To make his case, Baars compares and contrasts the works of such modern-era thinkers as Foucault, Heidegger, and Husserl with the thought of Plato, Aristotle, Sophocles, Cicero, and other Ancient and Stoic philosophers. He shows how people in the classical period—less able to control health hazards—had a far better sense of the provisional nature of living, which led to a philosophical and religious emphasis on cultivating the art of living and the idea of wisdom. This is not to say that modern society’s assessments of aging are insignificant, but they do need to balance an emphasis on the measuring of age with the concept of "living in time."
Gerontologists, philosophers, and students will find Baars' discussion to be a powerful, perceptive conversation starter.-- W. Andrew Achenbaum, author of Older Americans, Vital Communities
The new edition includes:
-new information on diagnostic evaluation-resources for families and adult children who care for people with dementia-updated legal and financial information-the latest information on nursing homes and other communal living arrangements-new information on research, medications, and the biological causes and effects of dementia
Also available in a large print edition
Praise for The 36-Hour Day:
Dr. Angelo E. Volandes believes that a life well lived deserves a good ending. Through the stories of seven patients and seven very different end-of-life experiences, he demonstrates that what people with a serious illness, who are approaching the end of their lives, need most is not new technologies but one simple thing: The Conversation. He argues for a radical re-envisioning of the patient-doctor relationship and offers ways for patients and their families to talk about this difficult issue to ensure that patients will be at the center and in charge of their medical care.
It might be the most important conversation you ever have.
Natural Hormone Balance for Women is Dr. Reiss's breakthrough, step-by-step program for women who want to take control of their lives by restoring hormonal balance. This revolutionary, commonsense natural hormone replacement program is designed to meet the individual needs of most women looking to rejuvenate body and mind—and offers astounding benefits for women of all ages:
More energy and stamina * Improved memory * Healthier, more youthful skin * Balanced moods * Less depression and anxiety * Stabilization of weight and more muscle definition * Better sleep patterns * PMS and menopausal symptoms reduced or eliminated * Enhanced sexuality
Dr. Reiss takes the confusion out of the medical information you need to know. In clear, nontechnical language, he thoroughly explains:
-the important difference between standard chemical hormone prescriptions and natural hormone replacements
-which hormone replacements are best for you and how to adjust them to your maximum individual benefit
-how to take hormones without worry
-how to choose the most effective hormonal gel, cream, pill, or sublingual drops, and when to use them.
Dr. Reiss has helped thousands of women transform their lives by achieving natural hormone balance. Now you can tap into the replenishing "fountain of youthfulness" that is not only essential for better life, but easier and safer to achieve than ever before.
This edition of the Handbook consists of 39 chapters written by 67 internationally recognized experts in the field of aging. It is organized in seven sections, reflecting the major theoretical developments in gerontology over the past 10 years.
Comprehensive coverage of aging theory, focusing on the biological, psychological, and social aspects of agingA section dedicated to discussing how aging theory informs public policy A concluding chapter summarizing the major themes of aging, and offering predictions about the future of theory development
Required reading for graduate students and post doctoral fellows, this textbook represents the current status of theoretical development in the study of aging.
"Overall this is a useful, well written, practical elderly medicine book, ideal for use in primary care. It is reasonable priced and an excellent addition to the bookshelf, virtual or real". Reviewed by: Dr Harry Brown, July 2014Effectively treat your geriatric patients, and provide helpful guidance to their families, through engaging geriatric case studies that illustrate the principles and key clinical information you need.Form a definitive diagnosis and create the best treatment plans possible using the evidence-based medicine guidelines throughout.Find the information you need quickly and efficiently with a 2-color layout and consistent format, and test your knowledge with USMLE-style questions in every chapter.Offer your geriatric patients the most up-to-date treatment options available with six new chapters addressing Principles of Primary Care of Older Adults, Interprofessional Team Care, Billing and Coding, Frailty, Pressure Ulcers, and Anemia. Access the complete geriatric text online anytime, anywhere at Expert Consult, along with an online Cognitive Status Assessment with four tests and patient teaching guides, a dermatology quiz, and informative videos on Gait and Balance and Dizziness.
A powerfully engaging, scrupulously researched, and deeply empathetic narrative of the history of Alzheimer’s disease, how it affects us, and the search for a cure.
Afflicting nearly half of all people over the age of 85, Alzheimer’s disease kills nearly 100,000 Americans a year as it insidiously robs them of their memory and wreaks havoc on the lives of their loved ones. It was once minimized and misunderstood as forgetfulness in the elderly, but Alzheimer’s is now at the forefront of many medical and scientific agendas, for as the world’s population ages, the disease will touch the lives of virtually everyone. David Shenk movingly captures the disease’s impact on its victims and their families, and he looks back through history, explaining how Alzheimer’s most likely afflicted such figures as Jonathan Swift, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Willem de Kooning. The result is a searing and graceful account of Alzheimer’s disease, offering a sobering, compassionate, and ultimately encouraging portrait.
Fitness Test enhanced e-book editions now available!
Through an integrated text and video combination, Senior Fitness Test Manual, Second Edition
(Enhanced), offers the most
comprehensive and reliable test battery for assessing physical fitness in
adults ages 60 and older. The tests in this resource assist health practitioners
and fitness and rehabilitation specialists in identifying weaknesses that cause
mobility problems, developing exercise programs that improve functional
fitness, preventing future mobility issues, and evaluating progress.
Fitness Test (SFT) is a simple, economical method of assessing the physical
attributes that older adults need in order to perform daily activities. It
consists of seven tests—covering lower- and upper-body strength, aerobic
endurance, lower- and upper-body flexibility, agility, and balance—that can be
conducted with minimal space, equipment, and technical requirements.
presents clear instructions on preparing and administering the tests and
interpreting and using the test results. Video clips are integrated right into
the text to provide even futher instruction and full visual demonstrations of
test protocols, including setup, execution, safety, evaluation, and
modification of testing protocols
to accommodate clients’ limitations.
The second edition of the Senior
Fitness Test Manual has been expanded to include ways to modify test
protocols for older adults with limiting conditions and offers more in-depth information on improving test scores, including
illustrated instructions for exercises that can be prescribed to seniors to
help them improve their fitness.
addition, the manual retains national normative data based on age and sex for
over 7,000 adults ages 60 to 94, and it now includes criterion-referenced,
clinically relevant fitness standards. These new criterion-referenced standards
allow practitioners and older adults to identify the test scores at a specific
age that are correlated with maintaining adequate functional mobility into the
90s, providing a new and deeper understanding of the test scores. This allows
practitioners and their clients to focus on maintaining or improving functional
fitness with customized goals meant to preserve and improve individual
We don't often marvel at the process of remembering-that is, until we forget. What allows us to remember, and how do we forget? Most importantly, why do we remember certain things and not others? In this e-book, Remember When? The Science of Memory, we explore what science can tell us about memory, starting with an introductory section defining what memory is, including what makes something memorable and some common misconceptions about memory. A surprising piece by Gary Stix, "You Must Remember This ... Because You Have no Choice," explores why some people can remember what they had for lunch on a Tuesday 20 years ago while others can't. There's also a fascinating Q&A with Eric Kandel, neuroscientist and psychiatrist who won the Nobel Prize for his groundbreaking work on how neurons fire together in order to store memories in the brain. Section 2 delves deeper, analyzing the anatomy of memory, from how memories are saved to how they're transferred from short-term storage in the hippocampus to long-term storage in the cortex. Other sections explore various aspects of memory from its role in learning to the effects of trauma and age. Joe Z. Tsien discusses his technique of genetically tweaking certain receptor proteins on neurons in "Building a Brainier Mouse." In "Erasing Painful Memories," long-time journalist Jerry Adler looks at research into both behavioral therapies and drugs that can help to alter painful or traumatic memories after the fact. Finally, the last section looks at ways to improve your memory. One story links dreaming to improved learning. In another, R. Douglas Fields summarizes the work behind the idea of a "smart pill," based on the relatively recent discovery that a specific protein kinase might boost memory and could be given in pill form to enhance that most mysterious process.
- Inflammatory conditions (including contact dermatitis, alopecia, erythema multiforme, pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid, porphyria, pruritus, psoriasis, rosacea, seborrhea, urticaria, xerosis, and more)
- Infections (fungus, herpes simplex and zoster, scabies, lice, and warts)
- Skin signs in systemic disease (skin tags, cutaneous metastases, xanthomas)
- Regional dermatoses (intertrigo, leg ulcers, pressure sores)
- Benign tumors (chondrodermatitis, cysts, ganglion, fibrous papule, seborrheic keratoses, lentigines, and benign vascular lesions)
- Pre-malignant and malignant tumors (actinic keratoses, angiosarcoma, basal cell carcinoma, dermatofibroma and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, intraepidermal neoplasia, Kaposi's sarcoma, keratoacanthoma, lentigo maligna, cutaneous lymphoma, Mycosis fiungoides, melanoma, nevi and moles, and squamous cell carcinoma)
Based on ten years of practice and research in the field, Basting’s study includes specific examples of innovative programs that stimulate growth, humor, and emotional connection; translates into accessible language a wide range of provocative academic works on memory; and addresses how advances in medical research and clinical practice are already pushing radical changes in care for persons with dementia.
Bold, optimistic, and innovative, Basting's cultural critique of dementia care offers a vision for how we can change the way we think about and care for people with memory loss.
The molecular and cellular approaches toward the relationship of joint and bone problems distinguish this from other books on osteoarthritis or skeletal medicine. Emphasis on genetics and on newer viewpoints and approaches, exemplified by the possible effect of subchondral bone on osteoarthritis, gives a wider viewpoint to the reader and may make possible novel approaches to solving a clinical problem. The book will therefore also interest experienced specialists, thereby broadening readership. Authors are internationally recognized experts in their field.
Topics discussed include the role of bone in osteoarthritis, ranging from basic cell and molecular biology to genetics and biomechanics. How this information may be used for new treatment approaches will also be covered.
This book, intended for students, researchers and clinicians, provides information that enables the novice to become oriented and the practitioner to update knowledge. No other book combines information on the relationship of bone to the development of osteoarthritis, or treats the pathophysiology of joints in the same way. This volume, like the others in Topics in Bone Biology series, encompasses aspects of many specialties, including rheumatology, orthopedics, endocrinology, oncology, dentistry, geriatrics, nursing and chiropractic medicine.
The Driving Dilemma is a comprehensive resource for older drivers and their families facing questions about driving safety. Dr. Dugan provides clear, useful information about the effects of age, medical conditions, and medications on driving. She offers practical advice on how to discuss this issue with loved ones. Such talks can be difficult, and the book provides not only the facts, but also a research-based approach to communication, with useful sample dialogue scripts that will help you discuss driving with your loved ones. Also included are state-by-state listings of available resources, making this book a total information source for families.
Alzheimer’s disease is a reality in millions of lives and a serious concern for seniors and their loved ones. In developed countries where people are living longer than ever before, the incidence of Alzheimer’s is reaching epidemic proportions, according to the World Health Organization. For families, sufferers, and caregivers, the need for reliable, clear, and concrete information has never been greater.
Alzheimer’s Disease: The Complete Introduction is a comprehensive guide to the disease and its effects: getting a diagnosis, the ways it can progress and be managed, strategies for supporting sufferers and accessing care, legal concerns, and more. This guide addresses every aspect of the disease from the first doctor’s visit to the long-term measures that can drastically improve the lives of sufferers and those close to them.
Inside, you will find:
Written by two medical experts, this guide is intended for all. It aims to demystify the disease and provide a clear path to reclaiming stability and quality of life. Finally, it explains the real progress that has been made over the past five years in treatment and prevention.
Being Mortal, written by Atul Gawande, brings to light an array of concepts involving death, mortality, aging, and terminal illness. Gawande includes extensive research and chronicles the stories of his patients, other doctors’ patients, and his own family members. The resulting book informs readers about many circumstances and scenarios that can help people find the best route through their or their family members’ final days, months, or years…
1. Nursing homes were not created to assist the elderly with their dependency on others or provide a better option than poorhouses. They were created to clear out hospital beds.
2. Assisted living arose from the need for an alternative to nursing homes that could give patients more independence and control over their lives.
3. At the end of their lives, most people want more than to merely survive, which is where medical institutions, nursing homes, and assisted living can fall flat.
4. People need to ask themselves what would make life worth living when they are ill, old, frail, or dependent on others for daily care.
PLEASE NOTE: This is key takeaways and analysis of the book and NOT the original book.
Inside this Instaread of Being Mortal:
• Key Takeaways of the book
• Introduction to the important people in the book
• Analysis of the Key Takeaways
This comprehensive survey discusses research, policy, and practice; managing and preventing diseases; promoting mental and physical health; and maintaining quality of life for an aging society. The fields of public health and aging have grown increasingly complex. Given the interdependency of issues posed by an aging society, the editors of this volume expand the traditional scope and treatments of public health and aging by adopting a social-ecological perspective that incorporates individual, family, community, societal, and environmental concerns. Chapters address the most critical public health issues facing an aging society, including Medicare and family caregiving, and introduce many new and emerging concepts, such as emergency preparedness, technology in aging, translational research, genomics, and environmental influences on health and health practices.
The emergence of an aging society in the United States has far-reaching consequences for every generation. This book provides the latest information and future directions for the public health of this growing population. Students and practitioners will find Public Health for an Aging Society an invaluable resource both in the workplace and the classroom.
Maybe it was a grandparent, or a teacher, or a colleague. Someone older, patient and wise, who understood you when you were young and searching, helped you see the world as a more profound place, gave you sound advice to help you make your way through it.
For Mitch Albom, that person was Morrie Schwartz, his college professor from nearly twenty years ago.
Maybe, like Mitch, you lost track of this mentor as you made your way, and the insights faded, and the world seemed colder. Wouldn't you like to see that person again, ask the bigger questions that still haunt you, receive wisdom for your busy life today the way you once did when you were younger?
Mitch Albom had that second chance. He reconnected with Morrie in the last months of the older man's life. Knowing he was dying, Morrie visited with Mitch in his study every Tuesday, just as they used to back in college. Their rekindled relationship turned into one final "class:" lessons in how to live.
Tuesdays with Morrie is a magical chronicle of their time together, through which Mitch shares Morrie's lasting gift with the world.
The Better End is about hope, empowerment, and inspiration. What we choose for our end-of-life care depends on accurate information and on our personal values. We need not only to understand new medical advances but also to appreciate the wisdom of humanity's past and present.
Dan Morhaim, a practicing physician and Maryland state legislator, guides readers through the medical and legal maze of end-of-life care. He details the care choices available to patients and explains why living wills and advance directives are a necessity for every American. He tells readers where to find free and readily available living wills and advance directives and why it is so important for everyone—young and old—to complete them.
Dr. Morhaim helps readers keep decisions in their own hands and spare their families the uncertainty and trauma of guessing about their end-of-life wishes. With this book, he breaks down the barriers to a difficult but essential topic, helping readers to open this often avoided discussion with their loved ones and providing the information and guidance needed to ensure that deeply held values are reflected and honored.
An optimistic plan for reducing or eliminating many chronic diseases as well as reforming our faltering medical system, Predictive Health is a deeply knowledgeable, deeply humane proposal for how we can reallocate expenses and resources to prolong the best years of life, rather than extending the worst.
The book is divided into three general sections:
1. Nutriceuticals and Botanicals in Health Promotion - including Specific Nutriceuticals Used in Treating Aged; and General Nutraceutical Approaches to Therapy with emphasis on cancer. 2. Non-nutritional CAM Therapies – including Mind-mediated Therapies; and Physically Applied CAM Therapies 3. Non-dietary Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use and Benefits to the Elderly in HealthIdentifies the important nutritional requirements of the aging population, and how nutraceuticals and other CAM options affect thoseAddresses the many disease entities and cancers are found with higher frequency in the aged, including cancer, trauma, or infectious disease that can alter intakes of nutraceutical containing foods and/or requirements for various nutrients. Explores the nutritional materials botanical extracts and components that can have important health promotion benefits and risks, to ensure safe consumption Reviews the frequently used non-traditional and often unproven CAM therapies, beyond nutritional and nutraceutical supplements, including a variety of physical and psychosocial treatments.
People today live longer than ever before. This increasing longevity is of vital importance - a unique opportunity to plan constructively for one's later years. This book can help you to do so.
- Have you thought seriously about preparing for the later part of your life?
- Do you know how to cope with disabilities which may occur as you grow older?
- Are you caring for, or considering caring for, an elderly person? If so, do you know what is involved, and how to manage?
This book provides detailed practical advice which can help you and someone you care for to "live better, live longer."
The focus of this book is on theoretical issues and empirical findings related to trends and determinants of healthy aging, including factors related to "healthy longevity" of the oldest-old, aged 80 and over. The group is the most rapidly increasing elderly sub-population and is most likely to need assistance in daily living in all countries. Chapters include both longitudinal and cross-sectional data from North America, Europe, and Asia in country-specific studies and cross-national comparisons.
We organized the twenty chapters into four parts. Part I focuses on the definition, components, concepts, measurements, and determinants of healthy aging, and discusses the trends and patterns of disability and healthy life expectancy at the macro level. Part II addresses individual healthy aging, including its biological and socio-demographic aspects. Part III focuses on issues concerning the family and healthy aging, and Part IV explores formal and informal care for healthy aging through governmental policy interventions and community service programs.
Its many fans include a former governor and movie star (Arnold Schwarzenegger), a hip hop icon (LL Cool J), an Irish tennis pro (James McGee), an NBC sportscaster (Michele Tafoya), and the coaches and players of winning teams like the New England Patriots, Seattle Seahawks, Chicago Cubs, and University of Texas men’s basketball team.
The book draws its inspiration from stoicism, the ancient Greek philosophy of enduring pain or adversity with perseverance and resilience. Stoics focus on the things they can control, let go of everything else, and turn every new obstacle into an opportunity to get better, stronger, tougher. As Marcus Aurelius put it nearly 2000 years ago: “The impediment to action advances action. What stands in the way becomes the way.”
Ryan Holiday shows us how some of the most successful people in history—from John D. Rockefeller to Amelia Earhart to Ulysses S. Grant to Steve Jobs—have applied stoicism to overcome difficult or even impossible situations. Their embrace of these principles ultimately mattered more than their natural intelligence, talents, or luck.
If you’re feeling frustrated, demoralized, or stuck in a rut, this book can help you turn your problems into your biggest advantages. And along the way it will inspire you with dozens of true stories of the greats from every age and era.
From the Hardcover edition.
A landmark volume in science writing by one of the great minds of our time, Stephen Hawking’s book explores such profound questions as: How did the universe begin—and what made its start possible? Does time always flow forward? Is the universe unending—or are there boundaries? Are there other dimensions in space? What will happen when it all ends?
Told in language we all can understand, A Brief History of Time plunges into the exotic realms of black holes and quarks, of antimatter and “arrows of time,” of the big bang and a bigger God—where the possibilities are wondrous and unexpected. With exciting images and profound imagination, Stephen Hawking brings us closer to the ultimate secrets at the very heart of creation.
Based on an exhaustive literature review, and the results from six original researches on long-term care expenditures in Japan (LTCE) conducted during a doctoral program, the book provides a comprehensive view in analyzing trends and factors associated with increasing expenditures in the Long-Term Care Insurance system in Japan.
The book address relevant topics such as; the main socio-demographic changes experienced by the Japanese society during the last three decades, predictors of the LTCE, measuring efficiency in nursing homes, the impact of the LTCI 2005-reform to contain expenditures, cost-effectiveness of the in-home and community based services and institutional LTCE in the last year of life. The book end with a discussion on futures challenges and strategies oriented to contribute with the sustainability of LTCI system in Japan.
Commentary by Henry James, Robert Frost, Matthew Arnold, Oliver Wendell Holmes, and Henry David Thoreau
The definitive collection of Emerson’s major speeches, essays, and poetry, The Essential Writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson chronicles the life’s work of a true “American Scholar.” As one of the architects of the transcendentalist movement, Emerson embraced a philosophy that championed the individual, emphasized independent thought, and prized “the splendid labyrinth of one’s own perceptions.” More than any writer of his time, he forged a style distinct from his European predecessors and embodied and defined what it meant to be an American. Matthew Arnold called Emerson’s essays “the most important work done in prose.”
INCLUDES A MODERN LIBRARY READING GROUP GUIDE
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Nuclear proliferation, Zionism, and the global economy are just a few of the insightful and surprisingly prescient topics scientist Albert Einstein discusses in this volume of collected essays from between 1931 and 1950. Written with a clear voice and a thoughtful perspective on the effects of science, economics, and politics in daily life, Einstein’s essays provide an intriguing view inside the mind of a genius addressing the philosophical challenges presented during the turbulence of the Great Depression, the Second World War, and the dawn of the Cold War.
This authorized ebook features rare photos and never-before-seen documents from the Albert Einstein Archives at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Under the guidance of such celebrated masters as Ed Parker and the immortal Bruce Lee, Joe Hyams vividly recounts his more than 25 years of experience in the martial arts. In his illuminating story, Hyams reveals to you how the daily application of Zen principles not only developed his physical expertise but gave him the mental discipline to control his personal problems-self-image, work pressure, competition. Indeed, mastering the spiritual goals in martial arts can dramatically alter the quality of your life-enriching your relationships with people, as well as helping you make use of all your abilities.
"The Perennial Philosophy," Aldous Huxley writes, "may be found among the traditional lore of peoples in every region of the world, and in its fully developed forms it has a place in every one of the higher religions."
With great wit and stunning intellect—drawing on a diverse array of faiths, including Zen Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Christian mysticism, and Islam—Huxley examines the spiritual beliefs of various religious traditions and explains how they are united by a common human yearning to experience the divine. The Perennial Philosophy includes selections from Meister Eckhart, Rumi, and Lao Tzu, as well as the Bhagavad Gita, Tibetan Book of the Dead, Diamond Sutra, and Upanishads, among many others.
Walter Kaufmann's commentary, with its many quotations from previously untranslated letters, brings to life Nietzsche as a human being and illuminates his philosophy. The book contains some of Nietzsche's most sustained discussions of art and morality, knowledge and truth, the intellectual conscience and the origin of logic.
Most of the book was written just before Thus Spoke Zarathustra, the last part five years later, after Beyond Good and Evil. We encounter Zarathustra in these pages as well as many of Nietzsche's most interesting philosophical ideas and the largest collection of his own poetry that he himself ever published.
Walter Kaufmann's English versions of Nietzsche represent one of the major translation enterprises of our time. He is the first philosopher to have translated Nietzsche's major works, and never before has a single translator given us so much of Nietzsche.
“Andy Andrews will challenge you to reach your fullest potential.” - John C. Maxwell, Founder, The INJOYTM Group
“The Traveler’s Gift touched me in a way no other book ever has.” - Barbara Johnson, Humorist and Best-Selling Author
Only a few months ago, he was a successful executive. Now he’s a desperate man. But a divine adventure is about to unfold. Join David Ponder on an incredible journey that will help you discover the Seven Decisions for Success.
In the tradition of best-selling books by Og Mandino, The Traveler’s Gift is destined to become a classic.
Eight months on the bestseller lists in France!
From the timeless wisdom of the ancient Greeks to Christianity, the Enlightenment, existentialism, and postmodernism, Luc Ferry’s instant classic brilliantly and accessibly explains the enduring teachings of philosophy—including its profound relevance to modern daily life and its essential role in achieving happiness and living a meaningful life. This lively journey through the great thinkers will enlighten every reader, young and old.
Considered to be one of the most important philosophical works of all time, the History of Western Philosophy is a dazzlingly unique exploration of the ideologies of significant philosophers throughout the ages—from Plato and Aristotle through to Spinoza, Kant and the twentieth century. Written by a man who changed the history of philosophy himself, this is an account that has never been rivaled since its first publication over sixty years ago.
Since its first publication in 1945, Lord Russell’s A History of Western Philosophy is still unparalleled in its comprehensiveness, its clarity, its erudition, its grace, and its wit. In seventy-six chapters he traces philosophy from the rise of Greek civilization to the emergence of logical analysis in the twentieth century.
Among the philosophers considered are: Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Empedocles, Anaxagoras, the Atomists, Protagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, the Cynics, the Sceptics, the Epicureans, the Stoics, Plotinus, Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, Benedict, Gregory the Great, John the Scot, Aquinas, Duns Scotus, William of Occam, Machiavelli, Erasmus, More, Bacon, Hobbes, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, the Utilitarians, Marx, Bergson, James, Dewey, and lastly the philosophers with whom Lord Russell himself is most closely associated—Cantor, Frege, and Whitehead, coauthor with Russell of the monumental Principia Mathematica.