program, affording the beginner a fast and easy way of learning, exploring and looking for new synthetic schemes of molecules of moderate complexity. As a textbook on organic synthesis, this volume will be of immense value at university level.
The aim of the book is twofold. Firstly, to reveal to the reader the combined use of different spectroscopic data, to facilitate an insight into the structure and conformational properties of any new piperidine derivative. Secondly, to establish a consistent link between conformation and reactivity for a variety of piperidine derivatives. Such a bridge is a key step for stereocontrol when dealing with the application of piperidine derivatives as synthetic intermediates. The book is conceived so that most of the information comes from visual inspection of the very abundant graphic material. An exhaustive subject index of more than 450 entries is also included.
The first chapter provides an orientation in the new fields of chemistry. Chapter 2 reviews advances in synthetic procedures for crown ethers and analogous compounds including azacrown ethers, thiacrown ethers, functionalized crown ethers, cryptands and others. The focus of chapter 3 is on the concept and synthetic strategies for the molecular design of new crown compounds. Chapters 4-7 are concerned with noteworthy topics in the applications of crown compounds. Chapter 4 deals with the application to ion-selective electrodes and liquid chromatography, both of which are the most important targets in the analytical application of crown compounds. One major application of crown ethers is the design and syntheses of artificial molecules which can catalyze a useful synthetic reaction in an enzyme-mimetic reaction manner, through novel non-covalent complexes. The strategies for enzymatic modelling with crown ethers are covered in chapter 5, while chapter 6 presents the principle of amine-selective colour complexation and its application. In chapter 7 switched-on crown ethers that can respond to environmental stimuli are reviewed. The final chapter is devoted to a wide-ranging discussion of developments in macrocyclic polyamine chemistry. Unlike crown ethers, macrocyclic polyamines, bearing nitrogen donor atoms which belong to a soft base, form complexes with ions of transition metals and heavy metals which are classified as soft acids. Therefore, macrocyclic polyamines are expected to have very versatile applications.
Scientists in chemistry, biochemistry, physical organic chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry and industrial chemistry will find this book a helpful summary and a stimulating contribution to research in this specialized field of crown compounds.
The possible applications of enzymes are enormous. Years of development have seen many enzymes brought onto the market, but they are still expensive to use. Therefore, their efficient application is a prerequisite for common usage. One of the main factors for this efficiency is the stability of the enzymes. The topics thus ranged from the extensive fundamental thermodynamic knowledge gathered in academic research to the practical applied knowledge built up in industry during the time that enzymes have been produced commercially.
The subject Stability and Stabilization of Enzymes was discussed from various points of view, as was reflected in the themes of the symposium sessions. In the session on Fundamentals of Enzyme Stabilisation the thermodynamic background of the phenomenon was highlighted. In yet another session, the recently developed analytical tools to measure enzyme stability and stabilisation were discussed. Further sessions comprised the physical, chemical and biological ways to obtain enzyme stabilisation and finally, the industrial practice of enzyme stabilisation was treated by representatives of the world's most important enzyme producers. The book will be of interest to researchers in universities and industry in the fields of biochemistry, enzymology and biotechnology.
Features of this book:
• Numerous phenolic systems have been covered in detail, e.g. phenolic propanoids.
• The emphasis throughout has been on synthesis, on what can be achieved by the use of phenolic intermediates and in the construction of phenolic end products.
• Many chapters enable the reader to refer to the original literature wherever possible.
• Various chapters provide a fund of tutorial material and problems for undergraduate studies and further, which will encourage perusal of the literature. Some 2000 references to applied and academic papers are given.
Phenols are ubiquitous substances and now it is more widely accepted that there are pros and cons connected with their usage. The pros for compounds are well-known and are illustrated by perennial panaceas such as aspirin, paracetamol, codeine, etc. The cons are less obvious because they are also materials deeply entrenched in our standard of living and in most cases inherent hazards have only recently come to light. The book will be of interest to postgraduate students in academic and industrial work.