This report discusses the political, economic and social opportunities and constraints that will influence the design and implementation of REDD+ in Vietnam. In particular, four major direct drivers (land conversion for agriculture; infrastructure development; logging (illegal and legal); forest fire) and three indirect drivers (pressure of population growth and migration; the states weak forest management capacity; the limited funding available for forest protection) of deforestation and degradation in Vietnam are discussed, along with their implications for REDD+. These drivers and their impacts vary from region to region, and change over time no one-size-fitsall formula will function across the whole of Vietnam. The report also examines the lessons learnt from various forestry and economic development policies and programmes and suggests how a future REDD+ mechanism can overcome the major challenges, which include limited funding for forest protection, weak local governance capacity, poor vertical and horizontal coordination, low involvement of the poor, women and indigenous groups, low economic returns, elite capture of land and benefits, and corruption. The report suggests that if REDD+ is to succeed, it must be participatory, that is, all players are given fair and ample opportunity to be part of the programme (particularly those with the least resources or the greatest economic disenfranchisement); transparent, that is, all players can trace how the programme is administered, including the distribution of benefits; and well-monitored, to ensure that the programme is conducted such that it meets its overarching objectives and guidelines. The success of REDD+ will also require that it take a pro-poor and pro-gender equity approach.
Key messagesDespite the promising benefits that reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and foster conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) offers through incentives to conserve forests and/or change behavior, it also risks excluding women, exacerbating gender inequalities and restricting women's access to decision-making and benefit-distribution processes.Efforts to mainstream gender in REDD+ in Indonesia are underway. But these remain scattered, fragmented and concentrated at the national level. The Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF) with support from the Ministry of Women's Empowerment and Child Protection (MWECP) have a pivotal role to play in providing a clear and accessible platform for streamlining these initiatives, and building on synergies with ongoing efforts in other sectors.Lessons from CIFOR's assessment of existing efforts to mainstream gender in REDD+ and review of broader research on gender and forests, point to the importance of focusing on both national and subnational levels. A balance must be made between promoting gender equality at all levels whilst designing and implementing measures that are flexible and reflect local-level realities.Recommendations for promoting gender equality in REDD+ include: mainstreaming gender across REDD+ agencies; fostering gender equitable participation in free prior and informed consent; and developing gender-inclusive action plans that are evidence based and developed in consultation with key stakeholders.
Key messagesThe future of forest tenure security for local forest dependent communities in Lampung province is linked to the effective implementation of social forestry (SF) programs, which granted communities management rights to state forests. If SF schemes are implementated effectively, the tenure rights of forest dependent communities will be assured.Participatory prospective analysis (PPA) by an expert group consisting of governmental and nongovernmental organization representatives, identified six key driving forces that will influence SF implementation in the next 10 years. These include:- the dynamics of SF regulations including regulation of forest product businesses- economic options created by communities to improve livelihoods- community tenure rights to forest resources- budgetary support from regional government- human resources capacities of implementating agents such as the Province Forestry Office, Forest Management Unit (FMU) and NGOs- the clarity of stakeholder roles including community awareness.The different scenarios, which describe plausible conditions of forest tenure reform implementation in Lampung, range from persistence of the status quo, where communities continue to have partial rights to state forests, to variations that include full ownership rights, complete withdrawal of community rights to forests, and the privileging of economic interests over environmental sustainability.The desired scenarios are associated with adequate budget allocations including dedicated budgets for implementation. Lack of coordination is a disadvantage and is characteristic of undesired scenarios. The capacity of implementing agents is also a key factor, especially their capacity to work with communities and to support them. Functional forest-based enterprises to support community livelihoods, which in turn provide strong incentives for sustainable forest management, are important. Taken together, the scenarios suggest that devolving SF implementation to the lowest unit, the FMU, is the best option. However, this should be accompanied by community empowerment, the allocation of adequate budgets and support and cooperation among all involved actors.The expert group developed an action plan for enhancing SF scheme implementation over the next 10 years. Strategies include enhancing budgetary support to the regional government, strengthening the role of the FMU, strengthening community tenure rights and enhancing local livelihoods. Key actions include supporting cross-sectoral coordination, developing PES systems to boost regional government revenues, increasing legal literacy at community level and community/participatory mapping of resources.The action plan will be integrated into Lampung Provincial Government's forestry development program and will guide Lampung's Social Forestry Working Group.Overall, the PPA method reveals that the implementation of SF programs is multi-faceted, capturing the diverse concerns and roles of different stakeholders. It also enhances the capacity of stakeholders to jointly analyse problems, to anticipate the future and to design current actions to mitigate future problems or enhance the likelihood of meeting desired objectives.
Key messagesParticipatory prospective analysis is an effective tool for strengthening the capacity of stakeholders including government agencies, NGOs, academia, private sector and community representatives in joint analysis and problem solving. It allows intense interaction among stakeholders, and helps to develop a common understanding of the current situation, to plan for the future and to begin to construct collective agreements around forest resource management.Experts view tenure security in a multi-dimensional way. It transcends the actual bundle of rights granted to include the institutions and processes deemed necessary for local rights to be exercised and guaranteed. For them, tenure security comprises governance dimensions that are embodied in implementation processes, as well as interventions that are anticipated to generate value/income from the rights that are held by communities.Key driving forces of local tenure security were identified as: regional governance, local government budgets, tourism potential, customary rights and institutions, strengthening the rights and voice of indigenous women, land conversion and spatial planning, local regulation, community knowledge, awareness and community empowerment.Five contrasting scenarios were developed by the expert group members. Each scenario captured their expectation of local community tenure security in the future given different combinations of eight factors that drive tenure security. One scenario was selected as best for future implementation. Based on the best scenario, an action plan for assuring local tenure rights was crafted through public consultation. This will be integrated with regional government programs.The favored scenarios emphasized good governance, collaboration, respect and recognition of customary rights and institutions, while the rejected scenarios exemplified situations that were under the exclusive control of dominant government or private sector actors.Taken together, these five scenarios, regardless of their desirability, point to the key issues in the ability of tenure reforms to achieve tenure security for local communities in Maluku. Important constraints on reform implementation include budget allocation, coordination, changes of policy and regulation, lack of spatial planning data and lack of recognition of customary rights. These factors are important for implementing forest reform and could provide a threat to tenure security.
REDD+ is still a young policy domain, and it is a very dynamic one. Currently, the benefits of QCA result mainly from the fact that it helps researchers to organize the evidence generated. However, with further and more differentiated case knowledge, and more countries achieving desired outcomes, QCA has the potential to deliver robust analysis that allows the provision of information, guidance and recommendations to ensure carbon-effective, cost-efficient and equitable REDD+ policy design and implementation
Focusing on the history and current use of woodlands from India to the Amazon, The Social Lives of Forests attempts to build a coherent view of forests sited at the nexus of nature, culture, and development. With chapters covering the effects of human activities on succession patterns in now-protected Costa Rican forests; the intersection of gender and knowledge in African shea nut tree markets; and even the unexpectedly rich urban woodlands of Chicago, this book explores forests as places of significant human action, with complex institutions, ecologies, and economies that have transformed these landscapes in the past and continue to shape them today. From rain forests to timber farms, the face of forests—how we define, understand, and maintain them—is changing.
REDD+ menghadapi berbagai tantangan besar: Sejumlah kepentingan politik dan ekonomi yang kuat mendukung deforestasi dan degradasi yang berlanjut. Karena itu, implementasinya harus dikoordinasikan
antara berbagai tingkat pemerintahan dan lembaga; manfaatnya harus disalurkan dengan menyeimbangkan keefektifan dan kesetaraan; ketidakpastian kepemilikan lahan (tenurial) dan jaringan pengamannya harus ditangani sungguh-sungguh; serta institusi yang transparan, pemantauan karbon yang dapat diandalkan dan tingkat acuan yang realistis, semuanya dibutuhkan untuk mendukung berbagai sistem berbasiskan hasil.
REDD+ membutuhkan – dan dapat menjadi katalisator – perubahan transformatif: Insentif ekonomi yang baru, informasi dan wacana yang baru, berbagai pelaku dan koalisi kebijakan yang baru berpotensi
untuk menggeser kebijakan domestik agar menjauh dari jalur bisnis seperti biasa.
Proyek-proyek REDD+ bersifat gabungan di kawasan-kawasan yang tingkat deforestasinya tinggi: Para pengusul proyek mengusahakan strategi yang menggabungkan penegakan peraturan dan mendukung mata
pencaharian alternatif (ICDP) dengan sejumlah insentif yang berbasiskan hasil (PES). Proyek-proyek cenderung berlokasi di kawasan-kawasan yang tingkat deforestasinya tinggi dan nilai karbonnya besar, sehingga
menghasilkan nilai tambahan yang tinggi jika mereka berhasil.
Ada pilihan kebijakan ‘tanpa penyesalan’: Meskipun ada ketidakpastian tentang masa depan REDD+, para pemangku kepentingan perlu membangun dukungan dan koalisi politik untuk melakukan perubahan,
melakukan investasi dalam sistem informasi yang memadai, serta melaksanakan kebijakan yang dapat mengurangi deforestasi dan degradasi hutan, yang semuanya tetap diinginkan terlepas dari tujuan-tujuan untuk mengatasi persoalan iklim.
This Working Paper presents results from an in-depth study on the implementation of PFES in Dien Bien province, Vietnam, which assessed how equity was locally conceptualized in the PFES benefit-sharing process and the factors that influenced local perceptions of equity.
We found that local perceptions of equity varied across PFES communities because of differences in social contextual factors such as ethnicity and in the geography of the areas that affected the size of PFES payments and the level of PFES implementation. While PFES policy did include distributional equity considerations through formulation of the K-coefficient, this coefficient was not properly implemented on the ground due to its complexity and lack of data.
The procedural aspects of equity were found to be lacking. Poor information flows, lack of awareness of rights and responsibilities and the non-participation of local ecosystem service (ES) providers in decision-making processes led to a general sense of inequity and demotivation.
This study suggests that particular attention should be given to improve information sharing and communication patterns with local ES providers and to establish a proper grievance handling system for two-way information flow. The inclusion of local people in decision-making processes on the key elements of benefit-sharing mechanisms is crucial in aligning PFES benefits with the preferences of local people and could potentially help to motivate their performance in forest management. Policy makers and program implementers will want to examine local perspectives of equity – and to understand how these can change over time so that they can tailor the design of benefit-sharing mechanisms to generate effective, efficient and equitable PFES outcomes.
Significant progress has been made in the application of SVLK standards among large forestry enterprises and the prospects are good that full compliance can be achieved in the large-scale sector by the end of 2014.