“A thrilling account of the modern material world.” —Wall Street Journal
"Miodownik, a materials scientist, explains the history and science behind things such as paper, glass, chocolate, and concrete with an infectious enthusiasm." —Scientific American
Why is glass see-through? What makes elastic stretchy? Why does any material look and behave the way it does? These are the sorts of questions that renowned materials scientist Mark Miodownik constantly asks himself. Miodownik studies objects as ordinary as an envelope and as unexpected as concrete cloth, uncovering the fascinating secrets that hold together our physical world. In Stuff Matters, Miodownik explores the materials he encounters in a typical morning, from the steel in his razor to the foam in his sneakers. Full of enthralling tales of the miracles of engineering that permeate our lives, Stuff Matters will make you see stuff in a whole new way.
"Stuff Matters is about hidden wonders, the astonishing properties of materials we think boring, banal, and unworthy of attention...It's possible this science and these stories have been told elsewhere, but like the best chocolatiers, Miodownik gets the blend right." —New York Times Book Review
Inorganic chemistry can be an intimidating subject, but it doesn't have to be! Whether you're currently enrolled in an inorganic chemistry class or you have a background in chemistry and want to expand your knowledge, Inorganic Chemistry For Dummies is the approachable, hands-on guide you can trust for fast, easy learning.
Inorganic Chemistry For Dummies features a thorough introduction to the study of the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. In plain English, it explains the principles of inorganic chemistry and includes worked-out problems to enhance your understanding of the key theories and concepts of the field.Presents information in an effective and straightforward manner Covers topics you'll encounter in a typical inorganic chemistry course Provides plain-English explanations of complicated concepts
If you're pursuing a career as a nurse, doctor, or engineer or a lifelong learner looking to make sense of this fascinating subject, Inorganic Chemistry For Dummies is the quick and painless way to master inorganic chemistry.
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The Third Edition includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The first ten chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, with a gradual progression into more advanced material. The final chapter discusses mathematical topics needed in the analysis of experimental data.
* Numerous examples and problems interspersed throughout the presentations
* Each extensive chapter contains a preview, objectives, and summary
* Includes topics not found in similar books, such as a review of general algebra and an introduction to group theory
* Provides chemistry specific instruction without the distraction of abstract concepts or theoretical issues in pure mathematics
With concise descriptions presenting the chemical, physical and electrical properties of any given compound, this subject matter will serve as an introduction to the field. This compendium is vital for students and scientific researchers in all fields of scientific endeavors, including non-chemists.2013 Honorable Mention in Chemistry & Physics from the Association of American Publishers' PROSE Awards Presents a systematic coverage of all known alkaline earth inorganic compounds and their propertiesProvides a clear, consistent presentation based on groups facilitatating easy comparisons Includes the structure of all the compounds in high quality full-color graphics Summarizes all currently known properties of the transition metals compounds Lists the uses and applications of these compounds in electronics, energy, and catalysis
Packed with contributions from the world’s leading experts, this volume brings in authoritative information from a number of sciences, including chemistry, physics, nanotechnology and metallurgy. The book presents a myriad of applications, ranging from electronics to medicine and optics. A comprehensive overview chapter provides historical perspectives of the element and each chapter describes potential further uses, including applications currently being developed.
Gold Applications in Use Today Include:
Takes a principles-based, group and molecular orbital theory approach to inorganic chemistry The first inorganic chemistry textbook to provide a thorough treatment of group theory, a topic usually relegated to only one or two chapters of texts, giving it only a cursory overview Covers atomic and molecular term symbols, symmetry coordinates in vibrational spectroscopy using the projection operator method, polyatomic MO theory, band theory, and Tanabe-Sugano diagrams Includes a heavy dose of group theory in the primary inorganic textbook, most of the pedagogical benefits of integration and reinforcement of this material in the treatment of other topics, such as frontier MO acid--base theory, band theory of solids, inorganic photochemistry, the Jahn-Teller effect, and Wade's rules are fully realized Very physical in nature compare to other textbooks in the field, taking the time to go through mathematical derivations and to compare and contrast different theories of bonding in order to allow for a more rigorous treatment of their application to molecular structure, bonding, and spectroscopy Informal and engaging writing style; worked examples throughout the text; unanswered problems in every chapter; contains a generous use of informative, colorful illustrations
The subjects covered in the book can be divided into three sections. The first (chapters 1 to 3) covers the structural, physical, magnetic, and electronic properties of transition metal oxides. Although the emphasis is on surface properties, relevant bulk properties are also discussed. The second section (chapters 4 to 7) covers surface chemical properties. It includes topics that describe the importance of surface coordinative unsaturation in adsorption, the formation of surface acidity and the role of acidity in determining surface chemical properties, the nature and reactivities of adsorbed oxygen, and the surface chemistry in the reduction of oxides. The third section (chapters 8 to 14) is on the catalytic properties. Various catalytic reactions including decomposition, hydrogenation, isomerization, metathesis, selective oxidation, and reactions involving carbon oxides are discussed. Emphasis is placed more on reaction mechanisms and the role of catalysts than on kinetics and processes. Chapters on the preparation of oxide catalysts and on photo-assisted processes are also included. Whenever appropriate, relationships between various topics are indicated.
Written for surface physicists, chemists, and catalytic engineers, the book will serve as a useful source of information for investigators and as a comprehensive overview of the subject for graduate students.
Organized into six chapters, this book starts with a tabular presentation of data of the physical properties, thermodynamic properties, electrochemical properties, practical features, as well as spectroscopy and structure of molten salts. This text then illustrates the design features of different experimental assemblies and provides information on the technique through a liberally annotated bibliography. Other chapters provide a chemical index, which offers a ready guide to the status of data over the entire range of interests. This book presents as well the properties of viscosity, density, surface tension, refractive index, and electrical conductance for different compounds as single salt melts.
This book is a valuable resource for scientists and researchers from diverse fields, including theoretical and applied electrochemistry, inorganic coordination chemistry, and transition metal chemistry.
Accordingly, the book covers not only the 'inorganic' chemistry of the elements, but also analytical, theoretical, industrial, organometallic, bio-inorganic and other cognate areas of chemistry. The authors have broken with recent tradition in the teaching of their subject and adopted a new and highly successful approach based on descriptive chemistry. The chemistry of the elements is still discussed within the context of an underlying theoretical framework, giving cohesion and structure to the text, but at all times the chemical facts are emphasized. Students are invited to enter the exciting world of chemical phenomena with a sound knowledge and understanding of the subject, to approach experimentation with an open mind, and to assess observations reliably. This is a book that students will not only value during their formal education, but will keep and refer to throughout their careers as chemists.Completely revised and updatedUnique approach to the subjectMore comprehensive than competing titles
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Practice questions are divided into relevant sections for easy perusing.
Use this PDF to quickly assess your knowledge of Chemistry.
Perfect for all high school and college students and if you are preparing for standardized tests like the AP Chemistry, Regents Chemistry, MCAT, DAT and more.
The highly-anticipated paperback edition of The Elements is finally available.
An eye-opening, original collection of gorgeous, never-before-seen photographic representations of the 118 elements in the periodic table.
The elements are what we, and everything around us, are made of. But how many elements has anyone actually seen in pure, uncombined form? The Elements provides this rare opportunity. Based on seven years of research and photography, the pictures in this book make up the most complete, and visually arresting, representation available to the naked eye of every atom in the universe. Organized in order of appearance on the periodic table, each element is represented by a spread that includes a stunning, full-page, full-color photograph that most closely represents it in its purest form. For example, at -183°C, oxygen turns from a colorless gas to a beautiful pale blue liquid.
Also included are fascinating facts, figures, and stories of the elements as well as data on the properties of each, including atomic weight, density, melting and boiling point, valence, electronegativity, and the year and location in which it was discovered. Several additional photographs show each element in slightly altered forms or as used in various practical ways. The element's position on the periodic table is pinpointed on a mini rendering of the table and an illustrated scale of the element's boiling and/or melting points appears on each page along with a density scale that runs along the bottom.
Packed with interesting information, this combination of solid science and stunning artistic photographs is the perfect gift book for every sentient creature in the universe.
Includes a tear-out poster of Theodore Gray's iconic Photographic Periodic Table!
The Essentials For Dummies Series
Dummies is proud to present our new series, The Essentials For Dummies. Now students who are prepping for exams, preparing to study new material, or who just need a refresher can have a concise, easy-to-understand review guide that covers an entire course by concentrating solely on the most important concepts. From algebra and chemistry to grammar and Spanish, our expert authors focus on the skills students most need to succeed in a subject.
This book discusses the determination of basic and acidic properties on solid surfaces and relationship between acid strength and acid amount. The structure and acid-base properties of mixed metal oxides and correlation between acid-base properties and catalytic activity and selectivity are also deliberated.
This publication is useful to professional chemists and graduate students in the fields of organic, inorganic and physical chemistry, petroleum chemistry and catalysis, including readers interested in the acidic and basic properties on solid surfaces.
- Provides a comprehensive look at optical spectroscopy and its applications
- A volume in the continuing authoritative series which deals with the chemistry, materials science, physics and technology of the rare earth elements
The Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of the Rare Earths is a continuing authoritative series that deals with the science and technology of the rare earth elements in an integrated manner. Each chapter is a comprehensive, up-to-date, critical review of a particular segment of the field. The work offers the researcher and graduate student a complete and thorough coverage of this fascinating field.Individual chapters are comprehensive, broad, critical reviewsContributions are written by highly experienced, invited expertsGives an up-to-date overview of developments in the field
These developments highlight the need for a monograph dedicated solely to the palladium chemistry in heterocycles and this book provides a comprehensive explanation of the subject. The principal aim of the book is to highlight important palladium-mediated reactions of heterocycles with emphasis on the unique characteristics of individual heterocycles.
1. Palladium chemistry of heterocycles has its “idiosyncrasies stemming from their different structural properties from the corresponding carbocyclic aryl compounds. Even activated chloroheterocycles are sufficiently reactive to undergo Pd-catalyzed reactions. As a consequence of &agr and &bgr activation of heteroaryl halides, Pd-catalyzed chemistry may take place regioselectively at the activated positions, a phenomenon rarely seen in carbocyclic aryl halides. In addition, another salient peculiarity in palladium chemistry of heterocycles is the so-called "heteroaryl Heck reaction". For instance, while intermolecular palladium-catalyzed arylations of carbocyclic arenes are rare, palladium-catalyzed arylations of azoles and many other heterocycles readily take place. Therefore, the principal aim of this book is to highlight important palladium-mediated reactions of heterocycles with emphasis on the unique characteristics of individual heterocycles.
2. A myriad of heterocycles are biologically active and therefore of paramount importance to medicinal and agricultural chemists. Many heterocycle-containing natural products (they are highlighted in boxes throughout the text) have elicited great interest from both academic and industrial research groups. Recognizing the similarities between the palladium chemistry of arenes and heteroarenes, a critical survey of the accomplishments in heterocyclic chemistry will keep readers abreast of such a fast-growing field. We also hope this book will spur more interest and inspire ideas in such an extremely useful area.
This book comprises a compilation of important preparations of heteroaryl halides, boranes and stannanes for each heterocycle. The large body of data regarding palladium-mediated polymerization of heterocycles in material chemistry is not focused here; neither is coordination chemistry involving palladium and heterocycles.
Many heterocycle-containing natural products (highlighted throughout the text) have elicited great interest from both academic and industrial research groups. Recognizing the similarities between the palladium chemistry of arenes and heteroarenes, a critical survey of the accomplishments in heterocyclic chemistry keeps readers abreast of this fast-growing field. It is also hoped that this book will stimulate more interest and inspire new ideas in this exciting area.Contains the most up-to-date developments in this fast-moving fieldIncludes 3 new chaptersIncorporates material from selected well-respected authors on heterocyclic chemistry
The present book describes the fundamental principles of both synthesis of inorganic membranes and membrane supports and also the associated phenomena of transport and separation in a semi-quantitative form.
Features of this book:
- Examples are given which illustrate the state-of-the-art in the synthesis of membranes with controlled properties
- Future possibilities and limitations are discussed
- The reader is provided with references to more extended treatments in the literature
- Potential areas for future innovation are indicated.
By combining aspects of both the science and technology of inorganic membranes this book serves as a useful source of information for scientists and engineers working in this field. It also provides some observations of important investigators who have contributed to the development of this subject.
In Separation, Preconcentration and Spectrophotometry in Inorganic Analysis, much attention has been paid to separation and preconcentration methods, since they play an essential role in increasing the selectivity and sensitivity of spectrophotometric methods. Separation and preconcentration methods have also been utilised in other determination techniques.
Spectrophotometric methods which are widely used for the determination of the elements in a large variety of inorganic materials are presented in the book whilst separation and preconcentration procedures combined with spectrophotometry are also described.
This book contains recent advances in spectrophotometry, detailed discussion of the instrumentation, and the techniques and reagents used for spectrophotometric determination of elements in a wide range of materials as well as a detailed discussion of separation and preconcentration procedures that precede the spectrophotometric detection.
Various topics are reviewed such as: gold nanoparticle preparation methods, their plasmon resonance and thermo-optical properties, their catalytic properties, their use in biology and medicine as well as their possible toxicity and, finally, their future technological applications. The book also contains an in-depth study of the use of gold nanoparticles throughout the ages, starting from times where the concept of nanoparticles was beyond the realm of human imagination. All these topics are presented by world-class scientists within a set of self-contained chapters.
This book may be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students and scientists who need an introduction to gold nanoparticles. It is also suitable for experts in the related areas of chemistry, biology, material science, optics and physics, who are interested in broadening their knowledge and who wish to have an overview of the subject. Each chapter gradually leads the reader from the basics of a topic towards some of the current scientific challenges in the area. The necessary background material to achieve a solid understanding of each topic and the scientific literature to go further in the field is provided.Contents:Gold Nanoparticles for Physics, Chemistry and BiologyGold Nanoparticles in the Past: Before the Nanotechnology Era (Catherine Louis)Introduction to the Physical and Chemical Properties of Gold (Geoffrey C Bond)Optical Properties of Gold Nanoparticles (Olivier Pluchery)Photothermal Properties of Gold Nanoparticles (Bruno Palpant)Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles in Liquid Phase (Daeha Seo and Hyunjoon Song)Chemical Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles on Surfaces (Catherine Louis)Catalytic Properties of Gold Nanoparticles (Geoffrey C Bond)Surface Structures of Gold Nanoparticles (Shamil Shaikhutdinov)Theoretical Studies of Gold Nanoclusters in Various Chemical Environments: When the Size Matters (Hannu Häkkinen)Optical and Thermal Properties of Gold Nanoparticles for Biology and Medicine (Romain Quidant)Gold Nanoparticles for Sensors and Drug Delivery (Christian Villiers)What About Toxicity and Ecotoxicity of Gold Nanoparticles? (Marie Carrière)Technological Applications of Gold Nanoparticles (Michael Cortie)
Readership: Graduate students, young scientists and experts in related areas of chemistry, biology, material science and physics who need an introduction to gold nanoparticles.
Keywords:Gold Nanoparticles;Nanomedicine;Catalysis;Therapy;Plasmon;Synthesis;Nanoscience;NanotechnologyKey Features:The book reviews the most advanced research on gold nanoparticles Other competing titles are either too specialized or esoterically inclinedThe authors are internationally renowned key experts in this topicReviews:“This interesting book reporting a great quantity of news on the process methods, chemical and physical properties and uses of this metal in the nanustructured forms opens an interesting window of interest not only for graduated students in chemistry and physics, but also for the Medical and Chemical Community, wishing to better understand the potentiality of the nanostructures in general, and the gold nanoparticles in particular.”Journal of Applied Cosmetology
“If the fascination with gold is a story which spans millennia, this interesting book reporting a great quantity of news on the process methods, chemical and physical properties and uses of this metal in the nanostructured forms opens an interesting window of interest not only for graduate students in chemistry and physics, but also for the Medical and Chemical Community, wishing to better understanding the potentiality of the nanostructures in general, and the gold nanoparticles in particular.”P Morganti
PROGRESS in Inorganic Chemistry
Nowhere is creative scientific talent busier than in the world of inorganic chemistry experimentation. Progress in Inorganic Chemistry continues in its tradition of being the most respected avenue for exchanging innovative research. This series provides inorganic chemists and materials scientists with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. With contributions from internationally renowned chemists, this latest volume offers an in-depth, far-ranging examination of the changing face of the field, providing a tantalizing glimpse of the emerging state of the science.
"This series is distinguished not only by its scope and breadth, but also by the depth and quality of the reviews."
—Journal of the American Chemical Society
"[This series] has won a deservedly honored place on the bookshelf of the chemist attempting to keep afloat in the torrent of original papers on inorganic chemistry."
—Chemistry in Britain
CONTENTS OF VOLUME 54:Atomlike Building Units of Adjustable Character: Solid-State and Solution Routes to Manipulating Hexanuclear Transition Metal Chalcohalide Clusters (Eric J. Welch and Jeffrey R. Long) Doped Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Synthesis, Characterization, Physical Properties, and Applications (J. Daniel Bryan and Daniel R. Gamelin) Stereochemical Aspects of Metal Xanthane Complexes: Molecular Structures and Supramolecular Self-Assembly (Edward R. T. Tiekink and Ionel Haiduc) Trivalent Uranium: A Versatile Species for Molecular Activation (Ilia Korobkov and Sandro Gambarotta) Comparison of the Chemical Biology of NO and HNO: An Inorganic Perspective (Katrina M. Miranda and David A. Wink) Alterations of Nucleobase pKa Values upon Metal Coordination: Origins and Consequences (Bernhard Lippert) Functionalization of Myoglobin (Yoshihito Watanabe and Takashi Hayashi)
Beginning as chemical curiosities, carbenes are now solidly established as reactive intermediates with fascinating and productive research areas of their own. Five decades of divalent carbon chemistry have provided us with a vast repertoire of new, unusual, and surprising reactions. Some of those reactions, once classified as exotic, have become standard methods in organic synthesis. These highly reactive carbene species have been harnessed and put to work to achieve difficult synthetic tasks other reactive intermediates cannot easily perform.
The fruitful relationship between experiment and theory has pushed carbene chemistry further toward the direction of reaction control; that is, regio- and stereoselectivity in intra- and intermolecular addition and insertion reactions. The interplay between experiment and modern spectroscopy has led to the characterization of many carbenes that are crucial to both an understanding and further development of this field.
The editors have built Alkali Metals—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Rubidium in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Alkali Metals—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility.
The first group of chapters follows the format of the first and second editions with chapters on individual elements or groups of elements that describe and interpret their chemical properties. A chapter on the chemical properties of the transactinide elements follows. The second group, chapters 15-26, summarizes and correlates physical and chemical properties that are in general unique to the actinide elements, because most of these elements contain partially-filled shells of 5f electrons whether present as isolated atoms or ions, as metals, as compounds, or as ions in solution. The third group, chapters 27-39, focuses on specialized topics that encompass contemporary fields related to actinides in the environment, in the human body, and in storage or wastes. Two appendices at the end of volume 5 tabulate important nuclear properties of all actinide and transactinide isotopes. Volume 6 (Chapters 32 through 39) consists of new chapters that focus on actinide species in the environment, actinide waste forms, nuclear fuels, analytical chemistry of plutonium, actinide chalcogenide and hydrothermal synthesis of actinide compounds. The subject and author indices and list of contributors encompass all six volumes.
Starting with the chemical fundamentals of the chalcogens and their major compounds, the initial part of the book includes a systematic description of the MCh solids on the basis of the Periodic Table in terms of their structures and key properties. This is followed by a general discussion on the electrochemistry of chalcogen species, and the principles underlying the electrochemical formation of inorganic compounds/alloys. The core of the book offers an insight into available experimental results and inferences regarding the electrochemical preparation and microstructural control of conventional and novel MCh structures. It also aims to survey their photoelectrochemistry, both from a material-oriented point of view and as connected to specific processes such as photocatalysis and solar energy conversion.
Finally, the book illustrates the relevance of MCh materials to various applications of electrochemical interest such as (electro)catalysis in fuel cells, energy storage with intercalation electrodes, and ion sensing.
The development of new reactions for the synthesis of aromatic compounds is a highly active research area in organic synthesis, providing new functional organic materials, functional reagents, and biologically active compounds. Recently, significant advances in transition-metal-mediated reactions have enabled the efficient and practical construction of new aromatic rings with useful properties and applications. This book draws together and reviews all the latest discoveries and methods in transition-metal-mediated reactions, offering readers promising new routes to design and construct complex aromatic compounds.
Integrating metal catalysis with aromatic compound synthesis, Transition-Metal-Mediated Aromatic Ring Construction offers a practical guide to the methods, synthetic routes, and strategies for constructing aromatic compounds. The book's five parts examine:[2+2+2], [2+2+1], and related cycloaddition reactions [4+2], [3+2], and related cycloaddition reactions Electrocyclization reactions Coupling and addition reactions Other important transformations, including methathesis reactions and skeletal rearrangement reactions
Edited by Ken Tanaka, an internationally recognized expert in the field of transition-metal catalysis, the book features authors who are leading pioneers and researchers in synthetic reactions. Their contributions reflect a thorough review and analysis of the literature as well as their own firsthand laboratory experience developing new aromatic compounds.
All chapters end with a summary and outlook, setting forth new avenues of research and forecasting new discoveries. There are also references at the end of each chapter, guiding readers to important original research reports and reviews.
In summary, Transition-Metal-Mediated Aromatic Ring Construction offers synthetic chemists a promising new avenue for the development of important new aromatic compounds with a broad range of applications.
The individual volumes in the series are thematic. The goal of each volume is to give the reader, whether at a university or in industry, a comprehensive overview of an area where new insights are emerging that are of interest to a larger scientific audience. Thus each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years should be presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. A description of the physical basis of the experimental techniques that have been used to provide the primary data may also be appropriate, if it has not been covered in detail elsewhere. The coverage need not be exhaustive in data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the new principles being developed that will allow the reader, who is not a specialist in the area covered, to understand the data presented. Discussion of possible future research directions in the area is welcomed. Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors. Readership: research scientists at universities or in industry, graduate students Special offer For all customers who have a standing order to the print version of Structure and Bonding, we offer free access to the electronic volumes of the Series published in the current year via SpringerLink.
They are relatively unknown to the wider public, despite their numerous applications and their critical role in many high-tech applications, such as high-temperature superconductors, phosphors (for energy-saving lamps, flat-screen monitors and flat-screen televisions), rechargeable batteries (household and automotive), very strong permanent magnets (used for instance in wind turbines and hard-disk drives), or even in a medical MRI application.
This book describes the history of their discovery, the major REE ore minerals and the major ore deposits that are presently being exploited (or are planned to be exploited in the very near future), the physical and chemical properties of REEs, the mineral processing of REE concentrates and their extractive metallurgy, the applications of these elements, their economic aspects and the influential economical role of China, and finally the recycling of the REE, which is an emerging field.
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The book begins with a brief introduction to binary rare earth oxides, their physical and chemical stabilities, polymorphism, crystal structures and phase transformation and the association with current applications. The book goes on to present the band structure of the oxides using several quantum chemical calculations, which belong to a newly developed area in the binary rare earth oxides. Central to this chapter are the characterizations of electrical, magnetic and optical properties, as well as details of single crystal growth and particle preparation methods that have progressed in recent years. Later chapters concentrate on thermo-chemical properties and trace determination techniques. The final chapter contains a variety of useful applications in various fields such as phosphors, glass abrasives, automotive catalysts, fuel cells, solid electrolytes, sunscreens, iron steels, and biological materials.
This book is an invaluable resource for materials scientists and solid-state physicists and chemists with an interest in rare earth oxides, as well as advanced students and graduates who require an approach to familiarize them with this field. This book provides guidance through a comprehensive review of all the characteristics of binary rare earth oxides.