This report discusses the political, economic and social opportunities and constraints that will influence the design and implementation of REDD+ in Vietnam. In particular, four major direct drivers (land conversion for agriculture; infrastructure development; logging (illegal and legal); forest fire) and three indirect drivers (pressure of population growth and migration; the states weak forest management capacity; the limited funding available for forest protection) of deforestation and degradation in Vietnam are discussed, along with their implications for REDD+. These drivers and their impacts vary from region to region, and change over time no one-size-fitsall formula will function across the whole of Vietnam. The report also examines the lessons learnt from various forestry and economic development policies and programmes and suggests how a future REDD+ mechanism can overcome the major challenges, which include limited funding for forest protection, weak local governance capacity, poor vertical and horizontal coordination, low involvement of the poor, women and indigenous groups, low economic returns, elite capture of land and benefits, and corruption. The report suggests that if REDD+ is to succeed, it must be participatory, that is, all players are given fair and ample opportunity to be part of the programme (particularly those with the least resources or the greatest economic disenfranchisement); transparent, that is, all players can trace how the programme is administered, including the distribution of benefits; and well-monitored, to ensure that the programme is conducted such that it meets its overarching objectives and guidelines. The success of REDD+ will also require that it take a pro-poor and pro-gender equity approach.
REDD+ is still a young policy domain, and it is a very dynamic one. Currently, the benefits of QCA result mainly from the fact that it helps researchers to organize the evidence generated. However, with further and more differentiated case knowledge, and more countries achieving desired outcomes, QCA has the potential to deliver robust analysis that allows the provision of information, guidance and recommendations to ensure carbon-effective, cost-efficient and equitable REDD+ policy design and implementation
Focusing on the history and current use of woodlands from India to the Amazon, The Social Lives of Forests attempts to build a coherent view of forests sited at the nexus of nature, culture, and development. With chapters covering the effects of human activities on succession patterns in now-protected Costa Rican forests; the intersection of gender and knowledge in African shea nut tree markets; and even the unexpectedly rich urban woodlands of Chicago, this book explores forests as places of significant human action, with complex institutions, ecologies, and economies that have transformed these landscapes in the past and continue to shape them today. From rain forests to timber farms, the face of forests—how we define, understand, and maintain them—is changing.
REDD+ menghadapi berbagai tantangan besar: Sejumlah kepentingan politik dan ekonomi yang kuat mendukung deforestasi dan degradasi yang berlanjut. Karena itu, implementasinya harus dikoordinasikan
antara berbagai tingkat pemerintahan dan lembaga; manfaatnya harus disalurkan dengan menyeimbangkan keefektifan dan kesetaraan; ketidakpastian kepemilikan lahan (tenurial) dan jaringan pengamannya harus ditangani sungguh-sungguh; serta institusi yang transparan, pemantauan karbon yang dapat diandalkan dan tingkat acuan yang realistis, semuanya dibutuhkan untuk mendukung berbagai sistem berbasiskan hasil.
REDD+ membutuhkan – dan dapat menjadi katalisator – perubahan transformatif: Insentif ekonomi yang baru, informasi dan wacana yang baru, berbagai pelaku dan koalisi kebijakan yang baru berpotensi
untuk menggeser kebijakan domestik agar menjauh dari jalur bisnis seperti biasa.
Proyek-proyek REDD+ bersifat gabungan di kawasan-kawasan yang tingkat deforestasinya tinggi: Para pengusul proyek mengusahakan strategi yang menggabungkan penegakan peraturan dan mendukung mata
pencaharian alternatif (ICDP) dengan sejumlah insentif yang berbasiskan hasil (PES). Proyek-proyek cenderung berlokasi di kawasan-kawasan yang tingkat deforestasinya tinggi dan nilai karbonnya besar, sehingga
menghasilkan nilai tambahan yang tinggi jika mereka berhasil.
Ada pilihan kebijakan ‘tanpa penyesalan’: Meskipun ada ketidakpastian tentang masa depan REDD+, para pemangku kepentingan perlu membangun dukungan dan koalisi politik untuk melakukan perubahan,
melakukan investasi dalam sistem informasi yang memadai, serta melaksanakan kebijakan yang dapat mengurangi deforestasi dan degradasi hutan, yang semuanya tetap diinginkan terlepas dari tujuan-tujuan untuk mengatasi persoalan iklim.
This Working Paper presents results from an in-depth study on the implementation of PFES in Dien Bien province, Vietnam, which assessed how equity was locally conceptualized in the PFES benefit-sharing process and the factors that influenced local perceptions of equity.
We found that local perceptions of equity varied across PFES communities because of differences in social contextual factors such as ethnicity and in the geography of the areas that affected the size of PFES payments and the level of PFES implementation. While PFES policy did include distributional equity considerations through formulation of the K-coefficient, this coefficient was not properly implemented on the ground due to its complexity and lack of data.
The procedural aspects of equity were found to be lacking. Poor information flows, lack of awareness of rights and responsibilities and the non-participation of local ecosystem service (ES) providers in decision-making processes led to a general sense of inequity and demotivation.
This study suggests that particular attention should be given to improve information sharing and communication patterns with local ES providers and to establish a proper grievance handling system for two-way information flow. The inclusion of local people in decision-making processes on the key elements of benefit-sharing mechanisms is crucial in aligning PFES benefits with the preferences of local people and could potentially help to motivate their performance in forest management. Policy makers and program implementers will want to examine local perspectives of equity – and to understand how these can change over time so that they can tailor the design of benefit-sharing mechanisms to generate effective, efficient and equitable PFES outcomes.