Read it cover-to-cover as a complete primer, read it a section at a time as it comes up in your profession, and keep it handy as a quick reference.
New to this edition:
• A chapter on unconventional oil and gas (including gas shales)
• Modern tools used in well logging
• Modern drilling rig methods and equipment
• Expanded glossary includes 1,500 new terms
• More figures and plates
• Up-to-date statistics
For months in early 1980, scientists, journalists, and nearby residents listened anxiously to rumblings from Mount St. Helens in southwestern Washington State. Still, no one was prepared when a cataclysmic eruption blew the top off of the mountain, laying waste to hundreds of square miles of land and killing fifty-seven people. Steve Olson interweaves vivid personal stories with the history, science, and economic forces that influenced the fates and futures of those around the volcano. Eruption delivers a spellbinding narrative of an event that changed the course of volcanic science, and an epic tale of our fraught relationship with the natural world.
The worst hard-rock mining disaster in American history began a half hour before midnight on June 8, 1917, when fire broke out in the North Butte Mining Company's Granite Mountain shaft. Sparked more than two thousand feet below ground, the fire spewed flames, smoke, and poisonous gas through a labyrinth of underground tunnels. Within an hour, more than four hundred men would be locked in a battle to survive. Within three days, one hundred and sixty-four of them would be dead.
Fire and Brimstone recounts the remarkable stories of both the men below ground and their families above, focusing on two groups of miners who made the incredible decision to entomb themselves to escape the gas. While the disaster is compelling in its own right, Fire and Brimstone also tells a far broader story striking in its contemporary relevance. Butte, Montana, on the eve of the North Butte disaster, was a volatile jumble of antiwar protest, an abusive corporate master, seething labor unrest, divisive ethnic tension, and radicalism both left and right. It was a powder keg lacking only a spark, and the mine fire would ignite strikes, murder, ethnic and political witch hunts, occupation by federal troops, and ultimately a battle over presidential power.
Laki is Iceland’s largest volcano. Its eruption in 1783 is one of history’s great, untold natural disasters. Spewing out sun-blocking ash and then a poisonous fog for eight long months, the effects of the eruption lingered across the world for years. It caused the deaths of people as far away as the Nile and created catastrophic conditions throughout Europe.
Island on Fire is the story not only of a single eruption but the people whose lives it changed, the dawn of modern volcanology, as well as the history—and potential—of other super-volcanoes like Laki around the world. And perhaps most pertinently, in the wake of the eruption of another Icelandic volcano, Eyjafjallajökull, which closed European air space in 2010, acclaimed science writers Witze and Kanipe look at what might transpire should Laki erupt again in our lifetime.
Beginning with Mt. Vesuvius, whose eruption in Roman times helped spark the science of geology, and ending in a lab in the West of England where mathematical models and lab experiments replace direct observation, Richard Fortey tells us what the present says about ancient geologic processes. He shows how plate tectonics came to rule the geophysical landscape and how the evidence is written in the hills and in the stones. And in the process, he takes us on a wonderful journey around the globe to visit some of the most fascinating and intriguing spots on the planet.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
This new book introduces different types of geophysical logs and subsurface maps that can be generated from basic well data, and subsurface problems that can be solved using geophysical logs and subsurface maps. "Hands-on" exercises reveal how each map type is generated and what applications they may have. Exercises at the end of each chapter introduce different types of wells and lithologies.
In The Earthquake Observers, Deborah R. Coen acquaints readers not only with the century’s most eloquent seismic commentators, including Alexander von Humboldt, Charles Darwin, Mark Twain, Charles Dickens, Karl Kraus, Ernst Mach, John Muir, and William James, but also with countless other citizen-observers, many of whom were women. Coen explains how observing networks transformed an instant of panic and confusion into a field for scientific research, turning earthquakes into natural experiments at the nexus of the physical and human sciences. Seismology abandoned this project of citizen science with the introduction of the Richter Scale in the 1930s, only to revive it in the twenty-first century in the face of new hazards and uncertainties. The Earthquake Observers tells the history of this interrupted dialogue between scientists and citizens about living with environmental risk.
Here, Gillen D’Arcy Wood traces Tambora’s global and historical reach: how the volcano’s three-year climate change regime initiated the first worldwide cholera pandemic, expanded opium markets in China, and plunged the United States into its first economic depression. Bringing the history of this planetary emergency to life, Tambora sheds light on the fragile interdependence of climate and human societies to offer a cautionary tale about the potential tragic impacts of drastic climate change in our own century.
Topics covered include:
• Drilling rig requirements, selection, and evaluation
• Drilling fluids, including functions, types, selection criteria, evaluation, rheology
• Drilling fluid hydraulics and design requirements
• Drillstring mechanics
• Drill bit mechanics, including types, operational requirements, optimization
• Well control mechanics
• Pore and fracture pressures prediction and application
• Directional, horizontal, and multilateral well drilling
• Cementing and casing design
• Drilling problems and solutions
• Overview of underbalanced, slim hole, and coiled tubing drilling
Key Features & Benefits for the Reader:
• Full understanding of the rotary drilling process and its engineering design aspects
• Recognizing drilling problems and determining solution options
• Design, execution and post analysis of all drilling programs
Notwithstanding the tremendous advances in volcanology since ancient times, some of the mystery surrounding volcanic eruptions remains today. The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes summarizes our present knowledge of volcanoes. Through its thematic organization around the melting of the earth, it provides a comprehensive source of information on the multidisciplinary influences of volcanic eruptions--both the destructive as well as the beneficial aspects.
The majority of the chapters focus on the geoscience-related aspects of volcanism (radioactive heat source, melting rock, ascent of magma, surface phenomena associated with exiting magma, extraterrestrial volcanism, etc.). In addition, complementary chapters discuss the multidisciplinary aspects of volcanism; these include the history of volcanology, geothermal energy resources, interaction with the oceans and atmosphere, health aspects of volcanism, mitigation of volcanic disasters, post-eruption ecology, and the impact of eruptions on organismal biodiversity.
In addition to its appeal to educators, students, and professional and amateur scientists, the Encyclopedia of Volcanoes functions as an important information resource for administrators and officials responsible for developing and implementing volcanic hazard mitigation around the world.
* The first and only reference work to cover all aspects of volcanology
* More than 80 separate peer-reviewed articles--all original contributions by leading authors from major institutions of science around the world, commissioned for this work
* An integrated transition from the volcanic process through hazards, risk, and societal impacts, with an emphasis on how volcanoes have influenced and shaped society
* Convenient single-volume format with topics arranged thematically--articles provide coverage of nine different aspects of volcanology
* Each entry in the Encyclopedia begins with an outline of the article content and a concise definition of the subject of the article
* 3,000 Glossary entries explain key terms
* Further Reading lists appear at the end of each entry
* Extensive cross-referencing system links related articles
* Sixteen pages of color will convey the science and excitement of this often violent phenomena
* Large 8 1/2" x 11" page size, easy-to-read double-column format
It’s a geological structure that spans almost the entire length of California. Dozens of major highways and interstates cross it. Scores of housing developments have been built over it. And its name has become so familiar that it’s now synonymous with the very concept of an earthquake.
Yet, to many of those who are affected by it, the San Andreas Fault is practically invisible and shrouded in mystery. For decades, scientists have warned that the fault is primed for a colossal quake. According to geophysicist John Dvorak, such a sudden shift of the Earth’s crust is inevitable—and may be a geologic necessity.
In Earthquake Storms, Dvorak explains the science behind the San Andreas Fault, a transient, evolving system that’s key to our understanding of worldwide seismic activity. He traces it from the redwood forests to the east edge of the Salton Sea, through two of the largest urban areas of the country: San Francisco and Los Angeles. Its network of subsidiary faults runs through Hollywood, Beverly Hills, and Santa Monica, and the Hayward Fault slices the football stadium at the University of California in half. As he warns of peril, Dvorak lays out the worst-case scenario, which he believes is coming: an awakening of the fault leading to years of volatile “earthquake storms.”
Hailed by Booklist as “a fascinating look at what could be in store,” Dvorak’s comprehensive and accessible study will change the way you see the ground beneath your feet.
The book is divided into two parts: a verbal description (Chapters 1-6) and a collection of 55 plates (Chapter 7) with interpretations. The verbal description explains in a rather elementary form the most fundamental physical phenomena relevant to seismogram appearance. The collection of plates exhibits a large variety of seismogram examples, and the corresponding interpretations cover different seismic sources (tectonic and volcanic earthquakes, underground explosions, cavity collapse, sonic booms), wave types, epicentral distances, focal depths and recording instruments (analog, digital, short- and long-period, broad band).
The book compliments older manuals in that both analog and digital records are considered. Seismograms from more traditional narrow-band as well as from modern, broad-band instruments are displayed. Tectonic and volcanic earthquakes are represented, and the exhibited seismograms form a worldwide collection of records acquired from seismographic stations located in North and Central America, Asia, Europe and New Zealand, i.e. in various geological and tectonic environments. Terminology and usage of definition does vary among agencies in different parts of the world; that used in this book is common to Europe.
This book explains in accessible terms how different areas of science have been combined to reach our current level of knowledge of volcanic systems. It includes an introduction to eruption types, an outline of the development of physical volcanology, a comprehensive overview of subsurface processes, eruption mechanisms, the nature of volcanic eruptions and their products, and a review of how volcanoes affect the environment.
Fundamentals of Physical Volcanology is essential reading for undergraduate students in earth science.
In late April 1902, Mount Pelée, a volcano on the Caribbean island Martinique, began to wake up. It emitted clouds of ash and smoke for two weeks until violently erupting on May 8. Over 30,000 residents of St. Pierre were killed; they burned to death under rivers of hot lava and suffocated under pounds of hot ash. Only three people managed to survive: a prisoner trapped in a dungeon-like jail cell, a man on the outskirts of town, and a young girl found floating unconscious in a boat days later.
So how did a town of thousands not heed the warnings of nature and local scientists, instead staying behind to perish in the onslaught of volcanic ash? Why did the newspapers publish articles assuring readers that the volcano was harmless? And why did the authorities refuse to allow the American Consul to contact Washington about the conditions? The answer lies in politics: With an election on the horizon, the political leaders of Martinique ignored the welfare of their people in order to consolidate the votes they needed to win.
A gripping and informative book on the disastrous effects of a natural disaster coupled with corruption, The Day the World Ended reveals the story of a city engulfed in flames and the political leaders that chose to kill their people rather than give up their political power.
During the past 2,000 years, four volcanic eruptions have taken place in the Zapotitán Valley of southern El Salvador. One, the devastating eruption of Ilopango around A.D. 300, forced a major migration, pushing the Mayan people north to the Yucatán Peninsula. Although later eruptions did not have long-range implications for cultural change, one of the subsequent eruptions preserved the Cerén site—a Mesoamerican Pompeii where the bodies of the villagers, the palm-thatched roofs of their houses, the pots of food in their pantries, even the corn plants in their fields were preserved with remarkable fidelity.
Throughout 1978, a multidisciplinary team of anthropologists, archeologists, geologists, biologists, and others sponsored by the University of Colorado's Protoclassic Project researched and excavated the results of volcanism in the Zapotitan Valley—a key Mesoamerican site that contemporary political strife has since rendered inaccessible.
The result is an outstanding contribution to our understanding of the impact of volcanic eruptions on early Mayan civilization. These investigations clearly demonstrate that the Maya inhabited this volcanically hazardous valley in order to reap the short-term benefits that the volcanic ash produced—fertile soil, fine clays, and obsidian deposits.
Volcanic Ash: Hazard Observationpresents an introduction followed by four sections, each on a separate topic and each containing chapters from an internationally renowned pool of authors. The introduction provides a volcanological context for ash generation that sets the stage for the development and interpretation of techniques presented in subsequent sections.
The book begins with an examination of the methods to characterize ash deposits on the ground, as ash deposits on the ground have generally experienced some atmospheric transport. This section will also cover basic information on ash morphology, density, and refractive index, all parameters required to understand and analyze assumptions made for both in situ measurements and remote sensing ash inversion techniques. Sections two, three, and four focus on methods for observing volcanic ash in the atmosphere using ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne instruments respectively.
Throughout the book, the editors showcase not only the interdisciplinary nature of the volcanic ash problem, but also the challenges and rewards of interdisciplinary endeavors. Additionally, by bringing together a broad perspective on volcanic ash studies, the book not only ties together ground-, air-, academic, and applied approaches to the volcanic ash problem, but also engages with other scientific communities interested in particulate transport.Includes recent case studies highlighting the impact of volcanic ash, making methods used for observation more accessible to the readerContains advances in volcanic ash observation that can be used in other remote sensing applicationsPresents a cross-disciplinary approach that includes not only methods of tracking and measuring ash in the atmosphere, but also of the fundamental science that supports methodological application and interpretationEdited by an internationally recognized team with a range of expertise within the field of volcanic ash
This volume will interest structural engineers, engineers-designers, geophysicists, mechanical and geotechnical engineers. It is intended to serve both readers already acquainted with problems of earthquake engineering and beginners in this field.
This book is designed to give students a balanced and comprehensive coverage of these new advances, as well as a firm grounding in the classical aspects of igneous and metamorphic petrology. The emphasis throughout is on the processes controlling petrogenesis, but care is taken to present the important descriptive information so crucial to interpretation.
One of the most up-to-date synthesis of igneous and metamorphic petrology available.
Emphasis throughout on latest experimental and field data.
Igneous and metamorphic sections can be used independently if necessary.
It enhances the ability to interpret seismic data and use that data for basin evaluation, structural modeling of a fault, reservoir characterization, rock physics analysis, field development, and production studies.
Understanding and interpreting seismic data is critical to oil and gas exploration companies. Arming young geoscientists with a reference that covers the key principles of seismic data analysis will enhance their job knowledge, skills and performance. A fundamental grasp of seismic data enhances employability and aids scientists in functioning effectively when working with seismic data in industry.Edited by a team of petroleum geoscientists with more than 30 years of experience in hydrocarbon exploration and data analysis at O&G companies.More than 200 figures, photographs, and illustrations aid in the understanding of the fundamental concepts and techniques used to acquire seismic dataTakes an easy-to-follow, step-by-step approach to presenting the techniques and skills used to extract the geologic sections from acquired seismic data.Enhances the geoscientist’s effectiveness when using seismic data for field development and other exploration and production studies
Readership: Instructors, researchers, practitioners, and students interested in geoscience, engineering, economics, or policy issues relevant to natural hazards. Suitable for upper-level undergraduate or graduate courses.
Additional resources can be found at: http://www.wiley.com/go/Stein/Playingagainstnature
All the important means of transporting operatives and minerals are addressed, both below ground and on the surface. Safe, speedy and economic transport from the point of mineral extraction to leaving the mine is paramount. This work covers all aspects of the problem including: (1) the design and application of steel wire ropes to a variety of industrial applications, and the various drums and pulleys necessary; (2) a ready means of calculating output/throughput of various transport modes, and relating such to their power requirement; and (3) information on transport modes that enables the most suitable system for given conditions to be determined.
A ``first principle'' approach has been adopted throughout, and extensive use of practical examples allows the solution of virtually all associated problems. Although formulae are used where necessary for an understanding of the content, the numerous tables included enable the practicing engineer to make short cuts to more quickly solve particular problems. In addition, the provision of a considerable number of operational constants, many not previously published, enable a more speedy and accurate solution to be effected. By comparing the calculated solutions to a particular problem, the most economic transport mode may be determined.
Mining, mechanical and electrical engineers concerned with the safe movement of men or material will find this book of particular use, as will the student preparing for examinations on the subject.