Is it culture, the weather, geography? Perhaps ignorance of what the right policies are?
Simply, no. None of these factors is either definitive or destiny. Otherwise, how to explain why Botswana has become one of the fastest growing countries in the world, while other African nations, such as Zimbabwe, the Congo, and Sierra Leone, are mired in poverty and violence?
Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson conclusively show that it is man-made political and economic institutions that underlie economic success (or lack of it). Korea, to take just one of their fascinating examples, is a remarkably homogeneous nation, yet the people of North Korea are among the poorest on earth while their brothers and sisters in South Korea are among the richest. The south forged a society that created incentives, rewarded innovation, and allowed everyone to participate in economic opportunities.
The economic success thus spurred was sustained because the government became accountable and responsive to citizens and the great mass of people. Sadly, the people of the north have endured decades of famine, political repression, and very different economic institutions—with no end in sight. The differences between the Koreas is due to the politics that created these completely different institutional trajectories.
Based on fifteen years of original research Acemoglu and Robinson marshall extraordinary historical evidence from the Roman Empire, the Mayan city-states, medieval Venice, the Soviet Union, Latin America, England, Europe, the United States, and Africa to build a new theory of political economy with great relevance for the big questions of today, including:
- China has built an authoritarian growth machine. Will it continue to grow at such high speed and overwhelm the West?
- Are America’s best days behind it? Are we moving from a virtuous circle in which efforts by elites to aggrandize power are resisted to a vicious one that enriches and empowers a small minority?
- What is the most effective way to help move billions of people from the rut of poverty to prosperity? More philanthropy from the wealthy nations of the West? Or learning the hard-won lessons of Acemoglu and Robinson’s breakthrough ideas on the interplay between inclusive political and economic institutions?
Why Nations Fail will change the way you look at—and understand—the world.
After covering the necessary background on dynamic general equilibrium and dynamic optimization, the book presents the basic workhorse models of growth and takes students to the frontier areas of growth theory, including models of human capital, endogenous technological change, technology transfer, international trade, economic development, and political economy. The book integrates these theories with data and shows how theoretical approaches can lead to better perspectives on the fundamental causes of economic growth and the wealth of nations.
Innovative and authoritative, this book is likely to shape how economic growth is taught and learned for years to come.Introduces all the foundations for understanding economic growth and dynamic macroeconomic analysis Focuses on the big-picture questions of economic growth Provides mathematical foundations Presents dynamic general equilibrium Covers models such as basic Solow, neoclassical growth, and overlapping generations, as well as models of endogenous technology and international linkages Addresses frontier research areas such as international linkages, international trade, political economy, and economic development and structural change An accompanying Student Solutions Manual containing the answers to selected exercises is available (978-0-691-14163-3/$24.95). See: http://press.princeton.edu/titles/8970.html. For Professors only: To access a complete solutions manual online, email us at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Por qué fracasan los países responde a estas y otras cuestiones con una nueva y convincente teoría: la prosperidad no se debe al clima, a la geografía o a la cultura, sino a las políticas dictaminadas por las instituciones de cada país. Debido a ello, los países no conseguirán que sus economías crezcan hasta que no dispongan de instituciones gubernamentales que desarrollen políticas acertadas.
Asimismo, los autores responden a las siguientes cuestiones:
• China está creciendo a un ritmo trepidante. ¿Hasta cuándo podrá seguir creciendo al mismo ritmo? ¿Acabará por aplastar al mundo occidental?
• ¿Hasta cuándo será Estados Unidos una potencia mundial? ¿Su sistema económico es apto para competir en las próximas décadas?
• ¿Cuál es el mejor método para sacar de la pobreza a millones de personas? ¿Realmente las ayudas de Occidente ayudan a erradicar las hambrunas?
A través de una cuidada selección de ejemplos históricos y actuales (desde la antigua Roma pasando por los Tudor y llegando a la China moderna) los reconocidos profesores Daron Acemoglu y James A. Robinson harán que usted vea el mundo, y sus problemas, de un modo completamente distinto.