This book, with chapters authored by internationally renowned experts, provides a comprehensive and detailed account of the fascinating history of the process - including the surprising discoveries of molybdenum-independent nitrogenases and superoxide-dependent nitrogenase; a review of Man's attempts to emulate the biological process - most successfully with the commercially dominant Haber-Bosch process; and the current state of the understanding art with respect to the enzymes - called nitrogenases - responsible for biological nitrogen fixation.
The initial chapters use a historical approach to the biological and industrial processes, followed by an overview of assay methodologies. The next set of chapters focuses on the classical enzyme, the molybdenum nitrogenase, and details its biosynthesis, structure, composition, and mechanism of action as well as detailing both how variants of its two component proteins are constructed by recombinant DNA technology and how computational techniques are being applied. The sophisticated chemical modelling of the metal-containing clusters in the enzyme is reviewed next, followed by a description of the two molybdenum-independent nitrogenases - first, the vanadium-containing enzyme and then the iron-only nitrogenase - together with some thoughts as to why they exist! Then follows an up-to-date treatment of the clearly "non-classical" properties of the superoxide-dependent nitrogenase, which more closely resembles molybdenum-containing hydroxylases and related enzymes, like nitrate reductase, that it does the other nitrogenases. Each chapter contains an extensive list of references.
This book is the self-contained first volume of a comprehensive seven-volume series. No other available work provides the up-to-date and in-depth coverage of this series and this volume. This book is intended to serve as an indispensable reference work for all scientists working in this area, including agriculture and the closely related metals-in-biology area; to assist students to enter this challenging area of research; and to provide science administrators easy access to vital relevant information.
* Provides details on denitrification and its general role in the environment
* Offers latest research in N-Cycle and its reactions
* Discusses impacts on various environments: agriculture, wetlands, plants, waste-water treatment and more
* The only book available in the field since the last 20 years
* Contains 27 chapters written by internationally highly recognized experts in the field
* Covers all modern aspects, emphasizes molecular biology and ecology
* Written in an easily understandable way
After four decades of assuming that the conquest of all infectous diseases was imminent, people on all continents now find themselves besieged by AIDS, drug-resistant tuberculosis, cholera that defies chlorine water treatment, and exotic viruses that can kill in a matter of hours.
Based on extensive interviews with leading experts in virology, molecular biology, disease ecology and medicine, as well as field research in sub-Saharan Africa, Western Europe, Central America and the United States, The Coming Plague takes readers from the savannas of eastern Bolivia to the rain forests of northern Zaire on a harrowing, fifty year journey through our battles with the microbes, and tells us what must be done to prevent the coming plague.
Ebola, SARS, Hendra, AIDS, and countless other deadly viruses all have one thing in common: the bugs that transmit these diseases all originate in wild animals and pass to humans by a process called spillover. In this gripping account, David Quammen takes the reader along on this astonishing quest to learn how, where from, and why these diseases emerge and asks the terrifying question: What might the next big one be?
Whether it is asthma, food or pollen allergies, type-1 diabetes, lupus, multiple sclerosis, or Crohn’s disease, everyone knows someone who suffers from an allergic or autoimmune disorder. And if it appears that the prevalence of these maladies has increased recently, that’s because it has—to levels never before seen in human history. These days no fewer than one in five—and likely more—Americans suffers from one of these ailments. We seem newly, and bafflingly, vulnerable to immune system malfunction. Why? Science writer Moises Velasquez-Manoff explains the latest thinking about this problem and explores the remarkable new treatments in the works.
In the past 150 years, improved sanitation, water treatment, and the advent of vaccines and antibiotics have saved countless lives, nearly eradicating diseases that had plagued humanity for millennia. But now, a growing body of evidence suggests that the very steps we took to combat infections also eliminated organisms that kept our bodies in balance. The idea that we have systematically cleaned ourselves to illness challenges deeply entrenched notions about the value of societal hygiene and the harmful nature of microbes. Yet scientists investigating the rampant immune dysfunction in the developed world have inevitably arrived at this conclusion. To address this global “epidemic of absence,” they must restore the human ecosystem.
This groundbreaking book explores the promising but controversial “worm therapy”—deliberate infection with parasitic worms—in development to treat autoimmune disease. It explains why farmers’ children so rarely get hay fever, why allergy is less prevalent in former Eastern Bloc countries, and how one cancer-causing bacterium may be good for us. It probes the link between autism and a dysfunctional immune system. It investigates the newly apparent fetal origins of allergic disease—that a mother’s inflammatory response imprints on her unborn child, tipping the scales toward allergy. In the future, preventive treatment—something as simple as a probiotic—will necessarily begin before birth.
An Epidemic of Absence asks what will happen in developing countries, which, as they become more affluent, have already seen an uptick in allergic disease: Will India end up more allergic than Europe? Velasquez-Manoff also details a controversial underground movement that has coalesced around the treatment of immune-mediated disorders with parasites. Against much of his better judgment, he joins these do-it-yourselfers and reports his surprising results.
An Epidemic of Absence considers the critical immune stimuli we inadvertently lost as we modernized, and the modern ills we may be able to correct by restoring them. At stake is nothing less than our health, and that of our loved ones. Researchers, meanwhile, have the good fortune of living through a paradigm shift, one of those occasional moments in the progress of science when a radically new way of thinking emerges, shakes things up, and suggests new avenues of treatment. You’ll discover that you’re not you at all, but a bustling collection of organisms, an ecosystem whose preservation and integrity require the utmost attention and care.
Public sanitation and antibiotic drugs have brought about historic increases in the human life span; they have also unintentionally produced new health crises by disrupting the intimate, age-old balance between humans and the microorganisms that inhabit our bodies and our environment. As a result, antibiotic resistance now ranks among the gravest medical problems of modern times. Good Germs, Bad Germs addresses not only this issue but also what has become known as the "hygiene hypothesis"— an argument that links the over-sanitation of modern life to now-epidemic increases in immune and other disorders. In telling the story of what went terribly wrong in our war on germs, Jessica Snyder Sachs explores our emerging understanding of the symbiotic relationship between the human body and its resident microbes—which outnumber its human cells by a factor of nine to one! The book also offers a hopeful look into a future in which antibiotics will be designed and used more wisely, and beyond that, to a day when we may replace antibacterial drugs and cleansers with bacterial ones—each custom-designed for maximum health benefits.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
A major book about the future of the world, blending intellectual and natural history and field reporting into a powerful account of the mass extinction unfolding before our eyes
Over the last half a billion years, there have been five mass extinctions, when the diversity of life on earth suddenly and dramatically contracted. Scientists around the world are currently monitoring the sixth extinction, predicted to be the most devastating extinction event since the asteroid impact that wiped out the dinosaurs. This time around, the cataclysm is us. In The Sixth Extinction, two-time winner of the National Magazine Award and New Yorker writer Elizabeth Kolbert draws on the work of scores of researchers in half a dozen disciplines, accompanying many of them into the field: geologists who study deep ocean cores, botanists who follow the tree line as it climbs up the Andes, marine biologists who dive off the Great Barrier Reef. She introduces us to a dozen species, some already gone, others facing extinction, including the Panamian golden frog, staghorn coral, the great auk, and the Sumatran rhino. Through these stories, Kolbert provides a moving account of the disappearances occurring all around us and traces the evolution of extinction as concept, from its first articulation by Georges Cuvier in revolutionary Paris up through the present day. The sixth extinction is likely to be mankind's most lasting legacy; as Kolbert observes, it compels us to rethink the fundamental question of what it means to be human.
WHY ADOPT THIS EDITION?
New chapters on:
• Urban Environmental Microbiology
• Bacterial Communities in Natural Ecosystems
• Global Change and Microbial Infectious Disease
• Microorganisms and Bioterrorism
• Extreme Environments (emphasizing the ecology of these environments)
• Aquatic Environments (now devoted to its own chapter- was combined with Extreme Environments)
Updates to Methodologies:
• Nucleic Acid -Based Methods: microarrays, phyloarrays, real-time PCR, metagomics, and comparative genomics
• Physiological Methods: stable isotope fingerprinting and functional genomics and proteomics-based approaches
• Microscopic Techniques: FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) and atomic force microscopy
• Cultural Methods: new approaches to enhanced cultivation of environmental bacteria
• Environmental Sample Collection and Processing: added section on air sampling
"A history of the human brain from the big bang, fifteen billion years ago, to the day before yesterday...It's a delight."
THE NEW YORK TIMES
From the Paperback edition.
In The Fever, the journalist Sonia Shah sets out to answer these questions, delivering a timely, inquisitive chronicle of the illness and its influence on human lives. Through the centuries, she finds, we've invested our hopes in a panoply of drugs and technologies, and invariably those hopes have been dashed. From the settling of the New World to the construction of the Panama Canal, through wars and the advances of the Industrial Revolution, Shah tracks malaria's jagged ascent and the tragedies in its wake, revealing a parasite every bit as persistent as the insects that carry it. With distinguished prose and original reporting from Panama, Malawi, Cameroon, India, and elsewhere, The Fever captures the curiously fascinating, devastating history of this long-standing thorn in the side of humanity.
Fortunately for you, there's Schaum's Outlines. More than 40 million students have trusted Schaum's to help them succeed in the classroom and on exams. Schaum's is the key to faster learning and higher grades in every subject. Each Outline presents all the essential course information in an easy-to-follow, topic-by-topic format. You also get hundreds of examples, solved problems, and practice exercises to test your skills.
This Schaum's Outline gives you:Practice problems with full explanations that reinforce knowledge Coverage of the most up-to-date developments in your course field In-depth review of practices and applications
Fully compatible with your classroom text, Schaum's highlights all the important facts you need to know. Use Schaum's to shorten your study time-and get your best test scores!
Schaum's Outlines-Problem Solved.
The highly-anticipated paperback edition of The Elements is finally available.
An eye-opening, original collection of gorgeous, never-before-seen photographic representations of the 118 elements in the periodic table.
The elements are what we, and everything around us, are made of. But how many elements has anyone actually seen in pure, uncombined form? The Elements provides this rare opportunity. Based on seven years of research and photography, the pictures in this book make up the most complete, and visually arresting, representation available to the naked eye of every atom in the universe. Organized in order of appearance on the periodic table, each element is represented by a spread that includes a stunning, full-page, full-color photograph that most closely represents it in its purest form. For example, at -183°C, oxygen turns from a colorless gas to a beautiful pale blue liquid.
Also included are fascinating facts, figures, and stories of the elements as well as data on the properties of each, including atomic weight, density, melting and boiling point, valence, electronegativity, and the year and location in which it was discovered. Several additional photographs show each element in slightly altered forms or as used in various practical ways. The element's position on the periodic table is pinpointed on a mini rendering of the table and an illustrated scale of the element's boiling and/or melting points appears on each page along with a density scale that runs along the bottom.
Packed with interesting information, this combination of solid science and stunning artistic photographs is the perfect gift book for every sentient creature in the universe.
Includes a tear-out poster of Theodore Gray's iconic Photographic Periodic Table!
Outstanding features: Clearly rendered diagrams and drawings enhance text descriptions; the generous use of tables and charts distill data for easy access and understanding; a 12-page, 4-color section of photos shows various plants with nutrient deficiencies; supplementary reading lists provide a readymade path for readers who want to delve into topics of their own choosing; appendices contain a model law relating to fertilizer materials, useful tables and conversions, and a listing of professional organizations
Includes New and Updated Material
Now in its second edition, this work is the culmination of research and discussions with technical experts, as well as USP and FDA representatives on various topics of interest to the pharmaceutical microbiologist and those responsible for the microbial quality of products, materials, equipment, and manufacturing facilities. New in this edition is an entire chapter dedicated to the topic of biofilms and their impact on pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical operations. The subject of rapid methods in microbiology has been expanded and includes a discussion on the validation of alternative microbiological methods and a case study on microbial identification in support of a product contamination investigation.
Substantially updated and revised, this book assists readers in understanding the fundamental issues associated with pharmaceutical microbiology and provides them with tools to create effective microbial contamination control and microbial testing programs for the areas under their responsibility.
As the granddaughter of farmers and the daughter of avid gardeners, Ohlson has long had an appreciation for the soil. A chance conversation with a local chef led her to the crossroads of science, farming, food, and environmentalism and the discovery of the only significant way to remove carbon dioxide from the air—an ecological approach that tends not only to plants and animals but also to the vast population of underground microorganisms that fix carbon in the soil. Ohlson introduces the visionaries—scientists, farmers, ranchers, and landscapers—who are figuring out in the lab and on the ground how to build healthy soil, which solves myriad problems: drought, erosion, air and water pollution, and food quality, as well as climate change. Her discoveries and vivid storytelling will revolutionize the way we think about our food, our landscapes, our plants, and our relationship to Earth.
* Only available work to cover the entire whisky process from raw material to delivery to the market in such a comprehensive manner
* Includes a chapter on marketing and selling whisky
* Foreword written by Alan Rutherford, former Chairman and Managing Director of United Malt and Grain Distillers Ltd.
In The Viral Storm, award-winning biologist Nathan Wolfe tells the story of how viruses and human beings have evolved side by side through history; how deadly viruses like HIV, swine flu, and bird flu almost wiped us out in the past; and why modern life has made our species vulnerable to the threat of a global pandemic.
Wolfe's research missions to the jungles of Africa and the rain forests of Borneo have earned him the nickname "the Indiana Jones of virus hunters," and here Wolfe takes readers along on his groundbreaking and often dangerous research trips—to reveal the surprising origins of the most deadly diseases and to explain the role that viruses have played in human evolution.
In a world where each new outbreak seems worse than the one before, Wolfe points the way forward, as new technologies are brought to bear in the most remote areas of the world to neutralize these viruses and even harness their power for the good of humanity. His provocative vision of the future will change the way we think about viruses, and perhaps remove a potential threat to humanity's survival.
"Reduce, reuse, recycle" urge environmentalists; in other words, do more with less in order to minimize damage. But as this provocative, visionary book argues, this approach perpetuates a one-way, "cradle to grave" manufacturing model that dates to the Industrial Revolution and casts off as much as 90 percent of the materials it uses as waste, much of it toxic. Why not challenge the notion that human industry must inevitably damage the natural world?
In fact, why not take nature itself as our model? A tree produces thousands of blossoms in order to create another tree, yet we do not consider its abundance wasteful but safe, beautiful, and highly effective; hence, "waste equals food" is the first principle the book sets forth. Products might be designed so that, after their useful life, they provide nourishment for something new-either as "biological nutrients" that safely re-enter the environment or as "technical nutrients" that circulate within closed-loop industrial cycles, without being "downcycled" into low-grade uses (as most "recyclables" now are).
Elaborating their principles from experience (re)designing everything from carpeting to corporate campuses, William McDonough and Michael Braungart make an exciting and viable case for change.
Vaccinated is not a biography; Hilleman's experience forms the basis for a rich and lively narrative of two hundred years of medical history, ranging across the globe and throughout time to take in a cast of hundreds, all caught up, intentionally or otherwise, in the story of vaccines. It is an inspiring and triumphant tale, but one with a cautionary aspect, as vaccines come under assault from people blaming vaccines for autism and worse. Paul Offit clearly and compellingly rebuts those arguments, and, by demonstrating how much the work of Hilleman and others has gained for humanity, shows us how much we have to lose.
Laboratory Animal Medicine, Third Edition,is a fully revised publication from the American College of Laboratory Medicine’s acclaimed blue book series. It presents an up-to-date volume that offers the most thorough coverage of the biology, health, and care of laboratory animals.
The book is organized by species, with new inclusions of chinchillas, birds, and program and employee management, and is written and edited by known experts in the fields.
Users will find gold-standard guidance on the study of laboratory animal science, as well as valuable information that applies across all of the biological and biomedical sciences that work with animals.Organized by species for in-depth understanding of biology, health, and best care of animalsFeatures the inclusion of chinchillas, quail, and zebra finches as animal modelsOffers guidance on program and employee managementCovers regulations, policies, and laws for laboratory animal management worldwide
The core information is presented in a clear and concise way, with extensive use of diagrams, algorithms, tables and boxes. All chapters have been updated to reflect current best practice and the annotated bibliographies and lists of web-based resources have been extended. The chapters on HIV, tuberculosis and malaria have undergone particularly extensive revision, reflecting rapid changes in these areas since the last edition.
Lecture Notes: Tropical Medicine is particularly aimed at postgraduate doctors attending tropical medicine courses, as well as medical students taking a tropical medicine elective period. It will also be useful to a wide range of other health professionals involved with medicine in the tropics, or imported tropical disease.
This book provides an understanding of the microbial challenges to the safety of low aw foods, and a historic backdrop to the paradigm shift now highlighting low aw foods as vehicles for foodborne pathogens. Up-to-date facts and figures of foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are included. Special attention is given to the uncanny ability of Salmonella to persist under dry conditions in food processing plants and foods. A section is dedicated specifically to processing plant investigations, providing practical approaches to determining sources of persistent bacterial strains in the industrial food processing environment. Readers are guided through dry cleaning, wet cleaning and alternatives to processing plant hygiene and sanitation. Separate chapters are devoted to low aw food commodities of interest including spices, dried dairy-based products, low aw meat products, dried ready-to-eat cereal products, powdered infant formula, nuts and nut pastes, flours and meals, chocolate and confectionary, dried teas and herbs, and pet foods. The book provides regulatory testing guidelines and recommendations as well as guidance through methodological and sampling challenges to testing spices and low aw foods for the presence of foodborne pathogens. Chapters also address decontamination processes for low aw foods, including heat, steam, irradiation, microwave, and alternative energy-based treatments.
The vast majority of medically important pathogens infect their host across a body surface such as the skin, or across a mucosal tissue such as the respiratory tract or intestines, as these sites are the ones exposed to the external environment. By focusing on immunity at mucosal and body surfaces this book presents a fresh, new approach to the teaching of immunology.
After an introduction to the basic structure of the immune system, the book looks at two important families of signalling molecules: cytokines and chemokines, before covering the workings of the mucosal immune system. It continues by examining immunity against the four major groups of pathogens - viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, and concludes by looking at disorders of the immune system, mucosal tumour immunology and the process of vaccination.A fresh, new approach to the subject focusing on mucosal and body surfaces. Describes the mucosal immune systems of the gastrointestinal, respiratory and urogenital tracts, as well as the skin. Details the important roles of cytokines and chemokines in an immune response. Separate chapters devoted to immunity against viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Includes chapter summaries, boxes with topics of special interest and an extensive glossary. Clearly written and well- illustrated in full colour throughout.
Students across a range of disciplines, including biology, biochemistry, biomedicine, medicine and veterinary sciences, will find this book invaluable, both as an introduction to basic immunology and as a guide to mucosal immune defence mechanisms.
This book is written in the same engaging conversational style as the published reference book The Immune Response: Basic and Clinical Principles and conveys the same fascinating appeal of immunology. The authors bring clarity, readability and continuity of voice to an audience that requires only a brief survey of the most fundamental concepts in basic and clinical immunology. Primer to The Immune Response is beautifully illustrated with over 200 superb figures and 36 full-color plates, and further enhanced by the inclusion of 60 tables and 6 Appendices. Included with purchase of the book is website access to a captivating “Immunomovie" that truly brings the immune response to pathogens to life. This new and unique immunology textbook compactly but elegantly covers both basic and clinical principles.Over 200 elegant 2-4 color illustrations36 full-color plates of basic and clinical items of interestTake-home message and “Did You Get It? self-test quiz at the end of each chapter6 Appendices that provide topic enrichment60-minute "Immunomovie" illustrating the immune response to bacterial, viral and parasitic infections
Microorganisms in Foods 5, 7, and the second edition of Microorganisms in Foods 6 are for anyone using microbiological testing and/or engaged in setting Microbiological Criteria, whether for the purpose of Governmental Food Inspection and Control or in Industry, and for those identifying the most effective use of microbiological testing in the food chain. The contents are essential reading for food processors, food microbiologists, food technologists, veterinarians, public health workers and regulatory officials. For students in Food Science and Technology they offer a wealth of information on Food Microbiology and Food Safety Management, with many references for further study.
The information has been prepared by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF). The ICMSF was formed in response to the need for internationally acceptable and authoritative decisions on microbiological limits for foods moving in international commerce. Currently the membership consists of eighteen food microbiologists from eleven countries, drawn from governmental laboratories in public health, agriculture, and food technology, from universities and from the food industry.
"A very well-written book suitable for use as a reference or textbook for an undergraduate subject in cell signalling. For researchers interested in the molecular basis of cell signalling and how aberrant regulation of cell signalling proteins causes diseases, this is an excellent resource of biochemical and structural information." –Australian Biochemist, August 2009
"From basics to details, this is an elegantly written and carefully edited book. The chapters on cell cycle control and oncogenesis are particularly fascinating and valuable to biomedical research. This is the book to have if you are interested in molecular mechanisms of signal transduction. It is a great introduction to the literature that will be welcomed by students and experts alike." –Doody's, January 2009
This text is a concise and accessible introduction to the dynamic but complex field of signal transduction. Rather than simply cataloguing all signalling molecules and delineating every known pathway, this book aims to break signalling down into common elements and activities – the ‘nuts and bolts’ of cellular information exchange.
With an emphasis on clarity of presentation throughout, the book teaches the basic principles focusing on a mature core of knowledge, providing students with a foundation of learning in this complex and potentially confusing subject. It also addresses the issue of variation in the numbering of key amino acids as well as featuring interaction with RasMol software, and exercises to aid understanding.An accessible introduction to the complex field of cell signalling Interacts with RasMol software – freely downloadable for viewing structures in 3D Includes exercises and clear instructions in the use of RasMol Well illustrated in full colour throughout
Structure and Function in Cell Signalling is an invaluable resource to students across a range of life science degree programmes including biochemistry, cell and molecular biology, physiology, biomedicine and oncology. This book provides a clear, accessible introduction to this rapidly expanding field.
Toxoplasmosis is caused by a one-celled protozoan parasite known as T. gondii. The infection produces a wide range of clinical syndromes in humans, land and sea mammals, and various bird species. Most humans contract toxoplasmosis by eating contaminated, raw or undercooked meat (particularly pork), vegetables, or milk products; by coming into contact with the T. gondii eggs from cat feces; or by drinking contaminated water. The parasite damages the ocular and central nervous systems, causing behavioral and personality alterations as well as fatal necrotizing encephalitis. It is especially dangerous for the fetus of an infected pregnant woman and for individuals with compromised immune systems, such as HIV-infected patients.Completely updated, the 2e presents recent advances driven by new information on the genetics and genomics of the pathogenProvides the latest information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of toxoplasmosisOffers a single-source reference for a wide range of scientists and physicians working with this pathogen, including parasitologists, cell and molecular biologists, veterinarians, neuroscientists, physicians, and food scientists
Antibodies represent the correlate of protection for numerous vaccines and are the most rapidly growing class of drugs, with applications ranging from cancer and infectious disease to autoimmunity. Researchers have long understood the variable domain of antibodies, which are responsible for antigen recognition, and can provide protection by blocking the function of their target antigen. However, recent developments in our understanding of the protection mediated by antibodies have highlighted the critical nature of the antibody constant, or Fc domain, in the biological activity of antibodies. The Fc domain allows antibodies to link the adaptive and innate immune systems, providing specificity to a wide range of innate effector cells. In addition, they provide a feedback loop to regulate the character of the immune response via interactions with B cells and antigen-presenting cells.Clarifies the different mechanisms of IgG activity at the level of the different model systems used, including human genetic, mouse, and in vitroCovers the role of antibodies in cancer, infectious disease, and autoimmunity and in the setting of monoclonal antibody therapy as well as naturally raised antibodiesColor illustrations enhance explanations of the immune system
On the afternoon of August 20, 1910, a battering ram of wind moved through the drought-stricken national forests of Washington, Idaho, and Montana, whipping the hundreds of small blazes burning across the forest floor into a roaring inferno that jumped from treetop to ridge as it raged, destroying towns and timber in the blink of an eye. Forest rangers had assembled nearly ten thousand men to fight the fires, but no living person had seen anything like those flames, and neither the rangers nor anyone else knew how to subdue them. Egan recreates the struggles of the overmatched rangers against the implacable fire with unstoppable dramatic force, and the larger story of outsized president Teddy Roosevelt and his chief forester, Gifford Pinchot, that follows is equally resonant. Pioneering the notion of conservation, Roosevelt and Pinchot did nothing less than create the idea of public land as our national treasure, owned by every citizen. Even as TR's national forests were smoldering they were saved: The heroism shown by his rangers turned public opinion permanently in favor of the forests, though it changed the mission of the forest service in ways we can still witness today.
This e-book includes a sample chapter of SHORT NIGHTS OF THE SHADOW CATCHER.