Artpop is the third studio album by American singer Lady Gaga, released on November 6, 2013, by Streamline and Interscope Records. Gaga began planning the project in 2011, shortly after the launch of her second studio album, Born This Way. Work continued until 2013 while Gaga was traveling for her Born This Way Ball concert tour and recovering from surgery for an injury she had sustained while touring. Gaga described Artpop as "a celebration and a poetic musical journey" and an exploration of the "reverse Warholian" phenomenon in pop culture. It displays an intentional "lack of maturity and responsibility" by comparison to the darker and anthemic nature of Born This Way. Gaga collaborated with longtime partners Paul "DJ White Shadow" Blair and RedOne and new partners Zedd and Madeon. The lyrical themes revolve around her personal views of fame, love, sex, feminism, self-empowerment, overcoming addiction, and reactions to media scrutiny; references include Greek and Roman mythology, and classic jazz and electronic musician Sun Ra. Artpop also features guest vocals from T.I., Too Short, Twista, and R. Kelly.