Nato Science Series: IV

81 Books

Managing environmental contamination requires decision makers to weigh eXlstmg risks against the potential effects of implementing environmental policies - considering both the benefits and disruptions that may result from different actions. The NATO Advanced Research Workshop in Lisbon was an important step in the development and application of cost efficient methods of risk assessment especiaIly within the constraints of a budget. The goal of the workshop was to evaluate the potential for risk assessment to serve as a unified and unifying technique in addressing a wide range of environmental problems. Papers presented in this book discuss issues ranging from specific and local studies (specific site, ecosystem, pollutant) to global decision and management frameworks (watersheds, regions, integration of multiple poIlutants and stressors); they develop a range of approaches starting from specific methods to widely applied public policies (Figure 1). The papers show that the use of risk assessment can provide the scientific basis for environmentaIly sound and cost-efficient policies, strategies, and solutions to our environmental chaIlenges. The organization of the Proceedings reflects sessions and discussions during the workshop. The papers in the introductory Chapter summarize the positions of Drs. Glenn Suter (EPA) and Jim Wilson (Resources for the Future) regarding whether the use of often-expensive risk assessments in developing countries can be justified, given evolving regulatory institutions and limited resources.
Organisms are increasingly being used to assess environmental impacts on ecosystems. Lichens are among the best known, most widely used biomonitors of environmental change, with thousands of papers published on this subject in the last decades. The present book provides the most recent synthesis on this subject. It is divided into three sections: (1) Monitoring lichens as indicators of pollution; (2) monitoring lichen diversity and ecosystem function; and (3) methods for monitoring lichens. The first two sections present the state of the art in the respective fields, while the third briefly presents the methods currently used in lichen biomonitoring. Sampling design, sampling strategy, and data quality evaluation are dealt with in detail in two chapters.

The first section reviews the huge body of knowledge of lichens as indicators of air pollution, including bioindication, accumulation of metals and radioelements, and the use of lichens as biomarkers. The second section covers an array of approaches to monitoring lichen biodiversity and ecosystem function, from focusing on one or a few species to monitoring the biodiversity of lichens across whole regions in terms of lichen abundance, diversity, and/or community composition. The third section presents methods for monitoring lichens, written as experimental protocols for use in other situations where monitoring is required.

Readership: A wide spectrum of users in fields such as education, environmental management, forestry, biodiversity research. A comprehensive, up-to-date review of lichen monitoring, and an aid in identifying problems and pragmatic approaches to the assessment of biodiversity and environmental quality.

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