Scientific and Policy Considerations in Developing Smallpox Vaccination Options: A Workshop Report

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At the World Health Assembly in May 1980, the World Health Organization declared the world free of smallpox. Smallpox vaccination of civilians is now indicated only for laboratory workers directly involved with smallpox or closely related orthopox viruses. However recent questions raised by the terrorist attacks in fall 2001 have renewed concerns about possible outbreaks of smallpox resulting from its use as a biological weapon. In June 2002, the Institute of Medicine convened a public conference to discuss the scientific, clinical, procedural, and administrative aspects of various immunization strategies. Scientific and Policy Considerations in Developing Smallpox Vaccination Options summarizes the presentations and discussions from this workshop.
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Publisher
National Academies Press
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Published on
Oct 28, 2002
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Pages
58
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ISBN
9780309168984
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Features
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Language
English
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Genres
Medical / General
Medical / Health Policy
Political Science / Security (National & International)
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This content is DRM free.
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Elisabeth Rosenthal
A New York Times bestseller.

A Washington Post Notable Book of the Year 

At a moment of drastic political upheaval, An American Sickness is a shocking investigation into our dysfunctional healthcare system - and offers practical solutions to its myriad problems.

In these troubled times, perhaps no institution has unraveled more quickly and more completely than American medicine. In only a few decades, the medical system has been overrun by organizations seeking to exploit for profit the trust that vulnerable and sick Americans place in their healthcare. Our politicians have proven themselves either unwilling or incapable of reining in the increasingly outrageous costs faced by patients, and market-based solutions only seem to funnel larger and larger sums of our money into the hands of corporations. Impossibly high insurance premiums and inexplicably large bills have become facts of life; fatalism has set in. Very quickly Americans have been made to accept paying more for less. How did things get so bad so fast?

Breaking down this monolithic business into the individual industries—the hospitals, doctors, insurance companies, and drug manufacturers—that together constitute our healthcare system, Rosenthal exposes the recent evolution of American medicine as never before. How did healthcare, the caring endeavor, become healthcare, the highly profitable industry? Hospital systems, which are managed by business executives, behave like predatory lenders, hounding patients and seizing their homes. Research charities are in bed with big pharmaceutical companies, which surreptitiously profit from the donations made by working people. Patients receive bills in code, from entrepreneurial doctors they never even saw. 

The system is in tatters, but we can fight back. Dr. Elisabeth Rosenthal doesn't just explain the symptoms, she diagnoses and treats the disease itself. In clear and practical terms, she spells out exactly how to decode medical doublespeak, avoid the pitfalls of the pharmaceuticals racket, and get the care you and your family deserve. She takes you inside the doctor-patient relationship and to hospital C-suites, explaining step-by-step the workings of a system badly lacking transparency. This is about what we can do, as individual patients, both to navigate the maze that is American healthcare and also to demand far-reaching reform. An American Sickness is the frontline defense against a healthcare system that no longer has our well-being at heart.
Institute of Medicine
Integration of complementary and alternative medicine therapies (CAM) with conventional medicine is occurring in hospitals and physicians offices, health maintenance organizations (HMOs) are covering CAM therapies, insurance coverage for CAM is increasing, and integrative medicine centers and clinics are being established, many with close ties to medical schools and teaching hospitals. In determining what care to provide, the goal should be comprehensive care that uses the best scientific evidence available regarding benefits and harm, encourages a focus on healing, recognizes the importance of compassion and caring, emphasizes the centrality of relationship-based care, encourages patients to share in decision making about therapeutic options, and promotes choices in care that can include complementary therapies where appropriate.

Numerous approaches to delivering integrative medicine have evolved. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the United States identifies an urgent need for health systems research that focuses on identifying the elements of these models, the outcomes of care delivered in these models, and whether these models are cost-effective when compared to conventional practice settings.

It outlines areas of research in convention and CAM therapies, ways of integrating these therapies, development of curriculum that provides further education to health professionals, and an amendment of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act to improve quality, accurate labeling, research into use of supplements, incentives for privately funded research into their efficacy, and consumer protection against all potential hazards.

Institute of Medicine
Sixth in a series of congressionally mandated studies, this book is an updated review and evaluation of the available evidence regarding the statistical assoication between exposure to herbicides used in Vietnam and various adverse health outcomes suspected to be linked with such exposure.

This book builds upon the information contained in the earlier books in the series:
Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam (1994) Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1996 Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1998 Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000 Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2002
Veterans and Agent Orange: Herbicides and Dioxin Exposure and Type 2 Diabetes (2000) Veterans and Agent Orange: Herbicide/Dioxin Exposure and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia in the Children of Vietnam Veterans (2002)

Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 focuses primarily on scientific studies and other information developed since the release of these earlier books. The previous volumes have noted that sufficient evidence exists to link chronic lymphocytic leukemia, soft-tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease, and chloracne with exposure. The books also noted that there is “limited or suggestive†evidence of an association between exposure and respiratory cancers, prostate cancer, multiple myeloma, the metabolic disorder porphyria cutanea tarda, early-onset transient peripheral neuropathies, Type 2 diabetes, and the congenital birth defect spinal bifida in veterans’ children. This volume will be critically important to both policymakers and physicians in the federal government, Vietnam veterans and their families, veterans’ organizations, researchers, and health professionals.
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