Riemannian Geometry of Contact and Symplectic Manifolds, Second Edition provides new material in most chapters, but a particular emphasis remains on contact manifolds. Researchers, mathematicians, and graduate students in contact and symplectic manifold theory and in Riemannian geometry will benefit from this work. A basic course in Riemannian geometry is a prerequisite.
This practical, friendly guide focuses on critical concepts taught in a typical geometry course, from the properties of triangles, parallelograms, circles, and cylinders, to the skills and strategies you need to write geometry proofs. Geometry Essentials For Dummies is perfect for cramming or doing homework, or as a reference for parents helping kids study for exams.
Get down to the basics — get a handle on the basics of geometry, from lines, segments, and angles, to vertices, altitudes, and diagonals
Conquer proofs with confidence — follow easy-to-grasp instructions for understanding the components of a formal geometry proof
Take triangles in strides — learn how to take in a triangle's sides, analyze its angles, work through an SAS proof, and apply the Pythagorean Theorem
Polish up on polygons — get the lowdown on quadrilaterals and other polygons: their angles, areas, properties, perimeters, and much more
Open the book and find:
Plain-English explanations of geometry terms
Tips for tackling geometry proofs
The seven members of the quadrilateral family
Straight talk on circles
Essential triangle formulas
The lowdown on 3-D: spheres, cylinders, prisms, and pyramids
Ten things to use as reasons in geometry proofs
Core concepts about the geometry of shapes and geometry proofs
Critical theorems, postulates, and definitions
The principles and formulas you need to know
Fortunately, there's Schaum's. This all-in-one-package includes more than 650 fully solved problems, examples, and practice exercises to sharpen your problem-solving skills. Plus, you will have access to 25 detailed videos featuring Math instructors who explain how to solve the most commonly tested problems--it's just like having your own virtual tutor! You'll find everything you need to build confidence, skills, and knowledge for the highest score possible.
More than 40 million students have trusted Schaum's to help them succeed in the classroom and on exams. Schaum's is the key to faster learning and higher grades in every subject. Each Outline presents all the essential course information in an easy-to-follow, topic-by-topic format. You also get hundreds of examples, solved problems, and practice exercises to test your skills.
This Schaum's Outline gives you665 fully solved problems Concise explanations of all geometry concepts Support for all major textbooks for geometry courses
Fully compatible with your classroom text, Schaum's highlights all the important facts you need to know. Use Schaum's to shorten your study time--and get your best test scores!
About the Book
Established as a successful practical workbook series with more than 20 titles in the language learning category, Practice Makes Perfect now provides the same clear, concise approach and extensive exercises to key fields within mathematics. The key to the Practice Makes Perfect series is the extensive exercises that provide learners with all the practice they need for mastery.
The first chapters of the book focus on the basic concepts and facts of analytic geometry, the theory of space curves, and the foundations of the theory of surfaces, including problems closely related to the first and second fundamental forms. The treatment of the theory of surfaces makes full use of the tensor calculus.
The later chapters address geodesics, mappings of surfaces, special surfaces, and the absolute differential calculus and the displacement of Levi-Cività. Problems at the end of each section (with solutions at the end of the book) will help students meaningfully review the material presented, and familiarize themselves with the manner of reasoning in differential geometry.
While there are many other works on introductory topology, this volume employs a methodology somewhat different from other texts. Metric space and point-set topology material is treated in the first two chapters; algebraic topological material in the remaining two. The authors lead readers through a number of nontrivial applications of metric space topology to analysis, clearly establishing the relevance of topology to analysis. Second, the treatment of topics from elementary algebraic topology concentrates on results with concrete geometric meaning and presents relatively little algebraic formalism; at the same time, this treatment provides proof of some highly nontrivial results. By presenting homotopy theory without considering homology theory, important applications become immediately evident without the necessity of a large formal program.
Prerequisites are familiarity with real numbers and some basic set theory. Carefully chosen exercises are integrated into the text (the authors have provided solutions to selected exercises for the Dover edition), while a list of notations and bibliographical references appear at the end of the book.
Most of the material focuses on point-set topology with the exception of the last chapter. Topics include sets and functions, infinite sets and transfinite numbers, topological spaces and basic concepts, product spaces, connectivity, and compactness. Additional subjects include separation axioms, complete spaces, and homotopy and the fundamental group. Numerous hints and figures illuminate the text.
Ranging from the familiar to the obscure, the examples are preceded by a succinct exposition of general topology and basic terminology and theory. Each example is treated as a whole, with a highly geometric exposition that helps readers comprehend the material. Over 25 Venn diagrams and reference charts summarize the properties of the examples and allow students to scan quickly for examples with prescribed properties. In addition, discussions of general methods of constructing and changing examples acquaint readers with the art of constructing counterexamples. The authors have included an extensive collection of problems and exercises, all correlated with various examples, and a bibliography of 140 sources, tracing each uncommon example to its origin.
This revised and expanded second edition will be especially useful as a course supplement and reference work for students of general topology. Moreover, it gives the instructor the flexibility to design his own course while providing students with a wealth of historically and mathematically significant examples. 1978 edition.
Written by a noted mathematician and historian of mathematics, this volume presents the fundamental conceptions of the theory of curves and surfaces and applies them to a number of examples. Dr. Struik has enhanced the treatment with copious historical, biographical, and bibliographical references that place the theory in context and encourage the student to consult original sources and discover additional important ideas there.
For this second edition, Professor Struik made some corrections and added an appendix with a sketch of the application of Cartan's method of Pfaffians to curve and surface theory. The result was to further increase the merit of this stimulating, thought-provoking text — ideal for classroom use, but also perfectly suited for self-study. In this attractive, inexpensive paperback edition, it belongs in the library of any mathematician or student of mathematics interested in differential geometry.
A few selected topics allow students to acquire a feeling for the types of results and the methods of proof in mathematics, including mathematical induction. Subsequent problems deal with networks and maps, provide practice in recognizing topological equivalence of figures, examine a proof of the Jordan curve theorem for the special case of a polygon, and introduce set theory. The concluding chapters examine transformations, connectedness, compactness, and completeness. The text is well illustrated with figures and diagrams.
"This book covers many interesting topics not usually covered in a present day undergraduate course, as well as certain basic topics such as the development of the calculus and the solution of polynomial equations. The fact that the topics are introduced in their historical contexts will enable students to better appreciate and understand the mathematical ideas involved...If one constructs a list of topics central to a history course, then they would closely resemble those chosen here."
(David Parrott, Australian Mathematical Society)
"The book...is presented in a lively style without unnecessary detail. It is very stimulating and will be appreciated not only by students. Much attention is paid to problems and to the development of mathematics before the end of the nineteenth century... This book brings to the non-specialist interested in mathematics many interesting results. It can be recommended for seminars and will be enjoyed by the broad mathematical community."
(European Mathematical Society)
"Since Stillwell treats many topics, most mathematicians will learn a lot from this book as well as they will find pleasant and rather clear expositions of custom materials. The book is accessible to students that have already experienced calculus, algebra and geometry and will give them a good account of how the different branches of mathematics interact."
(Denis Bonheure, Bulletin of the Belgian Society)
This third edition includes new chapters on simple groups and combinatorics, and new sections on several topics, including the Poincare conjecture. The book has also been enriched by added exercises.
Hollywood actress and math whiz Danica McKellar has completely shattered the “math nerd” stereotype. For years, she’s been showing girls how to feel confident and ace their math classes – with style! With Girls Get Curves, she applies her winning techniques to high school geometry, giving readers the tools they need to feel great and totally “get” everything from congruent triangles to theorems, and more. Inside you’ll find:
· Time-saving tips and tricks for homework and tests
· Illuminating practice problems (and proofs!) with detailed solutions
· Totally relatable real-world examples
· True stories from Danica’s own life as an actress and math student
· A Troubleshooting Guide, for getting unstuck during even the trickiest proofs!
With Danica as a coach, girls everywhere can stop hiding from their homework and watch their scores rise!
The book's first five chapters give an exposition of the theory of infinity-categories that emphasizes their role as a generalization of ordinary categories. Many of the fundamental ideas from classical category theory are generalized to the infinity-categorical setting, such as limits and colimits, adjoint functors, ind-objects and pro-objects, locally accessible and presentable categories, Grothendieck fibrations, presheaves, and Yoneda's lemma. A sixth chapter presents an infinity-categorical version of the theory of Grothendieck topoi, introducing the notion of an infinity-topos, an infinity-category that resembles the infinity-category of topological spaces in the sense that it satisfies certain axioms that codify some of the basic principles of algebraic topology. A seventh and final chapter presents applications that illustrate connections between the theory of higher topoi and ideas from classical topology.
Can geometry be exciting?
It can for those who can appreciate the beauty of numbers and their relationships.
This book contains a meticulous geometric investigation of the 5 Platonic Solids and 5 other important polyhedra, as well as reference charts for each solid.
Poly (many) hedron (face) means "many faces." Polyhedra are 3 dimensional figures with 4 or more faces, or sides. These polyhedra are reflections of Nature herself, and a study of them provides insight into the way the world is structured. Nature is not only beautiful, but highly intelligent. As you explore the polyhedra in this book, this will become apparent over and over again.
The book contains a geometric explanation of the Phi Ratio and Fibonacci series, and a detailed analysis of the pentagon, which forms the basis for many of these solids. The pentagon is composed entirely of Phi relationships, and is integral to a proper understanding of sacred geometry.
With over 140 full-color illustrations, this book is perfect for teachers and students of geometry alike. It is a must for those who are serious about sacred geometry.
This book is dedicated to those who can appreciate the logic of numbers and the beauty of nature, for they are both aspects of the same unifying principle.
Prerequisites: knowledge of simple algebra and elementary trigonometry. No brainiac math skills required! Only the ability to appreciate nature's own logic.
Book #1 in the Geometric Explorations Series
From Loving Healing Press (www.LovingHealing.com)
From ancient Greek geometry to today's cutting-edge research, Euler's Gem celebrates the discovery of Euler's beloved polyhedron formula and its far-reaching impact on topology, the study of shapes. In 1750, Euler observed that any polyhedron composed of V vertices, E edges, and F faces satisfies the equation V-E+F=2. David Richeson tells how the Greeks missed the formula entirely; how Descartes almost discovered it but fell short; how nineteenth-century mathematicians widened the formula's scope in ways that Euler never envisioned by adapting it for use with doughnut shapes, smooth surfaces, and higher dimensional shapes; and how twentieth-century mathematicians discovered that every shape has its own Euler's formula. Using wonderful examples and numerous illustrations, Richeson presents the formula's many elegant and unexpected applications, such as showing why there is always some windless spot on earth, how to measure the acreage of a tree farm by counting trees, and how many crayons are needed to color any map.
Filled with a who's who of brilliant mathematicians who questioned, refined, and contributed to a remarkable theorem's development, Euler's Gem will fascinate every mathematics enthusiast.
The principal aim of analysis of tensors is to investigate those relations which remain valid when we change from one coordinate system to another. This book on Tensors requires only a knowledge of elementary calculus, differential equations and classical mechanics as pre-requisites. It provides the readers with all the information about the tensors along with the derivation of all the tensorial relations/equations in a simple manner. The book also deals in detail with topics of importance to the study of special and general relativity and the geometry of differentiable manifolds with a crystal clear exposition. The concepts dealt within the book are well supported by a number of solved examples. A carefully selected set of unsolved problems is also given at the end of each chapter, and the answers and hints for the solution of these problems are given at the end of the book. The applications of tensors to the fields of differential geometry, relativity, cosmology and electromagnetism is another attraction of the present book.
This book is intended to serve as text for postgraduate students of mathematics, physics and engineering. It is ideally suited for both students and teachers who are engaged in research in General Theory of Relativity and Differential Geometry.
The next chapter is an introduction to real and complex manifolds. It contains an exposition of the theorem of Frobenius, the lemmata of Poincaré and Grothendieck with applications of Grothendieck's lemma to complex analysis, the imbedding theorem of Whitney and Thom's transversality theorem.
Chapter 3 includes characterizations of linear differentiable operators, due to Peetre and Hormander. The inequalities of Garding and of Friedrichs on elliptic operators are proved and are used to prove the regularity of weak solutions of elliptic equations. The chapter ends with the approximation theorem of Malgrange-Lax and its application to the proof of the Runge theorem on open Riemann surfaces due to Behnke and Stein.
Volume III concentrates on the classical aspects of gauge theory, describing the four fundamental forces by the curvature of appropriate fiber bundles. This must be supplemented by the crucial, but elusive quantization procedure.
The book is arranged in four sections, devoted to realizing the universal principle force equals curvature:
Part I: The Euclidean Manifold as a Paradigm
Part II: Ariadne's Thread in Gauge Theory
Part III: Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity
Part IV: Ariadne's Thread in Cohomology
For students of mathematics the book is designed to demonstrate that detailed knowledge of the physical background helps to reveal interesting interrelationships among diverse mathematical topics. Physics students will be exposed to a fairly advanced mathematics, beyond the level covered in the typical physics curriculum.
Quantum Field Theory builds a bridge between mathematicians and physicists, based on challenging questions about the fundamental forces in the universe (macrocosmos), and in the world of elementary particles (microcosmos).
Based on Mlodinow's extensive historical research; his studies alongside colleagues such as Richard Feynman and Kip Thorne; and interviews with leading physicists and mathematicians such as Murray Gell-Mann, Edward Witten, and Brian Greene, Euclid's Window is an extraordinary blend of rigorous, authoritative investigation and accessible, good-humored storytelling that makes a stunningly original argument asserting the primacy of geometry. For those who have looked through Euclid's Window, no space, no thing, and no time will ever be quite the same.
No previous knowledge of topology is necessary for this text, which offers introductory material regarding open and closed sets and continuous maps in the first chapter. Succeeding chapters discuss the notions of differentiable manifolds and maps and explore one of the central topics of differential topology, the theory of critical points of functions on a differentiable manifold. Additional topics include an investigation of level manifolds corresponding to a given function and the concept of spherical modifications. The text concludes with applications of previously discussed material to the classification problem of surfaces and guidance, along with suggestions for further reading and study.
The contributors are Marco Abate, Marco Arizzi, Alexander Blokh, Thierry Bousch, Xavier Buff, Serge Cantat, Tao Chen, Robert Devaney, Alexandre Dezotti, Tien-Cuong Dinh, Romain Dujardin, Hugo García-Compeán, William Goldman, Rotislav Grigorchuk, John Hubbard, Yunping Jiang, Linda Keen, Jan Kiwi, Genadi Levin, Daniel Meyer, John Milnor, Carlos Moreira, Vincente Muñoz, Viet-Anh Nguyên, Lex Oversteegen, Ricardo Pérez-Marco, Ross Ptacek, Jasmin Raissy, Pascale Roesch, Roberto Santos-Silva, Dierk Schleicher, Nessim Sibony, Daniel Smania, Tan Lei, William Thurston, Vladlen Timorin, Sebastian van Strien, and Alberto Verjovsky.
* Gradual progression in problem difficulty builds and strengthens mathematical skills and techniques
* Basic topics include trigonometric formulas and identities, their applications in the geometry of the triangle, trigonometric equations and inequalities, and substitutions involving trigonometric functions
* Problem-solving tactics and strategies, along with practical test-taking techniques, provide in-depth enrichment and preparation for possible participation in various mathematical competitions
* Comprehensive introduction (first chapter) to trigonometric functions, their relations and functional properties, and their applications in the Euclidean plane and solid geometry expose advanced students to college level material
103 Trigonometry Problems is a cogent problem-solving resource for advanced high school students, undergraduates, and mathematics teachers engaged in competition training.
Other books by the authors include 102 Combinatorial Problems: From the Training of the USA IMO Team (0-8176-4317-6, 2003) and A Path to Combinatorics for Undergraduates: Counting Strategies (0-8176-4288-9, 2004).
The main focus is on manifolds in Euclidean space and the metric properties they inherit from it. Among the topics discussed are curvature and how it affects the shape of space, and the generalization of the fundamental theorem of calculus known as Stokes' theorem.
An exciting new direction for combinatorics, this book will interest graduate students and researchers working in mathematical subdisciplines requiring the mastery and practice of high-dimensional Ramsey theory.
The exposition concentrates on key concepts and then elementary results concerning these numbers. The reader learns how complex numbers can be used to solve algebraic equations and to understand the geometric interpretation of complex numbers and the operations involving them.
The theoretical parts of the book are augmented with rich exercises and problems at various levels of difficulty. A special feature of the book is the last chapter, a selection of outstanding Olympiad and other important mathematical contest problems solved by employing the methods already presented.
The book reflects the unique experience of the authors. It distills a vast mathematical literature, most of which is unknown to the western public, and captures the essence of an abundant problem culture. The target audience includes undergraduates, high school students and their teachers, mathematical contestants (such as those training for Olympiads or the W. L. Putnam Mathematical Competition) and their coaches, as well as anyone interested in essential mathematics.
Mathematically rigorous but user-friendly, this classic treatise discusses major modern contributions to the field of topological vector spaces. The self-contained treatment includes complete proofs for all necessary results from algebra and topology. Suitable for undergraduate mathematics majors with a background in advanced calculus, this volume will also assist professional mathematicians, physicists, and engineers.
The precise exposition of the first three chapters—covering Banach spaces, locally convex spaces, and duality—provides an excellent summary of the modern theory of locally convex spaces. The fourth and final chapter develops the theory of distributions in relation to convolutions, tensor products, and Fourier transforms. Augmented with many examples and exercises, the text includes an extensive bibliography.
As grandfather and grandson struggle with the question of whether there can ever be absolute certainty in mathematics or life, they are forced to reconsider their fundamental beliefs and choices. Their stories hinge on their explorations of parallel developments in the study of geometry and infinity--and the mathematics throughout is as rigorous and fascinating as the narrative and characters are compelling and complex.
Moving and enlightening, A Certain Ambiguity is a story about what it means to face the extent--and the limits--of human knowledge.
The Second Edition maintained the accessibility of the first, while providing an introduction to the use of computers and expanding discussion on certain topics. Further emphasis was placed on topological properties, properties of geodesics, singularities of vector fields, and the theorems of Bonnet and Hadamard.
This revision of the Second Edition provides a thorough update of commands for the symbolic computation programs Mathematica or Maple, as well as additional computer exercises. As with the Second Edition, this material supplements the content but no computer skill is necessary to take full advantage of this comprehensive text.Over 36,000 copies sold worldwideAccessible, practical yet rigorous approach to a complex topic--also suitable for self-studyExtensive update of appendices on Mathematica and Maple software packagesThorough streamlining of second edition's numbering systemFuller information on solutions to odd-numbered problemsAdditional exercises and hints guide students in using the latest computer modeling tools
Meet JJ, an unusual character with a unique vantage position from which he can measure and monitor humanity’s progress. Armed with a device that compels all around it to tell the truth, JJ offers a satirical evaluation of our attitudes to numeracy and logic, touching upon several aspects of life on Earth along the way, from the criminal justice system and people’s use of language to highway driving and modern art.
A collection of mathematically-flavored stories and jokes, interlaced with puzzles, paradoxes and problems, fuse together in an entertaining, free-flowing narrative that will engage and amuse anyone with an interest in the issues confronting society today. JJ demonstrates how a lack of elementary mathematical knowledge can taint our work and general thinking and reflects upon the importance of what is arguably our most valuable weapon against ignorance: a sound mathematical education.
What is JJ’s prognosis for our future? There’s only one way to find out...
"Numbers, logic, human behavior and aliens: this unique book blends them all into a captivating narrative of serious talk and satire, where wit and scholarly details are counterpointed by instructive puzzles and mathematical fun. A ‘must read’ for anybody who appreciates humor and culture."
Stanislav Potapenko, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Canada
"... a real delight. Constanda has managed to intertwine stories, puzzles, logic and some very rich mathematics concepts into a very readable, enjoyable novel... I believe this book should be in the personal library of every high school mathematics teacher."
Tom Becvar, St Louis University High School, USA
"...a highly readable, unique and fascinating combination of humor, mathematics and social commentary that is factual, educational and, more importantly, understandable. Given what is taking place in today’s society, J.J. Moon brings mathematics back to earth! I’ll never go through the car buying process again without thinking about SCAM 16!"
Jerry Hoopert, VP / Chief Administrative Officer, Tulsa Teachers Credit Union, USA
Though the book contains advanced material, such as cryptography on elliptic curves, Goppa codes using algebraic curves over finite fields, and the recent AKS polynomial primality test, the authors' objective has been to keep the exposition as self-contained and elementary as possible. Therefore the book will be useful to students and researchers, both in theoretical (e.g. mathematicians) and in applied sciences (e.g. physicists, engineers, computer scientists, etc.) seeking a friendly introduction to the important subjects treated here. The book will also be useful for teachers who intend to give courses on these topics.
Key features of Putnam and Beyond
* Preliminary material provides an overview of common methods of proof: argument by contradiction, mathematical induction, pigeonhole principle, ordered sets, and invariants.
* Each chapter systematically presents a single subject within which problems are clustered in every section according to the specific topic.
* The exposition is driven by more than 1100 problems and examples chosen from numerous sources from around the world; many original contributions come from the authors.
* Complete solutions to all problems are given at the end of the book. The source, author, and historical background are cited whenever possible.
This work may be used as a study guide for the Putnam exam, as a text for many different problem-solving courses, and as a source of problems for standard courses in undergraduate mathematics. Putnam and Beyond is organized for self-study by undergraduate and graduate students, as well as teachers and researchers in the physical sciences who wish to to expand their mathematical horizons.
In more practical terms, the book is a sequel to the author's Special Relativity in the same series, with some overlap in the treatment of tensors. The basic theory is presented using techniques, such as phase-plane analysis, that will already be familiar to mathematics undergraduates, and numerous problems, of varying levels of difficulty, are provided to test understanding. The latter chapters include the theoretical background to contemporary observational tests - in particular the detection of gravitational waves and the verification of the Lens-Thirring precession - and some introductory cosmology, to tempt the reader to further study.
While primarily designed as an introduction for final-year undergraduates and first-year postgraduates in mathematics, the book is also accessible to physicists who would like to see a more mathematical approach to the ideas.
* Begins with a brief survey of basic notions in algebraic and differential geometry, Lie groups and Lie algebras
* Examines how, in a new chapter, Clifford algebra is relevant to robot kinematics and Euclidean geometry in 3D
* Introduces mathematical concepts and methods using examples from robotics
* Solves substantial problems in the design and control of robots via new methods
* Provides solutions to well-known enumerative problems in robot kinematics using intersection theory on the group of rigid body motions
* Extends dynamics, in another new chapter, to robots with end-effector constraints, which lead to equations of motion for parallel manipulators
Geometric Fundamentals of Robotics serves a wide audience of graduate students as well as researchers in a variety of areas, notably mechanical engineering, computer science, and applied mathematics. It is also an invaluable reference text.
From a Review of the First Edition:
"The majority of textbooks dealing with this subject cover various topics in kinematics, dynamics, control, sensing, and planning for robot manipulators. The distinguishing feature of this book is that it introduces mathematical tools, especially geometric ones, for solving problems in robotics. In particular, Lie groups and allied algebraic and geometric concepts are presented in a comprehensive manner to an audience interested in robotics. The aim of the author is to show the power and elegance of these methods as they apply to problems in robotics."
The book contains close to150 figures produced with lattice. Many of the examples emphasize principles of good graphical design; almost all use real data sets that are publicly available in various R packages. All code and figures in the book are also available online, along with supplementary material covering more advanced topics.
Trying to understand geometry but feel like you're stuck in another dimension? Here's your solution. Geometry Demystified, Second Edition helps you grasp the essential concepts with ease.
Written in a step-by-step format, this practical guide begins with two dimensions, reviewing points, lines, angles, and distances, then covers triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, and the Cartesian plane. The book goes on to discuss three dimensions, explaining surface area, volume, vectors, Cartesian three-space, alternative coordinates, hyperspace, and warped space. Detailed examples, concise explanations, and worked-out problems make it easy to understand the material, and end-of-chapter quizzes and a final exam help reinforce learning.
It's a no-brainer! You'll learn about:Plane geometry and solid geometry Using a drafting compass and straight edge Solving pairs of equations Working with vectors in three-space Polar coordinates Cartesian n-space
Simple enough for a beginner, but challenging enough for an advanced student, Geometry Demystified, Second Edition helps you master this fundamental mathematics subject.