Volume 1 deals with the fundamental concepts involved in the planning and design of open pit mines. Subjects covered are mine planning, mining revenues and costs, orebody description, geometrical considerations, pit limits, production planning, mineral resources and ore reserves, responsible mining, rock blasting, rotary drilling, shovel loading, haulage trucks and machine availability and utilization.
Volume 2 includes CSMine and MicroMODEL, user-friendly mine planning and design software packages developed specifically to illustrate the practical application of the involved principles. It also comprises the CSMine and MicroMODEL tutorials and user’s manuals and eight orebody case examples, including drillhole data sets for performing a complete open pit mine evaluation.
Open Pit Mine Planning and Design is an excellent textbook for courses in surface mine design, open pit design, geological and excavation engineering, and in advanced open pit mine planning and design. The principles described apply worldwide. In addition, the work can be used as a practical reference by professionals. The step-by-step approach to mine design and planning offers a fast-path approach to the material for both undergraduate and graduate students. The outstanding software guides the student through the planning and design steps, and the eight drillhole data sets allow the student to practice the described principles on different mining properties (three copper properties, three iron properties and two gold properties). The well-written text, the large number of illustrative examples and case studies, the included software, the review questions and exercises and the reference lists included at the end of each chapter provide the student with all the material needed to effectively learn the theory and application of open pit mine planning and design.
The problems of abnormally high formation pressures encountered in the subsurface while drilling for petroleum are very diverse, involving geologists, geophysicists, reservoir engineers, drilling engineers, and borehole logging engineers. The acute anticipation of such pressures before drilling has become possible with modern technology. This book treats these developments and covers the following topics: world occurrences, the geology of abnormal pore pressures and the background theory, reservoir engineering aspects of abnormally pressured reservoirs, detection of abnormal pressures by geophysical methods before drilling and during drilling, and their evaluation after drilling. It examines the special problems of shallow hazards from shallow abnormal pressures, and relief-well engineering to control blowouts. It also examines the generation of abnormal pressures from hydrocarbon generation in the Rocky Mountains, and the distribution of abnormal pressures in south Louisiana, USA. The topics are examined from a practical point of view with a theoretical background. There is a glossary of terms, and a relevant practical conversion table. Both SI units and the conventional US oil industry units are used.
Commencing with a brief introduction to mineral systems, and the properties of minerals in plane-polarised and cross-polarised light, the mineral key also includes line drawings, tables of mineral properties and an interference colour chart, to further aid mineral identification. To minimise the chance of misidentification, and enable less experienced petrologists to use the key with confidence, the key has been arranged to prioritise those properties that are most easily recognised.
Designed for simplicity and ease of use, it is primarily aimed at undergraduate and postgraduate students of mineralogy and petrology, but should also provide a valuable source of reference for all practising geologists dealing with rock thin sections and their interpretation.
The discussion of the ultimate bearing capacity of shallow foundations is the most comprehensive presentation on the subject to be found anywhere, and the review of earth anchors is unique to this book. In addition, each chapter includes several topics which have never appeared in any other book. The treatment is primarily theoretical and does not in any way compete with existing foundation design books.
This is the only textbook of its kind. Not only will it be welcomed by teachers and first-year graduate students of geotechnical engineering, but it will be a useful reference for graduate students and consultants in the the field, as well as being a valuable addition to any civil engineering library.
When it comes to designing and constructing retaining structures that are safe and durable, understanding the interaction between soil and structure is at the foundation of it all. Laying down the groundwork for the non-specialists looking to gain an understanding of the background and issues surrounding geotechnical engineering, Earth Pressure and Earth-Retaining Structures, Third Edition introduces the mechanisms of earth pressure, and explains the design requirements for retaining structures. This text makes clear the uncertainty of parameter and partial factor issues that underpin recent codes. It then goes on to explain the principles of the geotechnical design of gravity walls, embedded walls, and composite structures.
What’s New in the Third Edition:
The first half of the book brings together and describes possible interactions between the ground and a retaining wall. It also includes materials that factor in available software packages dealing with seepage and slope instability, therefore providing a greater understanding of design issues and allowing readers to readily check computer output. The second part of the book begins by describing the background of Eurocode 7, and ends with detailed information about gravity walls, embedded walls, and composite walls. It also includes recent material on propped and braced excavations as well as work on soil nailing, anchored walls, and cofferdams. Previous chapters on the development of earth pressure theory and on graphical techniques have been moved to an appendix.
Earth Pressure and Earth-Retaining Structures, Third Edition is written for practicing geotechnical, civil, and structural engineers and forms a reference for engineering geologists, geotechnical researchers, and undergraduate civil engineering students.
Written in a clear and easy to understand language, the book is based on the authors 30 years of experience in the design, analysis and instillation of offshore structures. This book answers the above mentioned crucial questions as well as covers the entire spectrum of subjects in the discipline, from route selection and planning to design, construction, installation, materials and corrosion, inspection, welding, repair, risk assessment, and applicable design solutions. It yields a roadmap not only for the subsea engineer but also the project managers, estimators and regulatory personnel hoping to gain an appreciation of the overall issues and directed approaches to subsea engineering design solutions.Up-to-date technical overview of deepwater riser engineeringEasy to understand Coverage of design, analysis and, stallationAddresses issues concerning both fixed and floating platformsCovers techincal equipment such as Subsea Control Systems, Pressure Piping, Connectors and EquipmentLayout as well as Remotely-operated vehicles
Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the geotechnical aspects of planning and construction of dams and reservoirs, along with the origin, nature, and magnitude of problems associated with the foundation materials to be used. It then looks at the geological classification of natural substances and the strengths of these substances in terms of their origin, fabric, and mineralogy; excavation and filling of valleys; the influence of geologic structure in the development of erosional and depositional features in valleys; and the flow of water (seepage) beneath dams and around abutments. The reader is also introduced to groundwater hydrology as it relates to the movement of water through anisotropic materials beneath standing or running bodies of water at the Earth's surface and beneath dams; the mechanics of dam foundations; and excavations and dam construction in unconsolidated deposits.
This book will be of interest to geologists, geophysicists, and engineers, as well as those involved in hydrology, geosciences, and rock and soil mechanics.
Special attention is paid to alternative ways of mining, such as borehole underground coal gasification for extraction of hardly accessible coal and development of gasification plant and development and use of alternative sources of energy such as gas hydrates and sun energy are also disucssed in this book.
This collection of scientific papers will be of interest to mining engineers, engineering technicians, designers, scientific and research personnel, students, postgraduates, and all mining-related professionals working in the coal and ore industry.
Grounded in fundamental scientific and engineering principles, its practical emphasis is enhanced by the use of actual case studies from historic and present-day plants. The thermodynamic basis for the design of geothermal power plants is at the heart of the book. The Second Law is used extensively to assess the performance and guide the design of various types of geothermal energy conversion systems. The case studies included in the third part of the book are chosen from plants around the world, and increase the reader's understanding of the elements involved in gaining access to, and making use of, this important renewable energy resource.
The book is illustrated with over 240 photographs and drawings, many in full color. Nine chapters include practice problems, with answers, for the reader to test his/her understanding of the material. A comprehensive and definitive worldwide compilation of every geothermal power plant that has ever operated, unit by unit, is given in detailed tables as an appendix. In another appendix, DiPippo offers a concise digest of applicable thermodynamics.
* Unique and thoroughly up to date
* Comprehensive and international in scope
* Author of international repute
This book is based on the efficient subsoil model introduced by the authors in 1977 and applied in the last ten years in the design of foundations. From the designer's point of view, the model considerably reduces the extent of the calculations connected with the numerical analysis of soil-structure interaction. The algorithms presented are geared for use on mini- and personal computers and can be used in any numerical method. A special chapter is devoted to the implementation of the model in the NE-XX finite element program package, illustrated with diagrams, tables and practical examples.
Besides presenting the energy definition and general theory of both 2D and 3D model forms, the book also deals with practical problems such as Kirchhoff's and Mindlin's foundation plates, interaction between neighbouring structures, actual values of physical constants of subsoils and natural frequencies and shapes of foundation plates.
Today, researchers and engineers can choose from a wide range of soil models, some fairly simple and others very elaborate. However, the gap which has long existed between geomechanical theory and everyday design practice still persists. The present book is intended to suit the practical needs of the designer by introducing an efficient subsoil model in which the surrounding soil is substituted by certain properties of the structure-soil interface. When a more precise solution is required, a more sophisticated model form can be used. Its additional degrees of deformation freedom can better express the behaviour of layered or generally unhomogeneous subsoil. As a result, designers will find that this book goes some way towards bridging the above-mentioned gap between structural design theory and day-to-day practice.
Empirical, rational, numerical, convergence and confinement, and discontinuity analysis methods are treated comprehensively. Special chapters are devoted to underground structures in rock burst, swelling, squeezing, and seismic zones. Water control, instrumentation, and tunneling through soft ground are also treated extensively. Sections on the design of pressure tunnels, shafts, caverns, shotcreting, water control, and soft ground tunnels are informative and authoritative. Worked examples are included on the design of rock tunnels, soft ground tunnels, and the treatment of underground structures through difficult ground.
Extensive references are provided, and figures, sketches and photographs aid presentation. Important tables on planning, and case histories, allow the reader to build confidence in his design of underground structures.
The book will be beneficial to civil, structural, geotechnical and mining engineers, geologists, and planners and managers associated with the design and construction of underground structures.
* open pit and underground mine planning, modelling and design
* mining and processing methods
* design, monitoring and maintenance of mine equipment
* simulation, optimalization and control of technological processes
* management, mine economics and financial analysis
* health, safety and environmental protection.
Including 147 papers from leading experts and authorities, Mine Planning and Equipment Selection undoubtedly provides valuable information and insight for a range of engineers, scientists, researchers and consultants involved in the planning, design and operation of underground and surface mines.
Innovative technologies helping to increase technical-economic indices, extraction volume, working efficiency and safety rules are presented in the book. Specific attention is given to unmanned mineral extraction technologies development using electro-hydraulic management systems of machinery. Plough systems are examined for coal extraction from thin and very thin seams (ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 m of thickness with gaining of stable daily output equal to 2.5-3 thousand tons).
Analytical models describing geomechanical interaction between "massif-support" system elements are presented, finite-element method use for research and simulation of stress-strain state around stopes and development workings at coal, ore and other mines are also given.
The borehole underground coal gasification technology is introduced with receiving technical gas for electricity generation, and syngas for usage in the chemical industry. Also research of gas hydrates and development of technologies for their extraction from the Black sea bottom is further scrutinized in this book.
The book begins by discussing free vibration of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems, both damped and undamped, and forced vibration (harmonic force) of SDOF systems. Response to periodic dynamic loadings and impulse loads are also discussed, as are two degrees of freedom linear system response methods and free vibration of multiple degrees of freedom. Further chapters cover time history response by natural mode superposition, numerical solution methods for natural frequencies and mode shapes and differential quadrature, transformation and Finite Element methods for vibration problems. Other topics such as earthquake ground motion, response spectra and earthquake analysis of linear systems are discussed.
Structural dynamics of earthquake engineering: theory and application using Mathematica and Matlab provides civil and structural engineers and students with an understanding of the dynamic response of structures to earthquakes and the common analysis techniques employed to evaluate these responses. Worked examples in Mathematica and Matlab are given.Explains the dynamic response of structures to earthquakes including periodic dynamic loadings and impulse loadsExamines common analysis techniques such as natural mode superposition, the finite element method and numerical solutionsInvestigates this important topic in terms of both theory and practise with the inclusion of practical exercise and diagrams
This book illustrates the common clay minerals in soils and discusses the methods for their identification. It also reviews the theory of one-dimensional consolidation and discusses the soil structure in consolidation and compression. The book also presents the concepts of yield and failure in soils, yield criteria, and failure theories. It also focuses on granular and cohesive soil strength, including friction properties, the intrinsic friction angle, the volumetric strain, and pore-water pressure. The last part of the book discusses soil freezing and permafrost.
Introduction to Soil Mechanics covers the basic principles of soil mechanics, illustrating why the properties of soil are important, the techniques used to understand and characterise soil behaviour and how that knowledge is then applied in construction. The authors have endeavoured to define and discuss the principles and concepts concisely, providing clear, detailed explanations, and a well-illustrated text with diagrams, charts, graphs and tables. With many practical, worked examples and end-of-chapter and coverage of Eurocode 7, Introduction to Soil Mechanics will be an ideal starting point for the study of soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering.
About the Authors
Béla Bodó B.Sc., B.A., C.Eng., M.I.C.E, was born in Hungary and studied at Budapest Technical University, the University of London and the Open University. He developed his expertise in Soil Mechanics during his employment with British Rail and British Coal.
Colin Jones B.Sc, C. Eng., M.I.C.E, P.G.C.E, studied at the University of Dundee, and worked at British Coal where he and Béla were colleagues. He has recently retired from the University of Wales, Newport where he was Programme Director for the Civil Engineering provision, specializing in Soil Mechanics and Geotechnics.
Fundamentals of Rock Mechanics
J C Jaeger, N G W Cook and R Zimmerman
Smith's Elements of Soil Mechanics
"It is a Handbook of Rock Engineering" - Zhao Jian, School of Civil & Structural Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
"I came across your new book - Rock Mass Classification, absolutely fantastic" - Subodh K. Jain, U.S.A
It contains illustrative worked examples of engineering rock mechanics in action as the subject applies to civil, mining, petroleum and environmental engineering. The book covers the necessary understanding and the key techniques supporting the rock engineering design of structural foundations, dams, rock slopes, wellbores, tunnels, caverns, hydroelectric schemes and mines. There is a question and worked answer presentation with the question and answer sets collated into twenty chapters which match the subject matter of the first book.
Many of the applications have been directed to water/ice soil-systems, but it should be clear that the basic techniques and solutions can be applied to such diverse areas as metallurgy, biological systems, latent heat storage, and the preservation of food.
This collection of 78 historical papers provides a wide view of the rich body of literature that documents the development of fundamental concepts geotechnical engineering and their application to practical problems. From the highly theoretical to the elegantly practical, the papers in this one-of-a-kind collection are significant for their contributions to the geotechnical engineering literature. Among the writings of more than 60 geotechnical engineering pioneers are several by Karl Terzaghi, widely known as the father of soil mechanics, R.R. Proctor, Arthur Casagrande, and Ralph Peck. Many of these papers contain information as useful today as when they were first written. Others provide great insight into the origins and development of the field and the thought processes of its leaders.
The second part of the book considers the applications of various theories which were either first developed for descriptive purposes in continuum mechanics and then adopted in soil and rock mechanics, or were specially developed for the latter discipline. Chapter 4 discusses the application of the theory of linear viscoelasticity in solving problems of stable behaviour of rocks and soils. Chapter 5 covers the use of the groundwater flow theory as applied to several problems connected with water movement in an undeformable soil or rock skeleton. Chapter 6 is a natural expansion of the arguments put forward in the previous chapter. Here the movement of water is regarded as the cause of deformation of the rock or soil skeleton and the consolidation theory developed on this basis is presented in a novel formulation. Some new engineering solutions are also reported. The seventh chapter is devoted to the limit state theory as applied to the study of the mechanical behaviour of soils and rocks. It presents some new solutions and methods which include both static and kinematic aspects of the problem, and some original effective methods for investigating media of limited cohesion. The final chapter gives a systematic account of the mechanics of highly dispersed soils, commonly called clays.
The papers in the present volume are from leading experts in the field of CO2 storage and were presented at an International Workshop on CO2 Storage in Carboniferous Formations and Abandoned Coal Mines (Beijing, China, 8-9 January 2011). CO2 storage in abandoned coal mines appears to have a bright future. Although CO2 Storage in Carboniferous Formations and Abandoned Coal Mines is primarily intended for mining engineers, environmental engineers and engineering geologists, the book will also be useful to civil engineers, and academics and professionals in geophysics and geochemistry.
This book on statistical analysis and synthesis starts with a short repetition of probability theory and also includes a special section on statistical prediction. The text is illustrated with many examples taken from mining practice; moreover the tables required to conduct statistical inference are included.
In this unique reference volume, rotary blasthole drilling and surface blasting, as applied in large surface mines, are comprehensively covered. Both new and classic concepts, techniques and methodologies are presented, supported by numerous illustrations and practical data. In 26 chapters, drilling, surface blasting, rock, rock mass, machinery, tools and accessories, compressors and air flushing, computing and practice are many other relevant subjects are treated; the first 16 chapters deal with rotary blasthole drilling, and the 10 next chapters with the concepts, theory and practice of blasting. Moreover, the 14 appendices provide vital technical and commercial data, to further support the reader to design, plan, execute, and calculate blasthole drilling operations.
This volume is intended for professionals and technicians in mining, exploration, geological and mechanical engineering, who are involved with the design, planning, and execution of rotary drilling and blasting operations in surface mines.
• Easy-to-understand approach the formulas and calculations
• Covers calculations for foundation,earthworks and/or pavement subgrades
• Provides common codes for working with computer software
• All calculations are provided in both US and SI units
The book is organized into two parts. Part I deals with theory and practice, and summarizes some of the theoretical physical properties of expansive soils. It also discusses various techniques employed to found structures on expansive soils such as drilled pier foundation, mat foundation, moisture control, soil replacement, and chemical stabilization. Topics covered include the origin, mineralogical composition, and the basic structure of expansive soils; the migration of water, swelling potential, and swelling pressure; site investigations and laboratory testing; moisture control; and soil stabilization. Part II presents case studies on the following: distress caused by pier uplift; distress caused by the improper design and construction of a drilled pier foundation system; distress caused by heaving of footing pad and floor slab; distress caused by heaving of continuous footings; and distress caused by a rise of ground water.
1. Construction of buildings and streets adds weight to the region causing additional soil deformations.
2. Often the regions have to be drained in order to be occupied. This results in lowering of the water table and leads to hydro-compaction.
3. Often the groundwater is used as a source of water for both human consumption and industrial use.
4. Levees and dams are often built to prevent or control flooding.
Earth fissures caused by ground failure in areas of uneven or differential compaction have damaged buildings, roads and highways, railroads, flood-control structures and sewer lines. As emphasized by Barends , "in order to develop a legal framework to claims and litigation, it is essential that direct and indirect causes of land subsidence effects can be quantified with sufficient accuracy from a technical and scientific point of view."
Most existing methods and software applications treat the subsidence problem by analyzing one of the causes. This is due to the fact that the causes appear at different spatial scales. For example, over-pumping creates large scale subsidence, while building loading creates local subsidence/consolidation only.
Then, maximum permissible land subsidence (or consolidation) is a constraint in different management problems such as: groundwater management, planning of town and/or laws on building construction. It is, therefore, necessary to quantify the contribution of each cause to soil subsidence of the ground surface in cities urban area.
In this text book, we present an engineering approach based on the Biot system of equations to predict the soil settlement due to subsidence, resulting from different causes. Also we present a case study of The Bangkok Metropolitan Area (BMA).
This report is a handy and comprehensive source of information for dam owners, engineers, and regulators about instrumentation and measurements for monitoring performance of all types of dams. It presents the methodology and process for the selection, measurement instruments and techniques, installation, operation, maintenance, use, and evaluation of instrumentation and measurement systems for dams, appurtenant structures, their foundations, and environment.
Topics include:factors affecting dam performance, means and methods of monitoring dam performance, planning and implementation of a monitoring program, data evaluation and reporting, and decision making.
Case histories of instrumentation and monitoring programs at specific dams are provided for the reader.
"I highly recommend this comprehensive reference on instrumentation used to evaluate dam performance. All owners, engineers, and regulators of dams should own a copy of this book." ?Fred Sage, Field Branch Chief, California Division of Safety of Dams
This collections contains 35 key papers by James K. Mitchell during his extraordinary career as a geotechnical engineer.Ø In addition to teaching, Mitchell's career encompassed geotechnical projects ranging from research on hazardous waste landfill stability at Kettleman Hills in California, to lunar soil analysis for NASA Apollo Missions, to working with the Mayor of San Francisco following the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Science.
Topics include:experimental and analytic studies of soil behavior related to geotechnical and geo-environmental problems; soil improvement and ground reinforcement, physicochemical phenomena in soils, the stress-strain time behavior of soils, in situ measurement of soil properties, and mitigation of ground failure risk during earthquakes.
ASCE's Engineering Classics series presents selected papers of lasting importance by eminent engineers who have made outstanding contributions to their field.
Soil Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, Second Edition effectively explores the nature of soil, explains the principles of soil mechanics, and examines soil as an engineering material. This latest edition includes all the fundamental concepts of soil mechanics, as well as an introduction to foundation engineering, including coverage of site exploration, shallow and deep foundation design, and slope stability. It presents the material in a systematic, step-by-step manner, and contains numerous problems, examples, and solutions.
New to the Second Edition:
The revised text expands the contents to include an introductory foundation engineering section to make the book cover the full range of geotechnical engineering. The book includes three new chapters: Site Exploration, Deep Foundations, and Slope Stability.
Provides an introductory chapter on soil mechanics Explores the origin and description of soils and discusses soil shapes and gradations Presents the unique characteristics of clays Details soil classifications by the Unified Soil Classification System (also ASTM) and by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Highlights laboratory and field compaction techniques, including field specification and density testing,, and the CBR (California Bearing Ratio) method Discusses the flow of water through soils, defining hydraulic heads, as well as the two-dimensional flow net technique and a systematic approach to compute boundary water pressures Examines the concept of effective stress and its applications to various soil mechanics problems Explores stress increments in a soil mass due to various types of footing load on the ground Presents Terzaghi’s one-dimensional consolidation theory and its applications Covers Mohr’s circle from geotechnical perspectives with use of the pole, which is utilized in chapters relating to shear strength and lateral earth pressure Addresses the shear strength of soils, failure criteria, and laboratory as well as field shear strength determination techniques Evaluates at-rest earth pressure and the classic Rankine and Coulomb active and passive pressure theories and present critical review of those methods Reviews introductory foundation engineering and site exploration Describes the bearing capacity theory and, as an application, the shallow foundation design procedure Covers deep and shallow foundation design procedures Explains slope stability problems and remediation procedures, and more
Soil Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, Second Edition is a concise and thorough text that explains soil’s fundamental behavior and its applications to foundation designs and slope stability problems and incorporates basic engineering science knowledge with engineering practices and practical applications.
This report describes techniques, methods, and procedures applicable to the retirement of dams and hydroelectric facilities. These guidelines identify types of data options; describe available engineering, environmental, and economic methods for assessing, quantifying and implementing retirement; and identify techniques for comparing and evaluating retirement costs and benefits.
Topics include:data collection and analysis, studies of retirement, engineering and environmental assessment, sediment management, and review of selected case studies.
These two volumes serve as a comprehensive reference work, summarizing the current state-of-the-art in rock mechanics and rock engineering in Canada, the U.S. and beyond. The first volume of the proceedings presents papers describing new technologies, ideas and insights into fundamental rock mechanics. The second volume presents a collection of rock engineering case histories relevant to the major themes of the symposium: rock slope hazards, geotechnical infrastructure, surface and underground mining, and petroleum exploitation.
Rock Mechanics: Meeting Society's Challenges and Demands comprises the Proceedings of the 1st Canada-U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium, held in Vancouver, Canada, from May 27 to 31, 2007, as jointly organized by the Canadian Rock Mechanics Association (CARMA) and the American Rock Mechanics Association (ARMA).
This report describes a HITEC evaluation designed to determine the basic capabilites and limitations of the Geo-Con VERT Wall for use as a technically viable permanent excavation support retaining wall system. The evaluation was conducted based on design, construction, performance, and quality assurance information outlined in the HITEC Protocol. The Geo-Con VERT Wall System is an in-situ retaining wall system intended as an alternative to other types of cut walls such as soldier pile and anchored retaining walls. Geo-Con VERT Wall System is comprised of: deep soil mix columns consisting of overlapping or tangent soil-cement columns along the front face backed up by tangent rows of overlapping soil-cement columns; a soil-cement relieving platform overtop the columns; steel beams embedded in the front face soil-cement columns for support of the permanent facing; and permanent facing consisting of precast, reinforced concrete panels or reinforced cast-in-place concrete. The relieving platform is intended to provide internal stability by typing the soil-mix columns together and transferring the load to the bottom of the columns.
This report describes a HITEC evaluation designed to determine the basic capabilities and limitations of the MSE Plus System, manufactured by SSL, LLC, for use as a mechanically stabilized earth retaining system. The evaluation was conducted based on material, design, construction, performance, and quality assurance information outlined in the HITEC Protocol. TheØMSE PlusØSystem features rectangular segmental precast concrete facing panels and galanized welded wire, grid-type soil reinforcement.
This book describes seismic behaviour at many scales and from numerous fields in geophysics, tectonophysics and rock physics, and from civil, mining and petroleum engineering. Addressing key items for improved understanding of seismic behaviour, it often interprets seismic measurements in rock mechanics terms, with particular attention to the cause of attenuation, its inverse seismic quality, and the anisotropy of fracture compliances and stiffnesses.
Reviewed behaviour stretches over ten orders of magnitude, from micro-crack compliance in laboratory tests to cross-continent attenuation. Between these extremes lie seismic investigation of rock joints, boreholes, block tests, dam and bridge foundations, quarry blasting, canal excavations, hydropower and transportation tunnels, machine bored TBM tunnels, sub-sea sediment and mid-ocean ridge measurements, where the emphasis is on velocity-depth-age models. Attenuation of earthquake coda-waves is also treated, including in-well measurements.
In the later chapters, there is a general emphasis on deeper, higher stress, larger scale applications of seismic, such as shear-wave splitting for interpreting the attenuation, anisotropy and orientation of permeable 'open' fracture sets in petroleum reservoirs, and the 4D seismic effects of water-flood, oil production and compaction. The dispersive or frequency dependence of most seismic measurements and their dependence on fracture dimensions and fracture density is emphasized. The possibility that shear displacement may be required to explain permeability at depth is quantified.
This book is cross-disciplinary, non-mathematical and phenomenological in nature, containing a wealth of figures and a wide review of the literature from many fields in the Earth Sciences. Including a chapter of conclusions and an extensive subject index, it is a unique reference work for professionals, researchers, university teachers and students working in the fields of geophysics, civil, mining and petroleum engineering. It will be particularly relevant to geophysicists, engineering geologists and geologists who are engaged in the interpretation of seismic measurements in rock and petroleum engineering.
This unique and up-to-date book deals with the conceptual philosophy behind the use of instruments, and then systematically covers their practical use. It is divided into displacement dominated systems and stress recording systems. The limitations are discussed and the theoretical background for data assessment and presentation are covered in some detail, with some relevant background material in theoretical soil mechanics. Relevant advanced electronic techniques such as laser scanning in surveying and fibre-optics are also included and communication and data recovery systems are discussed.
This book is written for senior designers, consulting engineers, and major contractors who need a major introduction to the general purpose, availability, and analysis of field instruments before details of their own project can be progressed, and it serves as a textbook to any specialist geotechnical MSc or professional seminar course in which instrumentation forms a major part.
This report presents the current design practiceØfor diaphragm walls, with an emphasis on the most effective techniques. It provides an overview of various approaches to diaphragm wall design and presents several successful techniques used in Boston's Central Artery/Third Harbor Tunnel (CA/T) Project, a massive civil engineering effort thatØemployed more than three million square feet of diaphragm walls. This report focuses attention on the importance of techniques that take soil-structure interactions into consideration.
Particulars of the performance of the permeability tests and their evaluation are studied in some detail, since they can very much distort the results obtained, and thus lead to erroneous design assumptions. Systematic grouting and adjustment of the injection process to the development of grout consumption and pressure during injection is discussed in connection with the achievement of the required permeability standard. The application of grouting to reduce the permeability and the deformability of the foundation of dams and hydrotechnical structures is presented, together with a number of illustrative examples. Characteristics of contact and consolidation grouting of dam foundations and tunnel linings are described. The possibilities and examples of rock prestressing by means of grouting are reported, and the results from several applications are discussed. Examples of lifting and levelling leaning structures by means of grouting are also reviewed. The book is illustrated by 180 drawings and 20 photographs, and a list of symbols used in the formulae, plus a glossary of specific terms used in grouting, are included at the end of the book.
The book is intended for organizations, civil engineers and geologists involved in the exploration, design, construction and supervision of large dams, hydroelectric power projects, tunnels and other underground works. Teachers and students of civil engineering courses in geotechnics, building and construction, rock mechanics, soil mechanics, engineering geology, and some aspects of mining engineering will also find the book useful.
This second edition includes also a chapter on vibro concrete columns constructed with almost identical depth vibrators. These small diameter concrete piles are increasingly used as ground improvement methods for moderately loaded large spread foundations, although the original soil characteristics are only marginally improved.
This practical guide for professional geotechnical engineers and graduate students systematically covers the theoretical basis and design principles behind the methods, the equipment used during their execution, and state of the art procedures for quality assurance and data acquisition.
All the chapters are updated in line with recent developments and improvements in the methods and equipment. Fresh case studies from around the world illustrate the wide range of possible applications. The book concludes with variations to methods, evaluates the economic and environmental benefits of the methods, and gives contractual guidance.
Developed by one of the world’s leading authorities on drilling technology, the fifth edition of The Drilling Manual draws on industry expertise to provide the latest drilling methods, safety, risk management, and management practices, and protocols. Utilizing state-of-the-art technology and techniques, this edition thoroughly updates the fourth edition and introduces entirely new topics. It includes new coverage on occupational health and safety, adds new sections on coal seam gas, sonic and coil tube drilling, sonic drilling, Dutch cone probing, in hole water or mud hammer drilling, pile top drilling, types of grouting, and improved sections on drilling equipment and maintenance. New sections on drilling applications include underground blast hole drilling, coal seam gas drilling (including well control), trenchless technology and geothermal drilling. It contains heavily illustrated chapters that clearly convey the material.
This manual incorporates forward-thinking technology and details good industry practice for the following sectors of the drilling industry:
Blast Hole Environmental Foundation/Construction Geotechnical Geothermal Mineral Exploration Mineral Production and Development Oil and Gas: On-shore Seismic Trenchless Technology Water Well
The Drilling Manual, Fifth Editionprovides you with the most thorough information about the "what," "how," and "why" of drilling. An ideal resource for drilling personnel, hydrologists, environmental engineers, and scientists interested in subsurface conditions, it covers drilling machinery, methods, applications, management, safety, geology, and other related issues.
Written by a veteran geotechnical engineer with a long record of research discoveries, Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials: Principles and Applications presents a simple and unified approach to modeling various features of geomaterials in general stress systems. The book discusses the fundamentals of the constitutive modeling of soils and illustrates the application of these models to boundary value problems.
Helping readers easily understand the fundamentals and modeling of soil behaviors, the author first explains the ideas and formulations for modeling soil features in one-dimensional conditions. He then extends the one-dimensional models to three-dimensional models using the tij concept. The text covers the subloading tij model and other methods that describe density, bonding, time effect, and more. Moving on to the practical application of the constitutive models, the author presents the numerical simulations of typical geotechnical problems (numerical modeling) and the corresponding model tests (physical modeling).
Using a framework that leads to a unified set of material parameters, this book shows how to formulate a constitutive model capable of simulating the main features of soil behavior. It not only covers recent methods and models but also uses real test data to prove their reliability.
The book addresses several topics involving this popular worldwide practice including technology issues, the interpretation of the mechanisms taking place during the grouting, the quantitative prediction of their effects, the design of jet-grouted structures, and procedures for controlling jet grouting results.
Discusses the design criteria for jet grouting projects and reviews existing design rules and codes of practice of different countries Provides practical methods for design calculations of the most important jet-grouted structures such as foundations, earth retaining walls, water cut-offs, bottom plugs, and provisional tunnel supports Includes the current standard control methods and most innovative techniques reported for the implementation of quality control and quality assurance procedures
Jet Grouting: Technology, Design and Control analyzes the typical jet-grouted structures, such as foundations, earth retaining walls, water cut-offs, bottom plugs and tunnel supports, and serves as a practical manual for the correct use of jet grouting technology.
One of the first book to address all of the major areas in which this technology is used, this book deals with major topics such as: hydroelectric projects with modern planning of complex underground structures; underground storages of food items, crude oil and explosives and highly cautious underground nuclear waste repositories. Rail and road tunnels and TBM are described briefly. Risk management in underground infrastructures is of vital importance. Civil Engineers, Mining Engineers, and Geotechnical Engineers will find this book a valuable guide to designing and planning underground infrastructures both in terms of its applications.Risk management method for underground infrastructuresVital tips for the underground storage of food, water, crude oil, natural gas and munitionsProvides design tips for Underground Parking FacilitiesInstruction for the designing planning and construction for underground Metros and road tunnelsPlanning and design of underground nuclear waste repositoriesClearly explains the benefits and drawbacks of underground facilitiesQuick guide to the various modern mechanical underground parking optionsExplanation of construction planning and Risk managementPlaces expert advice for planning and constructing projects at the finger tips
This detailed 2nd Edition has many illustrations, giving readers solid foundation in the procedures, issues, benefits, and reverse benefits associated with current shale reservoir development using Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking).
Book contents, among others, include a concise explanation on:
* Natural Gas/crude oil (Conventional and Unconventional)
* Formation Preparation for Hydraulic Fracturing
* Well Drilling Process
* Well Completion Process (Perforation)
* Horizontal Well: The Preferred Well Configuration for Fracking
* Hydraulic Fracturing – Procedures, etc.
* Offshore Fracking: Quietly on the rise
* Common Misconception of Fracking Technique
* Environmental Concerns of Hydraulic Fracturing
* Benefits and reverse benefits of Hydraulic Fracturing
* Winners and losers when oil and gas prices fall
* Eco-Friendly Alternatives to Hydraulic Fracturing
Those who use this book include Technical/Nontechnical persons, students, and all that are following the trend in the global oil and gas industry. Readers are given a good footing on the procedures, issues, and benefits concerning “Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking)”.
The fourth edition further examines the relationships between the maximum and minimum void ratios of granular soils and adds the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) soil classification system. It summarizes soil compaction procedures and Proctor compaction tests. It introduces new sections on vertical stress due to a line load of finite length, vertical stress in Westergaard material due to point load, line load of finite length, circularly loaded area, and rectangularly loaded area. The text discusses the fundamental concepts of compaction of clay soil for the construction of clay liners in waste disposal sites as they relate to permeability and adds new empirical correlations for overconsolidation ratio and compression index for clay soils. It provides additional information on the components affecting friction angle of granular soils, drained failure envelopes, and secant residual friction angles of clay and clay shale.Contains 11 chapters Provides new example problems Includes SI units throughout the text Uses a methodical approach
The author adds new correlations between field vane shear strength, preconsolidation pressure, and overconsolidation ratio of clay soils. He also revises and expands information on elastic settlement of shallow foundations, adds a precompression with sand grains, and presents the parameters required for the calculation of stress at the interface of a three-layered flexible system.
An ideal resource for beginning graduate students, the fourth edition of Advanced Soil Mechanics further develops the basic concepts taught in undergraduate study by presenting a solid foundation of the fundamentals of soil mechanics.
This book is suitable for students taking an introductory graduate course, and it can also be used as a reference for practicing professionals.
The Geotechnical Engineering Handbook brings together essential information related to the evaluation of engineering properties of soils, design of foundations such as spread footings, mat foundations, piles, and drilled shafts, and fundamental principles of analyzing the stability of slopes and embankments, retaining walls, and other earth-retaining structures. The Handbook also covers soil dynamics and foundation vibration to analyze the behavior of foundations subjected to cyclic vertical, sliding and rocking excitations, environmental geotechnology, and foundations for railroad beds.
Comprehensive coverage, logical organization, and clear discussions make this the tool of choice for both experienced engineers and those just embarking on their careers.