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In this classic work of feminist political thought, Iris Marion Young challenges the prevailing reduction of social justice to distributive justice. It critically analyzes basic concepts underlying most theories of justice, including impartiality, formal equality, and the unitary moral subjectivity. The starting point for her critique is the experience and concerns of the new social movements about decision making, cultural expression, and division of labor--that were created by marginal and excluded groups, including women, African Americans, and American Indians, as well as gays and lesbians. Iris Young defines concepts of domination and oppression to cover issues eluding the distributive model. Democratic theorists, according to Young do not adequately address the problem of an inclusive participatory framework. By assuming a homogeneous public, they fail to consider institutional arrangements for including people not culturally identified with white European male norms of reason and respectability. Young urges that normative theory and public policy should undermine group-based oppression by affirming rather than suppressing social group difference. Basing her vision of the good society on the differentiated, culturally plural network of contemporary urban life, she argues for a principle of group representation in democratic publics and for group-differentiated policies.

Danielle Allen's new foreword contextualizes Young's work and explains how debates surrounding social justice have changed since--and been transformed by--the original publication of Justice and the Politics of Difference.

Written over a span of more than two decades, the essays by Iris Marion Young collected in this volume describe diverse aspects of women's lived body experience in modern Western societies. Drawing on the ideas of several twentieth century continental philosophers--including Simone de Beauvoir, Martin Heidegger, Luce Irigaray, Julia Kristeva, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty--Young constructs rigorous analytic categories for interpreting embodied subjectivity. The essays combine theoretical description of experience with normative evaluation of the unjust constraints on their freedom and opportunity that continue to burden many women. The lead essay rethinks the purpose of the category of "gender" for feminist theory, after important debates have questioned its usefulness. Other essays include reflection on the meaning of being at home and the need for privacy in old age residences as well as essays that analyze aspects of the experience of women and girls that have received little attention even in feminist theory--such as the sexuality of breasts, or menstruation as punctuation in a woman's life story. Young describes the phenomenology of moving in a pregnant body and the tactile pleasures of clothing. While academically rigorous, the essays are also written with engaging style, incorporating vivid imagery and autobiographical narrative. On Female Body Experience raises issues and takes positions that speak to scholars and students in philosophy, sociology, geography, medicine, nursing, and education.
Democratic equality entails a principle that everyone whose basic interests are affected by policies should be included in the process of making them. Yet individuals and groups often claim that decision making processes are dominated by only some of the interests and perspectives in the society. What are the ideals of inclusion through which such criticisms should be made, and which might guide more inclusive political practice? This book considers that question from the point of view of norms of democratic communication, processes of representation and association, and how wide the scope of political jurisdictions should be. Democratic theorists have not sufficiently attended to the ways processes of debate and decision making often marginalize individuals and groups because the norms of political discussion are biased against some forms of expression. Inclusion and Democracy broadens our understanding of democratic communication by reflecting on the positive political functions of narrative, rhetorically situated appeals, and public protest. It reconstructs concepts of civil society and public sphere as enacting such plural forms of communication among debating citizens in large-scale societies. The book considers issues of the scope of the polity at two levels: global and local. The scope of a polity should extend as wide as the scope of social and economic interactions that raise issues of justice. Today this implies the need for global democratic institutions. At a more local level, processes of residential segregation and the design of municipal jurisdictions often result in the ability for actions in one locale to affect those in other locales without those making the decisions having to include some of those affected in the decision making process. Metropolitan governments which preserve significant local autonomy may therefore be necessary to promote political equality.
Written over a span of more than two decades, the essays by Iris Marion Young collected in this volume describe diverse aspects of women's lived body experience in modern Western societies. Drawing on the ideas of several twentieth century continental philosophers--including Simone de Beauvoir, Martin Heidegger, Luce Irigaray, Julia Kristeva, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty--Young constructs rigorous analytic categories for interpreting embodied subjectivity. The essays combine theoretical description of experience with normative evaluation of the unjust constraints on their freedom and opportunity that continue to burden many women. The lead essay rethinks the purpose of the category of "gender" for feminist theory, after important debates have questioned its usefulness. Other essays include reflection on the meaning of being at home and the need for privacy in old age residences as well as essays that analyze aspects of the experience of women and girls that have received little attention even in feminist theory--such as the sexuality of breasts, or menstruation as punctuation in a woman's life story. Young describes the phenomenology of moving in a pregnant body and the tactile pleasures of clothing. While academically rigorous, the essays are also written with engaging style, incorporating vivid imagery and autobiographical narrative. On Female Body Experience raises issues and takes positions that speak to scholars and students in philosophy, sociology, geography, medicine, nursing, and education.
◆1991 年美國政治科學學會 Victoria Schuck 獎

◆20 世紀最重要的女性主義政治哲學家,《像女孩那樣丟球》作者 Iris Young 代表作

◆90 年代至今社會運動思想源頭,開創正義理論全新典範

◆戳破平等假象,為女性、黑人、同性戀、老人、勞工、身心障礙者等多元族群發聲


唯有正視彼此的差異,才能實現真正的正義!

當代政治哲學的思想起點 批判社會結構的不朽經典


民主政治中的社會正義,並不是一視同仁,而是濟弱扶傾。

我們必須正視弱勢團體的多元差異存在,

進而透過溝通民主,解除加諸其上的支配與壓迫,

形塑一個共享不同價值的異質公共。


◇ 專文介紹

陳嘉銘│中央研究院人文社會科學研究中心副研究員


本書是當代差異政治與女性主義理論最重要、也最具影響力的作品之一。它的原創性奠定了英年早逝的 Young 在當代政治思想中的地位。在這本經典著作裡,楊批判當代政治哲學中的「正義」理論。她認為正義原則並不全然適用於分配典範,分配典範並不超然公正,社會更不應以普遍性為前提談論正義;這樣的正義,只會是一種迎合主流文化、由優勢團體所把持的平等假象。


為了修正缺陷,楊提出「差異政治」的概念。她認為談論正義時應以「支配與壓迫」的角度切入,先承認不同社會團體間的差異,釐清彼此間不正義的社會事實;同時,各團體應基於尊重差異、相互理解的前提下進行溝通,給予弱勢團體特殊優惠待遇,進而解除不正義。楊提出的差異政治是一種以差異性為前提的溝通民主;唯有如此,才能實現真正的公平正義。


楊將她對少數族群、女性、同性戀、老人、身心障礙者、勞工等弱勢團體的關懷納入探討,提出了一個極具批判性的全新概念,來挑戰既有的政治思想傳統,破除不平等關係。本書自 1990 年問世以來,深深啟發了日後歐美談論多元文化、性別政治、社會運動等轉型正義之議題,更將經驗傳至第三世界曾經歷劇烈民主轉型的國家,許多學者及社運人士皆受其啟迪甚深。同時,本書也為當代認肯群體差異的公共政策打開思想的理路。


【經典推薦】(按姓氏筆畫序)


范 雲│臺灣大學社會學系副教授 黃長玲│臺灣大學政治學系教授

陳昭如│臺灣大學法律學系教授  陳俊宏│國家人權博物館籌備處主任

張君玫│東吳大學社會學系副教授 劉靜怡│臺灣大學國家發展研究所教授


【國外評論】


這部作品絕對舉足輕重,挑戰了從柏拉圖到羅爾斯(John Rawls)以來的正義理論。

——美國《政治學期刊》(The Journal of Politics)


登峰造極之作,為正義理論家開闢了嶄新的視野。Young對於許多需要藉由正義理論解決和闡述的議題,提出了獨到且十分有見地的見解。

——《加拿大人哲學評論》(Canadian Philosophical Reviews)


Young極度精確且清晰地建構出「多元化」壓迫的目的,並闡述了各個群體和其受壓迫的方式。

——《Signs》


創新之作,對女性主義理論和政治思想皆有舉足輕重的貢獻,可稱得上是後現代理論對普遍性和具體性思維的評論中,最令人印象深刻的闡述,也是據我所知為後現代主義的解放意涵提出的最具說服力的案例。

——塞拉.本哈比(Seyla Benhabib),耶魯大學政治哲學教授


【國內推薦】


1990 年出版到現在,Young 的這本名著《正義與差異政治》歷經幾次知識界的辯論,愈突顯出它掌握社會現實和規範理想的深刻和準確。快三十年了,回過頭來看,這本書開創了正義論述的新典範,對今日思索正義持續帶來衝擊。容我大膽評論,這本書可說是摘下了 90 年代正義論述的桂冠。

——陳嘉銘,中央研究院人文社會科學研究中心副研究員


民主讓我們有了選票,但,並沒有帶來平等。想要在民主體制中找到實踐平等的出路,必須先理解,不平等的本身是如何多元且多樣。關心民主理論、性別政治與何謂正義的人,都不該錯過 Young 的這本書《正義與差異政治》!

——范雲,臺灣大學社會學系副教授


本書是當代差異政治與女性主義理論最重要、也最具影響力的作品之一。它的原創性奠定了英年早逝的 Young 在當代政治思想中的地位。本書不僅挑戰了政治思想傳統中以分配正義為基礎的正義觀,也為當代認肯群體差異的公共政策打開思想的理路。

——黃長玲,臺灣大學政治學系教授


正義不等於分配,空想看不到壓迫。直搗羅爾斯正義論的根基,Young 論差異與正義的經典之作讓宰制與壓迫的面貌變得鮮明;由此開啟的正義之旅,再也不同。

——陳昭如,臺灣大學法律學系教授


本書的重要性不在於告訴讀者何謂「理想的正義社會」,而是在面對不正義的社會條件下,藉由聆聽並回應那些受到壓迫與支配的弱勢團體有聲、無聲的吶喊中,探索邁向正義社會的可能性。

——陳俊宏,東吳大學政治學系副教授


《正義與差異政治》寫在美國身分政治爆發的 1980 年代末,觸及當代社會運動和政治理論的核心議題——身分認同和分配正義的交織和拉扯。Young 的正義觀並不是由上而下的規範,而是正視所有被壓迫的邊緣群體的差異需求。這樣的觀點,在二十一世紀初的現在,不僅重要性不減,更顯得迫切而必要。

——張君玫,東吳大學社會學系副教授


已故政治哲學家 Young 以直視社會結構的批評角度,建立以具體改善弱勢群體處境為根本關切的政治思想。她強調的「結構性不正義」和「差異政治」,曾是多年前在芝大校園促使我認真思索社會正義與民主政治之間繁複關係的啟蒙學說;現在的我則相信,《正義與差異政治》也該是所有關心民主、文化、正義、認同甚至性別議題者的必讀作品。

——劉靜怡,臺灣大學國家發展研究所教授?




出版社 商周出版 (城邦)

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