Through two case studies, Alexander examines how debilitating the Populist Paradox truly is. The issue of gambling was selected due to the large number of affected interests and the degree of conflict enveloping the issue. Current research suggests that economic interest groups are best able to mobilize monetary resoures, while citizen groups are best able to mobilize personnel resources. The question then turns to whether the differential ability to mobilize resources translates to success or failure for groups with different bases of support. Populist and Progressive reformers obviously did not foresee the advent of campaign consultants, focus groups, direct mail, and paid petitioners. These changes in political campaigning have made the ability to mobilize personnel resources much less important. Alexander provides a valuable extension to current knowledge of group involvement in ballot campaigns that will be of particular interest to scholars, students, and other researchers involved with state and local public policy.
First, Hirschbein looks at the right to vote as the centerpiece of American civic religion. He contrasts civic myths about enfranchisement with anthropological realities. Specifically he argues that, given the intractable mathematics of mass society, the chances that a single vote will determine the outcome of an election approach the infinitesimal. However, he suggests that voting plays a neglected ritual function by constructing, legitimizing, and celebrating political reality for players and spectators alike. Hirschbein then explicates the origins and evanescent meanings of enfranchisement by examining the theory and practice of voting among the citizenry of ancient Athens, medieval ecclesiastical bureaucrats, Enlightenment natural law thinkers, and the founders of the Virtuous Republic. He concludes with speculation about possible futures. A controversial and important analysis, this will be of interest to the general public as well as scholars, researchers, and policy makers involved with election issues and theories of democracy.
Students wanting a comprehensive and accessible overview of organic chemistry to build the necessary foundations for a more detailed study will find this book an ideal source of the information they require. In addition, the structured presentation, highly graphical nature of the text and practice problems with outline answers will provide an invaluable framework and aid to revision for students preparing for examinations. Keynotes in Organic Chemistry is also a handy desk reference for advanced students, postgraduates and researchers.
For this second edition the text has been completely revised and updated. Colour has been introduced to clarify aspects of reaction mechanisms, and new margin notes to emphasise the links between different topics. The number of problems have been doubled to approximately 100, and includes spectra interpretation problems. Each chapter now starts with diagrams to illustrate the key points, and ends with a list of key reactions and a worked example.