Various methods of system simulation and optimization are applied in a number of case studies. Methods of analysis and numerical methods are described, as well as the basis of pollution and water quality. The economics of desalination are also discussed. The examples studied range from regional supplies to internal re-circulation. Groundwater and artificial recharge are considered, and stormwater quality and sewerage systems are also covered. Computer applications exist throughout and a number of simulation and optimization programs in BASIC are presented. The necessity for scientific sampling procedures in monitoring water quality, an often ignored subject, was written by Professor Tom Sanders of Colorado State University.
The theory and case studies should prove of value in many aspects of planning the use of water resources with quality constraints. Wastewater re-use and conservation are therefore promoted by the approach adopted.
This classic monograph has been revised and updated to take account of new developments in the field. Recent research in cavitation and flow control has prompted additional sections to be added. There are also new sections on supports to exposed pipes and secondary stress. Additional references and a new layout make up this edition. Some sections appearing in previous editions, noteably on pipe network systems analysis and optimization have been ommitted as they were considered more appropriate in the author's parallel book ``Pipeflow Analysis'' (Developments in Water Science, 19).
Some of the problems experienced in building water resources in developing countries are described in this book, and methods of solution based on the limited experience of the authors, are offered. These range from use of unbiased common sense, coupled with a close understanding of people's requirements, to a comprehensive computer simulated planning model. Some types of water resources development are described in more detail. These include irrigation, hydro electric power and rural water supply. Sections on socio-economics and human resource development are also included, as well as on data collection, and project planning. Lessons from the failure of multimillion dollar projects are not hard to come by, and examples and pointers which will assist future planners are given. Attention is paid to the need for aid to include training and to stimulate local economies. However big water projects appear, they cannot escape the effects of the rest of the country's economy. Attention is also drawn to environmental problems, particularly soil erosion, often caused by water resources development. The fact that water resources development cannot be carried out by engineers only, is recognized. The input of many professions, and vast experience, is needed.
Drawn on international case studies, much of the material has been presented in postgraduate courses by the authors.
Robert Glennon captures the irony—and tragedy—of America’s water crisis in a book that is both frightening and wickedly comical. From manufactured snow for tourists in Atlanta to trillions of gallons of water flushed down the toilet each year, Unquenchable reveals the heady extravagances and everyday inefficiencies that are sucking the nation dry.
The looming catastrophe remains hidden as government diverts supplies from one area to another to keep water flowing from the tap. But sooner rather than later, the shell game has to end. And when it does, shortages will threaten not only the environment, but every aspect of American life: we face shuttered power plants and jobless workers, decimated fi sheries and contaminated drinking water.
We can’t engineer our way out of the problem, either with traditional fixes or zany schemes to tow icebergs from Alaska. In fact, new demands for water, particularly the enormous supply needed for ethanol and energy production, will only worsen the crisis. America must make hard choices—and Glennon’s answers are fittingly provocative. He proposes market-based solutions that value water as both a commodity and a fundamental human right.
One truth runs throughout Unquenchable: only when we recognize water’s worth will we begin to conserve it.
What’s New in the Third Edition:Prepares operators for licensure exams Provides additional math problems and solutions to better prepare users for certification exams Updates all chapters to reflect the developments in the field Enables users to properly operate water and wastewater plants and suggests troubleshooting procedures for returning a plant to optimum operation levels
A complete compilation of water science, treatment information, process control procedures, problem-solving techniques, safety and health information, and administrative and technological trends, this text serves as a resource for professionals working in water and wastewater operations and operators preparing for wastewater licensure exams. It can also be used as a supplemental textbook for undergraduate and graduate students studying environmental science, water science, and environmental engineering.
Offering a quantitative approach to the study of groundwater quality and the interaction of water, minerals, gases, pollutants and microbes, this book shows how physical and chemical theory can be applied to explain observed water qualities and variations over space and time. Integral to the presentation, geochemical modelling using PHREEQC code is demonstrated, with step-by-step instructions for calculating and simulating field and laboratory data. Numerous figures and tables illustrate the theory, while worked examples including calculations and theoretical explanations assist the reader in gaining a deeper understanding of the concepts involved.
A crucial read for students of hydrogeology, geochemistry and civil engineering, professionals in the water sciences will also find inspiration in the practical examples and modeling templates.
See what’s new in the Fourth Edition:
· Additional bioconcentration factors
· Additional aquatic and mammalian toxicity values
· Additional degradation rates and corresponding half-lives in various environmental compartments
· Ionization potentials
· Additional aqueous solubility of miscellaneous inorganic and organic compounds
· Additional Henry’s Law constants for 1,850 compound entries
· Additional octanol-water partition coefficients for 1,475 compound entries
· Additional biological, chemical, and theoretical oxygen demand values for various organic compounds
· Four additional tables: Test Method Number Index, Dielectric Values of Earth Materials and Fluids, Lowest Odor Threshold Concentrations of Organic Compounds in Water, and Lowest Threshold Concentrations of Organic Compounds in Water
· A section for each compound entry describing potential sources of compounds detected in the environment
The compounds profiled include solvents, herbicides, insecticides, fumigants, and other hazardous substances commonly found in the groundwater and soil environments, the organic Priority Pollutants promulgated by the U.S. EPA under the Clean Water Act of 1977, and compounds commonly found in the workplace and environment. The presentation remains virtually the same as previous editions, making the information easy to find and immediately useful.
Author David Bainbridge has spent more than 25 years actively involved in restoring lands across the American Southwest. A Guide for Desert and Dryland Restoration presents the results of his years of fieldwork, as well as research and experience from scientists and practitioners around the globe.
The book discusses the ecology of desert plants, explores the causes of desertification and land abuse, and outlines the processes and procedures needed to evaluate, plan, implement, and monitor desert restoration projects. It sets forth economical and practical field-tested solutions for understanding site characteristics, selecting and growing plants, and ensuring that they survive with a minimal amount of water and care. Each chapter represents a guide to a critical topic for environmental restoration; extensive photographs, diagrams and drawings give detailed information for immediate application, and additional resources are included in appendixes.
A Guide for Desert and Dryland Restoration is the first comprehensive book focused on restoring arid regions, and clearly demonstrates that arid lands can be successfully rehabilitated. In addition to restorationists, the book will be an invaluable resource for anyone working in arid lands, including farmers, ranchers, gardeners, landscapers, outdoor recreation professionals, and activists.
Important environmental considerations, including solid waste disposal and predicted emissions, are addressed individually in separate chapters. This book places an emphasis on combustion, hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and material issues, and illustrates these concepts with numerous examples of present applications and past experience. This book also examines the relevance of design and feed-stock parameters to the operation of a CFB boiler; designs of mechanical components, including cyclones, air distributor grids, and solid recycle systems; and special problems CVB boilers present with construction materials.
The Columbia River Treaty: A Primer is a vital work that clearly explains the nature of this complex water agreement between Canada and the United States and how its impending update will impact communities, landscapes, industry and water supplies between the two countries for many years to come.
The Columbia River Treaty ratification in 1964 created the largest hydropower project in North America, with additional emphasis on flood protection for the USA. As the Treaty approaches its 60th anniversary, and the first opportunity for modification, its signatories are preparing proposals for new ways forward, and stakeholders on both sides of the border are speaking up.
This primer explores the initial intent of the Treaty and its success to date, its costs to Columbia Basin residents and ecosystems, and new influences the signatories must now consider. Shifts in social norms related to the environment, equity and social justice, new views on the relevance of Indigenous traditional and local knowledge, and the economic and physical effects of a changing climate – are all considered as factors in future Treaty governance. The primer concludes with a summary of the perspectives that currently exist between and within each country with respect to Treaty benefits and outlines the next steps that will take place in the negotiation process. The authors conclude with a call to action, in the hope that a renewed Columbia River Treaty might prove a model for outstanding transboundary water agreements around the world as they strive to meet not only the challenges of the present day but also the needs of future generations.
A source of practical know-how, the book covers sampling and storage, analytical methodology, and guidelines and procedures for quality assurance. It presents analytical methods with the step-by-step procedures that help practitioners implement these methods successfully into the laboratory, making them instantly applicable without consulting further literature. The book also contains essential information for developing or improving quality control and quality assurance programs in the laboratory. It includes the availability and measurement of standard reference materials, blank estimation and correction, control of recoveries, and statistical evaluation of quality assurance data.
Analytical chemistry is a very active and fast moving area. Despite the development of innovative new analytical techniques for chemical trace element research, obtaining reliable data at ultra-trace levels remains a formidable challenge. A complete and practical guide, this book delineates proven methods that consistently yield reproducible data in routine work.
Stephen William Hawking was born on January 8, 1942 in Oxford, England.
Hawking was born into a tumultuous and war-torn climate, as Great Britain was deeply engaged in World War II at the time of his birth.
Hawking’s parents were both academics committed to pursuing life-long journeys of education.
Though during the day Frank and Isobel Hawking worked mundane jobs as a part-time teacher and a medical research secretary, both of Stephen Hawking’s parents juggled their continuing academic studies at the prestigious Oxford University in their off time.
For more interesting facts you must read his biography.
Grab Your biography book now!
Arguably the first book devoted entirely to examining this important resource, Wadi Hydrology presents methodologies for sustainable management of wadis and their water resources. Through unique physical approaches, field cases, sample interpretations, and various applications to different models, this book provides an in-depth understanding of these systems that illustrates the efficiency of harnessing water from wadis. The author compiles the most up-to-date information on arid region hydrology, including specific techniques for hydrological calculations and desertification assessments, and includes examples and solved problems in each chapter.
This book will give a balanced, impartial account of the whole situation to its present day, its key aim being to inform the reader about the facts and mechanisms of the dialogue process and the need to approach decisions in a different way.
Readers will benefit from an account of the mistakes made by both sides, the input from government, the scientific community, the press and public, and can apply this knowledge to future environmental issues.
This authoritative reference book is comprehensive in its coverage of the geomorphology of desert environments, and is arranged thematically. It begins with an overview of global deserts, proceeds through treatments of weathering, hillslopes, rivers, piedmonts, lake basins, and aeolian surfaces, and concludes with a discussion of the role of climatic change. Written by a team of international authors, all of whom are active in the field, the chapters cover the spectrum of desert geomorphology.
Key themes addressed include:Water security as a foreign policy issue The interconnected variables of water, food, and human security Dimensions other than military and international relations concerns around water security Water security theory and methods, tools and audits.
The book is loosely based on a masters level degree plus a short professional course on water security both given at the University of East Anglia, delivered by international authorities on their subjects. It should serve as an introductory textbook as well as be of value to professionals, NGOs, and policy-makers.
The Committee on Hydrologic Science was established by the National Research Council in 1999 to identify priorities for hydrologic science that will ensure its vitality as a scientific discipline in service of societal needs. This charge will be performed principally through a series of studies that provide scientific advice on the hydrologic aspects of national program and U.S. hydrologic contributions to international programs.
This first report contains a preliminary assessment of the hydrologic science content of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). Because this is a short and focused report, little effort is spent to reaffirm the established and successful elements of the USGCRP. In fact, the Committee generally endorses the findings of the National Research Council (NRC) report Global Environmental Change: Research Pathways for the Next Decade (NRC, 1998a; the so-called Pathways report) in this respect. Instead the attention here is directed toward the most critical missing hydrologic science elements in the FY2000 USGCRP. This brings the focus to the terrestrial component of the water cycle. The integrative nature of terrestrial hydrology could significantly strengthen the USGCRP.
New material on complying with the NPDES program for Phase II and in running a stormwater quality program
The latest information on stormwater utilities
Metric versions of many of the equations, charts, and design monographs
The latest information on Best Management Practices (BMPs)
New concepts in stormwater master planning
An understanding of the recent evolution in stormwater practice
Site design practices to reduce stormwater impacts
Lots of additional information related to the development of municipal stormwater programs
The authors provide the most up-to-date information available, including water quality best management practices and stormwater master and quality management plans. They present little known but valuable tables, charts, and procedures covering both common designs and more specialized situations. Both English and Metric versions of charts and nomographs are included where available and where deemed useful for the designer.
The text presents an understanding of what works and what doesn't in real-world municipalities. Topics on planning and institutional concerns focus on programs dealing with public awareness, ordinances and regulations, and financing. Technical design topics range from the practical aspects of hydrologic procedures to the design of culverts and storm drainage systems. This stand-alone document provides all the essential information for the design and analysis of most stormwater management facilities.
Municipal Stormwater Management, Second Edition covers all aspects of municipal Stormwater management, from planning and institutional concerns to technical design considerations. It details the design applications and the institutional aspects of Stormwater management that planners and administrators face on a daily basis. The material and depth of coverage make this book the perfect text for both professional and academic use.
This book is addressed to university students of geology especially engineering geology and hydrogeology, geophysics and earth sciences, and post graduate, reseachers, and practising engineering geologists, geotechnical engineers, and hydrogeologists.
As opposed to more theoretical works, this is a catalog of possible engineering interventions in karst and their implications. Although the majority of readers will be professionals with geology/hydrogeology backgrounds, the language is not purely technical making it accessible to a wider audience. This means that the methodology, case studies and experiences presented will also benefit water managers working in karst environments.
Individually these principles and practices are not new, but in combination they describe an innovative approach for addressing complex water and related management issues. This recommended process consists of a series of four basic phases; Assessment, Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation, which are built on stakeholder involvement, social capacity, and adequate monitoring. This four-phased approach will assist watershed practitioners develop a plan consistent with the recently released USDA-EPA Watershed Management Planning and Implementation Process guidance. This process can be used to implement a management strategy to meet the load allocations required by an approved Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), the goals of a Source Water Protection Plan, USDA programs such as EQIP, or Section 319 Project.
The process outlined in the text is applicable for both restoration and prevention projects. The Watershed Project Management Guide focuses on the complexities of the watershed management process, the watershed partnership's role in the processes, and what needs to be done next. The author has kept the technical jargon to a minimum to help the reader easily grasp the important points and where appropriate directs the reader to specific resources and references for further information.
About the Author:
Thomas E. Davenport is an Environmental Scientist for the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and was designated as the Agency's National Expert on Nonpoint Source Control in 1991. Dr. Davenport has received seven Bronze Medals from the EPA for outstanding contributions for various activities related to nonpoint source, lake restoration, and watershed management. Dr. Davenport has published over 40 papers, book chapters, and project reports. Present duties include serving as the Water Program Lead for the Great Lakes/Baltic Seas and 3 Rivers 3 Countries Watershed Capacity Building Projects.
See What’s New in the Second Edition:
Includes five new chapters covering ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, and petroleum hydrocarbons, as well as organoleptical and algal analysis methodology Compares older methods still frequently used with recently developed protocols, and examines future trends Features a new section regarding organoleptical analysis of water acknowledging that ultimately the consumers of drinking water have the final vote over its quality with respect to odor, flavor, and color
The book covers the physical, chemical, and other relevant properties of various substances found in water. It then describes the sampling, cleanup, extraction, and derivatization procedures, and concludes with detection methods. Illustrated with procedure flow charts and schematics, the text includes numerous tables categorizing methods according to type of component, origin of the water sample, parameters and procedures used, and application range.
With contributions from international experts, the book guides you through the entire scientific investigation starting with a sampling strategy designed to capture the real-world situation as closely as possible, and ending with an adequate chemometrical and statistical treatment of the acquired data. By organizing data into more than 300 tables, graphs, and charts, and supplementing the text with equations and illustrations, the editors distill a wealth of knowledge into a single accessible reference.
The book follows a logical sequence from the basic steps of model building and data analysis to implementing these concepts into working computer codes, and then on to assessing their results. It describes data processing (rarely considered in environmental analysis); outlines the tools needed to successfully analyze data and develop models, and moves on to real-world problems. The author illustrates in the first four chapters the methodological aspects of environmental systems analysis, and in subsequent chapters applies them to specific environmental concerns.
The accompanying software bundle is freely downloadable from the book web site. It follows the chapters sequence and provides a hands-on experience, allowing the reader to reproduce the figures in the text and experiment by varying the problem setting. A basic MATLAB literacy is required to get the most out of the software.
Ideal for coursework and self-study, this offering:
Deals with the basic concepts of environmental modeling and identification, both from the mechanistic and the data-driven viewpoint Provides a unifying methodological approach to deal with specific aspects of environmental modeling: population dynamics, flow systems, and environmental microbiology Assesses the similarities and the differences of microbial processes in natural and man-made environments Analyzes several aquatic ecosystems’ case studies Presents an application of an extended Streeter & Phelps (S&P) model Describes an ecological method to estimate the bioavailable nutrients in natural waters Considers a lagoon ecosystem from several viewpoints, including modeling and management, and more
The book covers a wide audience and gives a comprehensive review of various physical, chemical, and hybrid techniques commonly used for the disinfection of water as well as newer emerging technologies in terms of their mode of action, scale of operation, efficacy, merits, and demerits. It broadly addresses the issues related to water disinfection in three sections:Disinfection techniques—chemical, physical, and hybrid (combination)—and their likely scale of operation efficacy Disinfection by-product as a function of water source and the type of treatment Emerging and novel techniques, including new work on cavitation, an economical, energy-efficient, and simple alternative to the conventional methods of disinfection
Drinking Water Disinfection Techniques effectively combines the chemical, physical, biological, and engineering principles of water disinfection in one text. Discussing both conventional and novel techniques used for disinfection and the economics involved, the book gives a comprehensive review of various physical, chemical, and hybrid techniques used for disinfection to create potable water.
Replacing the Traditional Physical Model Approach
Computational models offer promise in improving the modeling of shallow water flows. As new techniques are considered, the process continues to change and evolve. Modeling Shallow Water Flows Using the Discontinuous Galerkin Method examines a technique that focuses on hyperbolic conservation laws and includes one-dimensional and two-dimensional shallow water flows and pollutant transports.
Combines the Advantages of Finite Volume and Finite Element Methods
This book explores the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, also known as the discontinuous finite element method, in depth. It introduces the DG method and its application to shallow water flows, as well as background information for implementing and applying this method for natural rivers. It considers dam-break problems, shock wave problems, and flows in different regimes (subcritical, supercritical, and transcritical).
Readily Adaptable to the Real World
While the DG method has been widely used in the fields of science and engineering, its use for hydraulics has so far been limited to simple cases. The book compares numerical results with laboratory experiments and field data, and includes a set of tests that can be used for a wide range of applications.Provides step-by-step implementation details Presents the different forms in which the shallow water flow equations can be written Places emphasis on the details and modifications required to apply the scheme to real-world flow problems
This text enables readers to readily understand and develop an efficient computer simulation model that can be used to model flow, contaminant transport, and other aspects in rivers and coastal environments. It is an ideal resource for practicing environmental engineers and researchers in the area of computational hydraulics and fluid dynamics, and graduate students in computational hydraulics.
Reviewing the historical development of the field and highlighting key concepts for each unit process, each chapter follows a general format that consists of process description, history, theory, practice, problems, references, and a glossary. This organizational style facilitates finding sections of immediate interest without having to page through an excessive amount of material.
End-of-chapter glossaries provide a ready reference and add terms pertinent to topic but beyond the scope of the chapter Sidebars sprinkled throughout the chapters present the lore and history of a topic, enlarging students’ perspective Example problems emphasize tradeoffs and scenarios rather than single answers and involve spreadsheets Reference material includes several appendices and a quick-reference spreadsheet Solutions manual includes spreadsheets for problems Supporting material is available for download
Understanding how the field arrived at its present state of the art places the technology in a more logical context and gives students a strong foundation in basic principles. This book does more than build technical proficiency, it adds insight and understanding to the broader aspects of water treatment unit processes.
It also provides updated material on hydrological science and engineering, discussing recent developments as well as classic approaches. Published in three books, Fundamentals and Applications; Modeling, Climate Change, and Variability; and Environmental Hydrology and Water Management, the entire set consists of 87 chapters, and contains 29 chapters in each book.
The chapters in this book contain information on:
Long-term generation of scheduling of hydro plants, check dam selection procedures in rainwater harvesting, and stochastic reservoir analysis Ecohydrology for engineering harmony in the changing world, concepts, and plant water use Conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water Hydrologic and hydraulic design in green infrastructure Data processing in hydrology, optimum hydrometric site selection and quality control, and homogenization of climatological series Cold region hydrology, evapotranspiration, and water consumption Modern flood prediction and warning systems, and satellite-based systems for flood monitoring and warning Catchment water yield estimation, hydrograph analysis and base flow separation, and low flow hydrology Sustainability in urban water systems and urban hydrology
Students, practitioners, policy makers, consultants and researchers can benefit from the use of this text.
Aquatic Effects of Acidic Deposition summarizes and synthesizes these major advancements, particularly those topics that are directly relevant to policy making. It offers complete coverage of recent findings that have substantiated, deepened, modified, or in some cases, revolutionized scientific understanding in environmental research.
This resource addresses the quantification of effects and recent developments in predictive modeling capabilities. It covers virtually all aspects of nitrogen effects research, the importance of natural sources of acidity, the influence of land use and landscape change on drainage water chemistry, and the role of short-term episodic events.
This comprehensive update thoroughly illustrates the progression and refinement in the field. Aquatic Effects of Acidic Deposition helps you make educated decisions based on the most recent, reliable data for air pollution sensitivities, effects, remediation, and future research.
This volume and the accompanying USB memory card include the abstracts and full papers that were presented at the 6th International Groundwater Symposium that was held in Kuwait between 19 and 21 of November, 2012. The Symposium was jointly organized by the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and the Groundwater Hydraulics and Management Committee of the International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research (IAHR). More than 100 researchers, engineers, geologists and water specialists from more than 20 countries attended the Symposium to exchange ideas and expertise relating to the latest developments in the fi eld. The papers presented at the Symposium were organized under the following themes: modeling and management under uncertainty, sustainable groundwater management in arid and semiarid environments, Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) as a groundwater management tool, management solutions for groundwater rise problems, fl ow and transport modeling, and subsurface contamination and remediation.
This volume provides a state-of-the-art discussion of the latest issues relating to groundwater exploration, management and protection, with an emphasis on bridging the gap between research practice and policy. The volume will serve as an important reference to students, researchers, modelers as well as practitioners and policy makers.
The book starts with a historical overview of water repellency research, followed by seven thematic sections covering 26 research chapters. The first section discusses the origin, the second the assessment, and the third the occurrence and hydrological implications of soil water repellency. The fourth section is devoted to the effect of fire on water repellency, section five deals with the physics and modeling of flow and transport in water repellent soils, section six presents amelioration techniques and farming strategies to combat soil water repellency, and section seven concludes the book with an extensive bibliography on soil water repellency.
This book presents in great detail the results of one of the most comprehensive isotope hydrology studies ever undertaken.
Although conventional treatment processes can be effective for the removal of HAB cells and some HAB toxins under optimal conditions, the potential exists for significant breakthrough of toxins during normal operation. As a result, there is a recognized need for more advanced techniques. Possible advanced processes for removing HAB toxins include granular activated carbon (GAC), powdered activated carbon (PAC), or oxidative processes. This book reviews both conventional and advanced treatment processes and presents clear and easy-to-understand procedures for the design of systems for optimal cell or toxin removal.