The main focus of this paper is to assess household welfare in Albania, describe the labor market, and evaluate the equity and efficiency of public expenditures on cash benefits and education. This report provides a benchmark against which future welfare developments of the population can be measured. It also includes a statistical annex.
French edition. Human Development Network Series. As the new millennium approaches,... Education will determine who has the keys to the treasures the world can furnish. This is particularly important for the poor, who have to rely on their human capital as the main, if not the only, means of escaping poverty. In this way, new challenges and opportunities arise for education. Immense progress has been achieved in education in the last 50 years. However, immense challenges still remain. This report lays out the vision for education and the ambitious international goals to which the Bank subscribes. It notes the progress so far and the gaps that remain. It describes the rich group of partners associated with the educational endeavor and how the Bank's role has evolved. It conveys the Bank's global priorities and programs to help countries progress toward the international education goals and improve the quality of teaching and learning. It illustrates the processes and operating principles that will help Bank staff contribute more effectively to better educational outcomes in each client country and to monitor success in implementing this strategy. Also available in English (Stock no. 14560) and Spanish (Stock no. 14633).
Environmental health remains at the periphery of sustainable development for a number of reasons. It is inadequately defined, rarely quantified, and institutionally fragmented.'Environmental Health' helps fill a void in economic development thinking. It provides procedures to address multisectoral problems that require multisectoral solutions. It addresses those problems by: proposing a new approach to targeted collaboration among different sectors; devising new tools or enhancing existing ones to help different sectors contribute to the alleviation of health problems; and putting theory into practice through a pilot in Ghana.
"This volume contains papers presented at a labor conference held in Baden, Austria, in June 2001. It provides the latest labor trends in EU accession countries, evaluates existing labor market policies and social protection mechanisms, and discusses alternative strategies for employment creation in the region. This volume represents the thinking of participating policymakers, academics, and representatives of civil society."
Although the progress toward poverty reduction remains sluggish, other dimensions of social welfare in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region show signs of improvement. Adult literacy and school enrollment rates, life expectancy at birth, and the amount of access to safe water are increasing. Nutrition indicators are also improving. However, other factors demonstrate that many problems persist, especially the inequality between rich and poor. This report analyzes the evolution of poverty and inequality in the LAC region from 1986 to 1996 with projections to 1998. It reviews the policies which have been advocated or implemented to reduce poverty. The report combines the results of new empirical work using household surveys from 12 countries, short theoretical developments, and a review of the literature on issues related to poverty, inequality, and social policy in LAC. Some of the theoretical developments introduce new research techniques. Chapters three to six follow the framework proposed in the forthcoming 'World Development Report 2000-2001'. The framework identifies three essential elements for poverty reduction. Those elements include opportunities for the poor and investments in the human capital of the poor, security through social safety nets, and empowerment.
This book offers six studies that analyze the effect that medium- and large-scale mines have on local communities. Each study evaluates the impact of the economic, social, cultural, and environmental ramifications of these mining operations on their respective communities. Their primary goal is to examine the costs and benefits of the mining operations. This book places strong emphasis on the sustainability of any benefits received by these communities.
This book discusses two moral panics that appeared in the media in late apartheid South Africa: the Satanism scare and the so-called epidemic of white family murder. The analysis of these symptoms of social and political change reveals important truths about whiteness, gender, violence, history, nationalism and injustice in South Africa and beyond.