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The word crosslinking implies durable combination of (usually large) distinct elements at specific places to create a new entity that has different properties as a result of the union. In the case of proteins, such crosslinking often results in important changes in chemical, functional, nutritional, and biomedical properties, besides physical properties simply related to molecular size and shape. (Nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and other biopolymers are correspondingly affected.) Since proteins are ubiquitous, the consequences of their crosslinking are widespread and often profound. Scientists from many disciplines including organic chemistry, bio chemistry, protein chemistry, food science, nutrition, radiation biology, pharmacology, physiology, medicine, and dentistry are, therefore, minutely interested in protein crosslinking reactions and their implications. Because protein crosslinking encompasses so many disciplines, in organizing the Symposium on Nutritional and Biochemical Conse quences of Protein Crosslinking sponsored by the Protein Subdivi sion of the Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry of the American Chemical Society, I sought participants with the broadest possible range of interests, yet with a common concern for theore tical and practical aspects of protein crosslinking. An important function of a symposium is to catalyze progress by bringing together ideas and experiences needed for interaction among different, yet related disciplines. To my pleasant surprise, nearly everyone invited came to San Francisco to participate.
Metal ions and proteins are ubiquitous. Therefore, not surprisingly, new protein-metal interactions continue to be dis covered, and their importance is increasingly recognized in both physical and life sciences. Because the subject matter is so broad and affects so many disciplines, in organizing this Symposium, I sought participation of speakers with the broadest possible range of interests. Twenty-two accepted my invitation. To supplement the verbal presentations, the Proceedings include five closely re lated invited contributions. The ideas expressed are those of the various authors and are not necessarily approved or rejected by any agency of the United States Government. No official recommendation concerning the sub ject matter or products discussed is implied in this book. This book encompasses many aspects of this multifaceted field. Topics covered represent biochemical, immunochemical, bioorganic, biophysical, metabolic, nutritional, medical, physiological, toxi cological, environmental, textile, and analytical interests. The discoveries and developments in any of these areas inevitably illumine others. I feel that a main objective of this Symposium, bringing together scientists with widely varied experiences yet with common interests in protein-metal interactions, so that new understanding and new ideas would result has been realized. I hope that the reader enjoys and benefits from reading about the fascinat ing interactions of metal ions and proteins as much as I did.
A variety of processing methods are used to make foods edible; to pennit storage; to alter texture and flavor; to sterilize and pasteurize food; and to destroy microorganisms and other toxins. These methods include baking, broiling, cooking, freezing, frying, and roasting. Many such efforts have both beneficial and harmful effects. It is a paradox of nature that the processing of foods can improve nutrition, quality, safety, and taste, and yet occasionally lead to the formation of anti-nutritional and toxic compounds. These multifaceted consequences of food processing arise from molecular interactions among nutrients with each other and with other food ingredients. Since beneficial and adverse effects of food processing are of increasing importance to food science, nutrition, and human health, and since many of the compounds formed have been shown to be potent carcinogens and growth inhibitors in animals, I organized a symposium broadly concerned with the nutritional and toxicological consequences of food processing. The symposium was sponsored by the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN) -Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) for its annual meeting in Washington, D.C., April 1-5, 1990. Invited speakers were asked to develop at least one of the following topics: 1. Nutrient-nonnutrient interactions between amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, vitamins, tannins, fiber, natural toxicants, etc. 2. Effects of radiation. 3. Thermally induced formation of dietary mutagens, antimutagens, carcinogens, anticarcinogens, antioxidants, and growth inhibitors. 4. Effects of pH on nutritional value and safety.
The word crosslinking implies durable combination of usually large, distinct elements at specific places to create a new entity that has different properties as a result of the union. In the case of proteins, such crosslinking often results in important changes in chemical, physical, functional, nutritional, and biome dical properties, besides physical properties simply related to molecular size and shape. (Nucleic acids, carbohydrates~ glyco proteins, and other biopolymers are correspondingly affected.) Since proteins are ubiquitous, the consequences of their crosslin king are widespread and often profound. Scientists from many dis ciplines including organic chemistry, biochemistry, protein chemis try, food science, nutrition, radiation biology, pharmacology, physiology, medicine, and dentistry are, therefore, very much inte rested in protein crosslinking reactions and their implications. Because protein crosslinking encompasses so many disciplines, in organizing the Symposium on Nutritional and Biochemical Consequences of Protein Crosslinking sponsored by the Protein Subdivision of the Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry of the American Chemical Society, I sought participants with the broadest possible range of interests, yet with a common concern for theoretical and practical aspects of protein crosslinking. An important function of a symposium is to catalyze progress by bringing together ideas and experiences needed for interaction among different, yet related disciplines. To my pleasant surprize, nearly everone invited came to San Francisco to participate.
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