Volume XXVIII contains five review articles covering the following areas - digital holography, a field that has found useful applications in connection with data processing and data storage, for 3-d displays and in providing new types of optical components, for example, holographic gratings; - basic investigations concerned with new technologies that may lead to better optical communication systems and improved limits of measurement than are expected from the traditional interpretation of quantum-mechanical measurement theory; - a review of our current understanding of quantum coherence properties of stimulated Raman scattering; - an account of techniques developed in recent years in the field of interferometry, for improvements of high precision measurements; - the fascinating phenomenon of quantum jumps, which were introduced in the theory of atomic spectra by Niels Bohr in 1913.
This volume contains six review articles dealing with topics of current research interest in optics and in related fields. The first article deals with the so-called embedding method, which has found useful applications in the study of wave propagation in random media. The second article presents a review of an interesting class of non-linear optical phenomena which have their origin in the dependence of the complex dielectric constant of some media on the light intensity. These phenomena which include self-focusing, self-trapping and self-modulation have found many applications, for example in fibre optics devices, signal processing and computer technology. The next article is concerned with gap solitons which are electromagnetic field structures which can exist in nonlinear media that have periodic variation in their linear optical properties, with periodicities of the order of the wavelength of light. Both qualitative and quantitative descriptions of gap solitons are presented and some experimental schemes for their detection in the laboratory are discussed. The fourth article describes methods for the determination of optical phase from phase-modulated images. These methods have found applications in plasma diagnostics, in connection with flow characterisation and in the design of new optical instruments. The final article reviews developments relating to imaging, through turbulence in the atmosphere. It looks at the state-of-the-art of our understanding of this subject and discusses the most important methods that are presently employed to compensate for image distortion caused by atmospheric turbulence.
The publication of volume forty of Progress in Optics marks a significant milestone. Volume one was published in 1961, a year after the invention of the laser, an event which triggered a wealth of new and exciting developments. Many of them have been reported in the 234 review articles published in this series since its inception.The present volume contains six review articles on a variety of subjects of current research interests. The first is concerned with polarimetric optical fibers and sensors, and reviews the main efforts and achievements in this field within the last two decades.The second article presents a review of recent researches on digital optical computing. After introducing the basic concepts needed for understanding the developments in this field, some feasibility experiments as well as software studies are discussed.
Progress in Optics is a well-established series of volumes of review articles dealing with theoretical and applied optics and related subjects. Widely acclaimed by numerous reviewers as representing an authoritative and up-to-date source of information in all branches of optics, the series continues to fulfil a genuine need within the scientific community. Articles are contributed by leading scientists (including two Nobel Prize winners) chosen by the Editor, with the advice of an international panel of experts constituting the Editorial Advisory Board. Many of the articles appearing in these volumes have since been established as basic references in their respective fields.
This volume presents a review of the research in several areas of modern optics written by experts well-known in the international scientific community. The first chapter discusses properties and methods of production and detection of coherent superpositions of macroscopically distinguishable states of light (the so-called Schrodinger cat states). Chapter two deals with the phase-shift method, which originated in the 1930s, for the analysis of potential-scattering problems in atomic and nuclear physics. Recently this approach has been applied to wave propagation in one-dimensional inhomogeneous media. Chapter three is concerned with the statistical properties of dynamic laser speckles that arise from scattering objects with rough surfaces undergoing translation and rotation. A moving phase-screen model is employed, which gives a relatively simple formulation of the theory and a clear picture of the time-varying speckle phenomenon. The fourth chapter presents a review of the more important theoretical and experimental results relating to optics of multilayer systems with randomly rough boundaries. The significant theoretical approaches which make it possible to interpret experimental data involving such systems are described, and relevant methods for optical characterization of systems of this kind are outlined. The last chapter presents an account of a theory of the photon transport through turbid media.
Confirming the fact that optics continues to be a highly active field of research where many interesting developments are currently taking place, the latest volume in this renowned series presents five review articles by well-known experts, on topics of current interest in optics. The first article concerns quantum fluctuations, a phenomenon encountered directly or indirectly in all optical measurements. Such fluctuations set limits to attainable accuracy with which measurements can be made. In recent years theoretical as well as experimental research has demonstrated that limitations arising from quantum fluctuations can sometimes be circumvented to some extent. These developments are of importance from the standpoint of basic physics as well as in connection with technological applications, such as noise reduction in communication systems. The second article deals with correlation holographic interferometry and speckle photography, paying special attention to the effects of random variation of surface microstructure on the contrast of interference fringes. The article which follows covers an important subject in the broad area of wave propagation in random media, namely wave localization. This phenomenon is a subtle manifestation of interference of multiply scattered waves and provides information about important properties of disordered systems. The article considers mainly localization in one-dimensional systems, which elucidate some of the underlying physics. The fourth article discusses an important nonlinear phenomenon, namely soliton propagation in fibres. Solitons are pulses which can propagate over long distances without change in shape. Because of their considerable stability, they are of particular interest for communication systems. The concluding article presents the theory and describes experiments on elementary quantum systems in the context of cavity quantum optics. Such experiments are providing deeper understanding of the interaction of light with matter and give new insights into the foundations of quantum mechanics.
In last years increasing attention has been again devoted to interpretations of quantum theory. In the same time interesting quantum optical experiments have been performed using nonlinear optical processes, in particular frequency down conversion, which provided new information about nature of a photon on the basis of interference and correlation (coincidence) phenomena. Such single-photon and twin-photon effects of quantum optics provide new point of view of interpretations of quantum theory and new tests of its principles. The purpose of this book is to discuss these questions. To follow this goal we give brief reviews of principles of quantum theory and of quantum theory of measurement. As a fundamental theoretical tool the coherent state technique is adopted based on a general algebraic treatment, including the de scription of interaction of radiation and matter. Typical quantum behaviour of physical systems is exhibited by nonclassical optical phenomena, which can be examined using photon interferences and correlations. These phenomena are closely related to violation of various classical inequalities and Bell's in equalities. The most important part of this book discusses quantum optical experiments supporting quantum theory. This book may be considered as a continuation of previous monographs by one of the authors on Coherence of Light (Van Nostrand Reinhold, London 1972, second edition D. Reidel, Dordrecht 1985) and on Quantum Statistics of Linear and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (D. Reidel, Dordrecht 1984, second edition Kluwer, Dordrecht 1991), which may serve as a preparation for reading this book.
In 1988 physicists and chemists commemorated the centenary of the discovery of the first liquid crystals. Fora long period after this discovery, although many significant results were found, liquid crystal research remained a marginal topic of condensed matter physics. The situation changed in the sixties. At that time the remarkable electro-optical properties of liquid crystals were recognized and found soon widespread application in numeric displays. From a more fundamental point of view, the interest in disordered systems. increased in general at the same time. Liquid crystals represented an important dass of such systems. Among others, phase transitions, hydrodynamics and topological defects occurring in them attracted considerable attention. The connection between the liquid-crystalline state and the structure of biological membranes stimulated a Iot of works also. In the present volume we discuss a relatively new and rapidly developing branch of the fi. eld, namely nonlinear optical effects in liquid crystals. Optical studies have always played a signifi. cant role in liquid crystal science. Research of optical nonlinearities in liquid crystals began at the end of the sixties. Since then it became a powerful tool in the investigation of symmetry properties, interfacial phenomena or dynamic behaviour. Furthermore, several new aspects of nonlinear processes were demonstrated and studied extensively in liquid crystals. The subject covered in this book is therefore of importance both for liquid crystal research and for nonlinear optics itself. The term "nonlinear optics" is used here in a broad sense.
Principles of Optics is one of the classic science books of the twentieth century, and probably the most influential book in optics published in the past 40 years. The new edition is the first ever thoroughly revised and expanded edition of this standard text. Among the new material, much of which is not available in any other optics text, is a section on the CAT scan (computerized axial tomography), which has revolutionized medical diagnostics. The book also includes a new chapter on scattering from inhomogeneous media which provides a comprehensive treatment of the theory of scattering of scalar as well as of electromagnetic waves, including the Born series and the Rytov series. The chapter also presents an account of the principles of diffraction tomography - a refinement of the CAT scan - to which Emil Wolf, one of the authors, has made a basic contribution by formulating in 1969 what is generally regarded to be the basic theorem in this field. The chapter also includes an account of scattering from periodic potentials and its connection to the classic subject of determining the structure of crystals from X-ray diffraction experiments, including accounts of von Laue equations, Bragg's law, the Ewald sphere of reflection and the Ewald limiting sphere, both generalized to continuous media. These topics, although originally introduced in connection with the theory of X-ray diffraction by crystals, have since become of considerable relevance to optics, for example in connection with deep holograms. Other new topics covered in this new edition include interference with broad-band light, which introduces the reader to an important phenomenon discovered relatively recently by Emil Wolf, namely the generation of shifts of spectral lines and other modifications of spectra of radiated fields due to the state of coherence of a source. There is also a section on the so-called Rayleigh-Sommerfield diffraction theory which, in recent times, has been finding increasing popularity among optical scientists. There are also several new appendices, including one on energy conservation in scalar wavefields, which is seldom discussed in books on optics. The new edition of this standard reference will continue to be invaluable to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers working in most areas of optics.
Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, Sixth Edition covers optical phenomenon that can be treated with Maxwell’s phenomenological theory. The book is comprised of 14 chapters that discuss various topics about optics, such as geometrical theories, image forming instruments, and optics of metals and crystals. The text covers the elements of the theories of interference, interferometers, and diffraction. The book tackles several behaviors of light, including its diffraction when exposed to ultrasonic waves. The selection will be most useful to researchers whose work involves understanding the behavior of light.
This book presents a systematic account of optical coherence theory within the framework of classical optics, as applied to such topics as radiation from sources of different states of coherence, foundations of radiometry, effects of source coherence on the spectra of radiated fields, coherence theory of laser modes, and scattering of partially coherent light by random media. The book starts with a full mathematical introduction to the subject area and each chapter concludes with a set of exercises. The authors are renowned scientists and have made substantial contributions to many of the topics treated in the book. Much of the book is based on courses given by them at universities, scientific meetings and laboratories throughout the world. This book will undoubtedly become an indispensable aid to scientists and engineers concerned with modern optics, as well as to teachers and graduate students of physics and engineering.
In the forty-eight years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.3D optical microscopyTransformation optics and geometry of lightPhotorefractive solitonsStimulated scattering effectsOptical vortices and polarization singularitiesQuantum feedforward control of light
In the fourty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.Backscattering and Anderson localization of lightAdvances in oliton manipulation in optical latticesFundamental quantum noise in optical amplificationInvisibility cloaks
In the 50 years since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series that have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments, helping optical scientists and optical engineers stay abreast of their fields.Comprehensive, in-depth reviewsEdited by the leading authority in the fieldQ1 in Thomson JCR ranking
In the fourty-six years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain nearly 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.Historical OverviewAttosecond Laser PulsesHistory of Conical RefractionParticle Concept of LightField Quantization in OpticsHistory of Near-Field OpticsHistory of TunnelingInfluence of Young's Interference Experiment on Development of Statistical opticsPlanck, Photon Statistics and Bose-Einstein Condensation
In the 50 years since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series that have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.Invariant Optical FieldsQuantum Optics in Structured MediaPolarization and Coherence OpticsOptical Quantum ComputationPhotonic CrystalsLase Beam-Splitting Gratings
In the thirty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. At the time of inception of this series, the first lasers were only just becoming operational, holography was in its infancy, subjects such as fiber optics, integrated optics and optoelectronics did not exist and quantum optics was the domain of only a few physicists. The term photonics had not yet been coined. Today these fields are flourishing and have become areas of specialisation for many science and engineering students and numerous research workers and engineers throughout the world. Some of the advances in these fields have been recognized by awarding Nobel prizes to seven physicists in the last twenty years. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain nearly 190 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments. They have helped optical scientists and optical engineers to stay abreast of their fields. There is no sign that developments in optics are slowing down or becoming less interesting.
In the 50 years since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series that have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments, helping optical scientists and optical engineers stay abreast of their fields.Comprehensive, in-depth reviewsEdited by the leading authority in the field
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