In this volume, the most important contemporary questions on lightning are addressed and analyzed under many experimental and theoretical aspects. Lightning detection techniques using ground-based and space-borne methods are described, along with network engineering and statistical analysis.
Contributions detail research on atmospheric electricity, cloud physics, lightning physics, modeling of electrical storms and middle atmospheric events. Special phenomena such as triggered lightning and sprite observations are examined. Lightning-induced nitrogen oxides and their effects on atmospheric chemistry and climate are discussed.
Each topic is presented by international experts in the field. Topics include:
* air chemistry
* convective storms
* infrasound from lightning
* lightning and climate change
* lightning and precipitation
* lightning and radiation
* lightning and supercells
* lightning and thunderstorms
* lightning detection
* lightning from space
* lighting protection
* lightning return strokes
* observations and interpretations
* spatial distribution and frequency
* triggered lightning
* weather extremes
The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added.
Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.
*Review of GPR theory and applications by leaders in the field
*Up-to-date information and references
*Effective handbook and primary research reference for both experienced practitioners and newcomers
At last, many unanswered questions about the earth’s creation can be resolved with confidence. For example, how long did it take? Where did it take place? What about evolution, fossils, dinosaurs and cave men? Well-supported answers are here.
For those who have been challenged to explain the earth’s creation from an LDS viewpoint, this book will be helpful and enlightening. And for those who enjoy contemplating both the discoveries of science and the revelations of God, this book will be extremely stimulating and thought-provoking.
Readers have commented:
Dan from Canada: “This book has enlightened my mind and given me the wonderful opportunity to see the intermeshing between science and our religion.”
Paul from Texas: “Well-supported viewpoint and thought-provoking reading.... I appreciate Brother Skousen’s heavy usage of scriptural references and quotes from trustworthy Church leaders.”
Kristy from Utah: “Answered a lot of questions I had from my geology classes and gave me a deeper appreciation for this awesome planet we live on and the creator of it.”
Kelly from California: “This book explained so much about issues that had previously confused or bothered me.”
Jerome from Georgia: “Life altering, made me a better person.... If you really want to understand the ‘Big Picture’ then this book is a must read.”
Dave from Washington: “One unexpected blessing received from reading this book was an enhanced Temple worship experience.”
Ed from Iowa: “If you are LDS, this will open your eyes to things that are incredible and you will not look at the world we live in in the same way again.”
Devon: “Scholarly material well presented for the layman.”
This eBook includes the original index, illustrations, footnotes, table of contents and page numbering from the printed format.
The book describes preparation of five distinct types of assessments:
Cumulative Impact Assessment (CIA) Preparing Greenhouse Emission Assessments Preparing Risk Assessments and Accident Analyses Social Impact Assessment (SIA) and Environmental Justice The International Environmental Impact Assessment Process Guiding Principles
To date, there is significant variation and disagreement about how such analyses should be prepared. The author introduces best professional practices (BPP) for preparing such EIAs that is intended to meet decision-making and regulatory expectations. He supplies a comprehensive and balanced skill set of tools, techniques, concepts, principles, and practices for preparing these assessments. He also includes directions for developing a comprehensive Environmental Management Systems which can be used to monitor and implement final decisions for such analyses. While the book references the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), most of this guidance is generally applicable to any international EIA process consistent with NEPA.
With thorough coverage of all aspects of assessments, the book presents a theoretical introduction to the subject as well as practical guidance. It delivers state-of-the-art tools, techniques, and approaches for resolving EIA problems.
The mathematics required in order to understand the text is purposely kept to a minimum, so the book is suitable for courses taken in geophysics by all undergraduate students. It will also be of use to postgraduate students who might wish to include geophysics in their studies and to all professional geologists who wish to discover the breadth of the subject in connection with their own work.
If you sit as still as you can in a quiet room, you might be able to convince yourself that nothing is moving. But air currents are still wafting around you. Blood rushes through your veins. The atoms in your chair jiggle furiously. In fact, the planet you are sitting on is whizzing through space thirty-five times faster than the speed of sound.
Natural motion dominates our lives and the intricate mechanics of the world around us. In ZOOM, Bob Berman explores how motion shapes every aspect of the universe, literally from the ground up. With an entertaining style and a gift for distilling the wondrous, Berman spans astronomy, geology, biology, meteorology, and the history of science, uncovering how clouds stay aloft, how the Earth's rotation curves a home run's flight, and why a mosquito's familiar whine resembles a telephone's dial tone.
For readers who love to get smarter without realizing it, ZOOM bursts with science writing at its best.
The first chapter is an introduction which starts with explaining in general terms, what seabed seismic is and gives its advantages over conventional marine seismic methods. Specific experiences or implementation of seabed seismic methods in some oil fields are given. In chapter 2, some basic signal properties are given, the PS converted wave process explained and the common conversion point (CCP) approximation formula derived. Basic acquisition techniques of seabed seismic are treated, including topics like sensor orientation, CCP binning and shear wave splitting. P-wave to S-wave velocity ratio (Gamma) is explained. The fundamentals of QC and processing of seabed seismic data are treated in Chapter 3 where two model processing work-flows are showcased to explain the fundamental processing keys for a multicomponent seismic data. The improvement in seabed seismic technology has not been without hurdles. Some of the challenges facing this technology are treated in Chapter 4.
Dr Michael Ainslie is eminently qualified to write this unique book. He has worked on sonar performance modeling problems since 1983. He has written many peer reviewed research articles and conference papers related to sonar performance modeling, making contributions in the fields of sound propagation and detection theory.
The goal of this work is to assess the contribution of the latest models and corrections to the SLR-derived parameters, to enhance the quality and reliability of the SLR-derived products, and to propose a new approach of orbit parameterization for low orbiting geodetic satellites. The impact of orbit perturbations is studied in detail, including perturbing forces of gravitational origin (Earth's gravity field, ocean and atmosphere tides) and perturbing forces of non-gravitational origin (atmospheric drag, the Yarkovsky effect, albedo and Earth's infrared radiation pressure).
A multi-satellite combined solution is obtained using SLR observations to LAGEOS-1, LAGEOS-2, Starlette, Stella, and AJISAI. The quality of the SLR-derived parameters from the combined solution is compared with external solutions. The Earth rotation parameters are compared to the IERS-08-C04 series and the GNSS-derived series, whereas the time variable Earth's gravity field coefficients are compared to the CHAMP and GRACE-derived results.
The book is divided into two parts: a verbal description (Chapters 1-6) and a collection of 55 plates (Chapter 7) with interpretations. The verbal description explains in a rather elementary form the most fundamental physical phenomena relevant to seismogram appearance. The collection of plates exhibits a large variety of seismogram examples, and the corresponding interpretations cover different seismic sources (tectonic and volcanic earthquakes, underground explosions, cavity collapse, sonic booms), wave types, epicentral distances, focal depths and recording instruments (analog, digital, short- and long-period, broad band).
The book compliments older manuals in that both analog and digital records are considered. Seismograms from more traditional narrow-band as well as from modern, broad-band instruments are displayed. Tectonic and volcanic earthquakes are represented, and the exhibited seismograms form a worldwide collection of records acquired from seismographic stations located in North and Central America, Asia, Europe and New Zealand, i.e. in various geological and tectonic environments. Terminology and usage of definition does vary among agencies in different parts of the world; that used in this book is common to Europe.
Captivated by the otherworldly lights of the aurora borealis, Birkeland embarked on a lifelong quest to discover their cause. His pursuit took him to some of the most forbidding landscapes on earth, from the remote snowcapped mountains of Norway to the war-torn deserts of Africa. In the face of rebuke by the scientific establishment, sabotage by a jealous rival, and his own battles with depression and paranoia, Birkeland remained steadfast. Although ultimately vindicated, his theories were unheralded—and his hopes for the Nobel Prize scuttled—at the time of his suspicious death in 1917.
The Northern Lights offers a brilliant account of the physics behind the aurora borealis and a rare look inside the mind of one of history's most visionary scientists.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Graduate school can be an exciting, challenging time for students, but it can be scary and intimidating at the same time. Navigating Graduate School and Beyond: A Career Guide for Graduate Students and a Must Read for Every Advisor outlines the steps and skills necessary to succeed in graduate school and in your career. "Insider tips" help students better understand their advisors, leading to more productive advisor/student relationships. The importance of sowing well now with good habits and management techniques in order to reap big later is the central focus of the volume.
The book clarifies those aspects of the subject that students tend to find difficult, and provides insights through practical tutorials which aim to reinforce and deepen understanding of key topics and provide the reader with a measure of feedback on progress. Some tutorials may only involve drawing simple diagrams, but many are computer-aided (PC based) with graphics output to give insight into key steps in seismic data processing or into the seismic response of some common geological scenarios. Part I of the book covers basic ideas and it ends with two tutorials in 2-D structural interpretation. Part II concentrates on the current seismic reflection contribution to reservoir studies, based on 3-D data.
The current book presents the theory, observations, mathematical modelling techniques, and applications of sea ice drift science. The theory is presented from the beginning on a graduate student level, so that students and researchers coming from other fields such as physical oceanography, meteorology, physics, engineering, environmental sciences or geography can use the book as a source book or self-study material. First the drift ice material is presented ending with the concept of ‘ice state’ – the relevant properties in sea ice dynamics. Ice kinematics observations are widely presented with the mathematical analysis methods, and thereafter come drift ice rheology – to close the triangle material – kinematics – stress. The momentum equation of sea ice is derived in detail and its general properties are carefully analysed. Then follow two chapters on analytical models: free drift and drift in the presence of internal friction: These are very important tools in understanding the dynamical behaviour of sea ice. The last topical chapter is numerical models, which are the modern tool to solve ice dynamics problem in short term and long term problems. The closing chapter summarises sea ice dynamics applications and the need of sea ice dynamic knowledge and gives some final remarks on the future of this branch of science.
"Volcanism by Hans-Ulrich Schmincke has photos of the best quality I have ever seen in a text on the subject... In addition, the schematic figures in their wide range of styles are clear, colorful, and simplified to emphasize the most important factors while including all significant features...
"I have really enjoyed reading and rereading Schmincke’s book. It fills a great gap in texts available for teaching any basic course in volcanology. No other book I know of has the depth and breadth of Volcanism...
I have shared Volcanism with my colleagues to their significant benefit, and I am more convinced of its value for a broad range of Earth and planetary scientists.
Undoubtedly, I will use Volcanism for my upcoming courses in volcanology. I will never hesitate to recommend it to others. Many geoscientists from very different subdisciplines will benefit from adding the book to their personal libraries. Schmincke has done us all a great service by undertaking the grueling task of writing the book – and it is much better that he alone wrote it." Stanley N. Williams, ASU Tempe, AZ (Physics Today, April 2005)
"Schmincke is a German volcanologist with an international reputation, and he has done us all a great favour because he sensibly channelled his fascination with volcanoes into writing this beautifully illustrated book... [he] tackles the entire geological setting of volcanoes within the earth and the processes that form them... And, with more than 400 colour illustrations, including a huge number of really excellent new diagrams, cutaway models and maps, plus a rich glossary and references, this book is accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject." New Scientist (March 2004)
"The science of volcanology has made tremendous progress over the past 40 years, primarily because of technological advances and because each tragic eruption has led researchers to recognize the processes behind such serious hazards. Yet scientists are still learning a great deal because of photographs that either capture those processes in action or show us the critical factors left behind in the rock record.Volcanism by Hans-Ulrich Schmincke has photos of the best quality I have ever seen in a text on the subject. I found myself wishing that I had had the photo of Nicaragua’s Masaya volcano, which was the subject of my dissertation, but it was Schmincke who was able to include it in his book. In addition, the schematic figures in their wide range of styles are clear, colorful, and simplified to emphasize the most important factors while including all significant features. The book’s paper is of such high quality that at times I felt I had turned two pages rather than one.
I have really enjoyed reading and rereading Schmincke’s book. It fills a great gap in texts available for teaching any basic course in volcanology. No other book I know of has the depth and breadth of Volcanism. I was disappointed that the text did not arrive on my desk until last August, when it was too late for me to choose it for my course in volcanology. I am also disappointed about another fact—the book’s binding is already becoming tattered because of my intense use of it!
Schmincke is a volcanologist who, in 1967, first published papers on sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin, the direction traveled by lava flows millions of years ago, and the structures preserved in explosive ignimbrites, or pumice-flow deposits, that reveal important details of their formation. Since then, his studies in Germany’s Laacher See, the Canary Islands, the Troodos Ophiolite of Cyprus, and many other regions have forged great fundamental advances. Such contributions have been recognized with his receipt of several international awards and clearly give him a strong base for writing the book.
However, as a scientist who has focused on the challenges of monitoring the very diverse activities of volcanoes, I think that the text’s overriding emphasis on the rock record has its cost. The group of scientists who are struggling with their goals to reduce or mitigate the hazards of the eruptions of tomorrow need to learn more about the options of technology, instrumentation, and methodology that are currently available. More than 500 million people live near the more than 1500 known active volcanoes and are constantly facing serious threats of eruptions. An extremely energetic earthquake caused the horrific tsunamis of 2004. However, the tsunamis of 1792, 1815, and 1883, which were caused by the eruptions of Japan’s Unzen volcano and Indonesia’s Tambora and Krakatau volcanoes, each took a similar toll. "
( Stanley N. Williams, PHYSICS TODAY, April 2005)
Features:Addresses standards from all international regulatory agencies Presents the steps in risk assessment, including hazard identification, exposure assessment, and risk characterization Covers the assessment of multiple chemical exposures or chemical mixtures Contains data from both human and animal studies Explains the linearized multi-stage mathematical model widely used by the US EPA for characterizing
This book is addressed to university students of geology especially engineering geology and hydrogeology, geophysics and earth sciences, and post graduate, reseachers, and practising engineering geologists, geotechnical engineers, and hydrogeologists.
SUN Jiadong is the Chief Designer of the Compass/ BDS, and the Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS); JIAO Wenhai is a researcher at China Satellite Navigation Office; WU Haitao is a professor at Navigation Headquarters, CAS; LU Mingquan is a professor at Department of Electronic Engineering of Tsinghua University.
This volume collects papers that were presented at the sixth meeting. The subjects include geophysics, scattering and diffraction, the parabolic equation (with special sessions in honor of Dr Fred Tappert), seismic exploration, boundary element methods, visualization, oil industry applications, shallow water acoustics, matched field tracking, bubbles, waves in complex media, seabed interactions, ocean acoustic inversion, and mathematical issues in underwater acoustics.
Contents:Cross Hole Simulations in Elastic Formations Using Off-Axis Sources via BEM (J Antonio & A Tadeu)The Acoustical Klein–Gordon Equation: The Direct and Inverse Problems (B J Forbes & E R Pike)Bottom Reflection Phase Shift Parameter Inversion from Reverberation and Propagation Data (H L Ge et al.)Dynamics of Immiscible Two-Phase Fluid Reservoir Flow (A Hanyga)Revolutionary Influence of the Parabolic Equation Approximation (D Lee)Computation of Acoustic Field on 2D Fronts (N Maltsev)Seismic Resolution: An Old Problem But a New Challenge for Seismic Reservoir Characterization (Y-F Sun et al.)Simulated Tomographic Geoacoustic Inversion (A Tolstoy)and other papers
Readership: Researchers, academics and practitioners in ocean engineering, computer science, mathematical physics, geophysics and applied physics.
Keywords:Computational Acoustics;Geophysics;Applied Mathematics;Ocean Acoustics
Authored by an internationally known expert in the design and use of SODAR/RASS technology, Atmospheric Acoustic Remote Sensing: Principles and Applications systematically explains the underlying science, principles, and operational aspects of acoustic radars. Abundant diagrams and figures, including eight pages of full-color images, enhance clear guidelines and tools for handling calibration, error, equipment, hardware, sampling, and data analysis. The final chapter explores applications in environmental research, boundary layer research, wind power and loading, complex terrain, and sound speed profiles.
Atmospheric Acoustic Remote Sensing offers SODAR and RASS users as well as general remote sensing practitioners, environmental scientists, and engineers a straightforward guide for using SODARs to perform wind measurements and data analysis for scientific, environmental, or alternative monitoring applications.
Based upon a special symposium sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Remote Sensing and GIS Accuracy Assessment evaluates the important scientific elements related to the performance of accuracy assessments for remotely sensed data, GIS data analysis, and integration products. Scientists from federal, state, and local governments, academia, and nongovernmental organizations present twenty technical chapters that examine sampling issues, reference data collection, edge and boundary effects, error matrix and fuzzy assessments, error budget analysis, and change detection accuracy assessment.
The book includes the keynote presentation by Russell G. Congalton that provides a historical accuracy assessment overview, articulatescurrent technical shortcomings, and identified numerous issues that were debated throughout the symposium. All chapters underwent a peer review and were determined to be valuable to the remote sensing and GIS community. The editors arranged the chapters as a series of complementary scientific topics to provide you with a detailed treatise on spatial data accuracy assessment issues.
Dr John Oswin is in charge of the geophysics operation of the Bath and Camerton Archaeological Society and his work has recently been the subject of a television programme. He has taught many students how to use geophysical equipment.
The book is divided into two parts. The first part concentrates on the theoretical basis of the various methods, illustrated for the most part through case-studies and practical examples drawn from a variety of geographical and cultural contexts. The second part focuses on the work carried out in the field during the Summer School. Tutors and students took part in the intensive application of the principal techniques of geophysical prospecting (magnetometry, EM, ERT and ground-penetrating radar) to locate, retrieve, process and interpret data for a large Roman villa-complex near Grosseto.
SEEING THE UNSEEN. GEOPHYSICS AND LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY provides a clear illustration of the remarkable potential of geophysical methods in the study of ancient landscapes, and will be usefull to Archaeologists, Geophysicists, Environmental scientists, and those involved in the management of cultural heritage.