Klimt's talent and brilliance as a draughtsman, however, was widely recognized only after Klimt's death. During his lifetime, he hardly sold a drawing nor did he exhibit them.
Though noted for his attention to the female figure, Degas executed many studies of grouped horses and jockeys from which he would use figures in later compositions. Later in his career, Degas experimented with mixing drawing media and printmaking techniques. He began the drawing in 1885 using an impression from his 1877–78 lithographs of a concert at Café des Ambassadeurs, which he extended along the bottom and right edges, and drew over in dense strokes of pastel. Degas first produced a mono-type—a unique print made from drawing in ink on a metal or glass plate—of two singers on stage, seen from behind, with a view to the audience. He then enlivened the print with richly colored pastels. In the village of Diénay near Dijon, Degas recalled scenery from the drive through the Burgundian countryside and produced about fifty mono-type landscapes. To create this drawing, he used oil paint (and apparently his fingers) to indicate a few lines of landscape on the plate and printed one or two proofs, hanging them to dry. Later, he completed the composition with a rich layer of pastel.
There is a sense of movement in Toulouse-Lautrec’s drawings of dancers and horses. His dancers appear from a few twirls and swirls. He does not draw the dancer, but the motions. His lithographs and sketches of Loie Fuller consist of little more than abstract shapes, in which we can barely detect a head and a pair of legs. When he was commissioned to make a series of lithographs with a horse racing theme, The Jockey (1899), Toulouse-Lautrec does not start from an anatomically correct horse, but tries to capture the strength and speed of the horses in motion. By choosing this particular viewing angle he puts the viewer as it were on one of the trailing horses.
After a life of enormous productivity (more than 1,000 paintings, 5,000 drawings, and 350 prints and posters), debauchery, and alcoholism, Toulouse-Lautrec suffered a mental and physical collapse and died at the age of 37.
Joseph Mallord William Turner was English artist, one of the greatest and most original of all landscape painters. Turner was considered a controversial figure in his day, but is now regarded as the artist who elevated landscape painting to an eminence rivaling history painting. Although renowned for his oil paintings, Turner is also one of the greatest masters of British watercolor landscape painting. In 1856 the Court of Chancery awarded all the works remaining in his possession at his death to the National Gallery - about 300 oils and 19,000 drawings and watercolors. He is commonly known as "the painter of light" and his work is regarded as a Romantic preface to Impressionism.
This book aims to help you see the same way as Rembrandt has seen. Rembrandt's secrets are not in his words, they are in his works. Look at his paintings in details, the lines, the light, the shadows, the composition, the contrasts, the details. His paintings tell us what we cannot see but need to know and that should be enough. The goal of this book is to make the art of Rembrandt more accessible to everyone. There are so many theories about the Rembrandt's techniques but the book will show you how to get close to his art in number of ways.
Paul Cézanne was the leading figure in the revolution toward abstraction in modern painting. His influence on the course of modern art, particularly on the development of cubism, is enormous and deep. In his early career, he was strongly influenced by Delacroix and Courbet. Through Pissarro, Cezanne came to know Manet and the Impressionist painters. He exhibited with the Impressionists in 1874, but eventually rejected what he considered the Impressionists' lack of structure. Cezanne sought to "recreate nature" by simplifying forms to their basic geometric equivalents, utilizing contrasts of color and considerable distortion to express the essence of landscape, still-lifes, and figural groupings. Instead of adhering to the traditional system of perspective, he portrayed objects from shifting viewpoints. Cezanne worked in oil, watercolor, and drawing media, often making several versions of his works.
Paul Gauguin was French painter, sculptor, and print-maker. His style developed from Impressionism through a brief cloisonnist phase towards a highly personal brand of Symbolism, which sought within the tradition of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes to combine and contrast an idealized vision of primitive Polynesian culture with the sceptical pessimism of an educated European. A self-consciously outspoken personality and an aggressively asserted position as the leader of the Pont-Aven group made him a dominant figure in Parisian intellectual circles in the late 1880s. His use of non-naturalistic color and formal distortion for expressive ends was widely influential on early 20th-century avant-garde artists.
Contemporaries of Michelangelo collected his drawings during his lifetime and guarded them like precious gems. Presently, the total number of his existing drawings is around 600. However, during his more than seventy years of activity, he certainly produced much more, thus many works by the master must have been lost. It is well known that Michelangelo twice destroyed his own drawings: the first time was in 1517, the second time shortly before his death.
Drawing revealing the artist at work and allows even the modern viewer to see the artist's hand in action. One of the most notable things about Boucher's superb draughtsmanship is energetic, economical line. Grace, beauty and power combine with a striking inner force. Boucher handles details easy, he describes the essential form in just a few marks, with just enough tone used to suggest the form and the features conveyed accurately but efficiently. At the same tame in Boucher's drawing the observer will notice that the energetic mark-making describes a solidly understood form and precisely observed detail. The learner of drawing will have much to get from this book.
Giovanni Boldini enjoyed a long and successful artistic career. He was born in Ferrara, the son of a painter of religious subjects, and in 1862 went to Florence for six years to study and pursue painting. He only infrequently attended classes at the Academy of Fine Arts, but in Florence, met other realist painters known as the Macchiaioli. Their influence is seen in Boldini's landscapes which show his spontaneous response to nature, although it is for his portraits that he became best known.
Moving to London, Boldini attained success as a portraitist. He completed portraits of premier members of society including Lady Holland and the Duchess of Westminster. From 1872 he lived in Paris, where he became a friend of Edgar Degas. Boldini developed his own, distinct style, and his portraits grew in fame, helped greatly by a portrait commissioned by Giuseppe Verdi in 1886, the biggest celebrity of his day. He was nominated commissioner of the Italian section of the Paris Exposition in 1889, and received the Légion d'honneur for this appointment.
He died of pneumonia while in Paris, and is buried in his hometown of Ferrara, Italy.
Millet learned Latin and knowledge of the major works of literature from village priests as a child, and in 1833 moved to Cherbourg to study painting. His first Salon submission, in 1939, but his second, a portrait, was accepted in 1840. After his first portrait was accepted by the Paris Salon, he returned to Cherbourg, to begin his career as a professional portrait painter. His first real Salon success was seven years later, in 1847, when he presented his panting The Winnower, which was bought by the government a year later. His success was short lived, however. The Captivity of the Jews in Israel was presented to the Salon in 1848, and it was scorned by the public and critics. This painting quickly disappeared, leading historians to think Millet had destroyed his own work.
Occasional failure notwithstanding, Millet’s popularity grew throughout the 1860’s, and he received many commissions, hosting a major showing of his work in 1867 in the Exposition Universeille. The next year, he was named an officer of the National Legion of Honor, and in 1870 he was elected as a jury member at the Paris Salon.
In 1875, three weeks before his death, Millet married his wife in a religious ceremony. They had been married in a civil ceremony in 1853. After he died, he left his wife and nine children destitute, spurring the invention of the droit de suite innovation, which allowed a certain portion of the sale or resale of an artist’s work to go to the artist’s family of heirs.
His humanity toward peasant life deeply impressed many painters, including Vincent Van Gogh, Claude Monet, and Georges Seurat.
John Singleton Copley’s portraits of colonial New Englanders, including Paul Revere and John Hancock, are considered among the best examples of early American art. In painting “visual biographies”—portraits that subtly indicated the sitter’s social position through narrative details—Copley endeared himself to his patrons by depicting them as they desired to project themselves.
Embodying the same entrepreneurial spirit underlying the success of many of his working-class subjects, the self-taught Copley built a name for himself by introducing private exhibitions and promoting mass-market prints of his own work.
While known primarily for his oil paintings, Copley was also a pioneering American pastelist, having requested a set of the “best Swiss crayons” from the Swiss painter Jean-Étienne Liotard. Upon immigrating to London in 1774, he concentrated on historical narrative scenes—as in his famed Watson and the Shark (1778)—then considered to be the highest form artistic expression.
Copley was one of the greatest and most influential painter in colonial America, producing about 350 works of art. With his startling likenesses of persons and things, he came to define a realist art tradition in America. His visual legacy extended throughout the nineteenth century in the American taste for the work of artists as diverse as Fitz Henry Lane and William Harnett. In Britain, while he continued to paint portraits for the élite, his great achievement was the development of contemporary history painting, which was a combination of reportage, idealism, and theatre.