Ethics in Photojournalism

GRIN Verlag
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Essay from the year 2009 in the subject Communications - Journalism, Journalism Professions, grade: 5,0 => 1,0 (s. Anm.), University of Helsinki (Communications), course: Current Issues in Journalism, language: English, abstract: The Mohammed cartoons, torture photos from Abu Ghraib, videos from school shooting, and pictures from dead bodies in the London terrorist attacks taken by other victims are visual contents that we all had to deal with in the last years. The discussions on the changes for journalists caused by digitalization are ubiquitous. But mostly they focus on decreasing readership numbers, how to reconnect with the public, and on grassroots journalism. Ethical questions usually are concerned with issues such as tabloidization, sensationalism, and emotionalization- in short, quality loss in journalism. Journalistic codes are updated and adapted to the new demands. Other societal debates concentrate on possible negative influences of pictures in news media, video games, music videos, and such- usually containing violence and/or sex. But there is a lack of discourse on ethical challenges concerning photojournalism. During or after a tragedy like school shootings there is lots of talk but the ferocity of those arguments is neither reflected in professional debates of journalists on ethics in photojournalism nor in journalistic codes. However, those issues are gaining importance proportional to the rising significance cameras, picture taking, and visual media in people’s lives. This essay therefore is summarizing current debates about journalism ethics, focusing on visual media. Those issues are illustrated with two examples: the Mohammed cartoon-incident and school shootings at the Virginia Tech University, USA and in Jokela, Finland. The question to be answered is what problems exist concerning ethical issues in photojournalism and how they possibly could be improved.
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Publisher
GRIN Verlag
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Published on
Sep 21, 2011
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Pages
17
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ISBN
9783656012269
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Language
English
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Genres
Language Arts & Disciplines / Journalism
Social Science / Media Studies
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Eligible for Family Library

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Essay from the year 2009 in the subject Communications - Multimedia, Internet, New Technologies, grade: 3 (vgl. Anm.), University of Helsinki (Communications), course: Mediated Participations, language: English, abstract: This essay combines theory of power relations and identity construction in mediated participations with a case study. The two theoretical aspects are essential to consider when talking about participation in media because there are different definitions, grades, and perspectives on participation. What might seem like full participation might be restricted and controlled more than is visible to the first glance. On the other hand there might be signs and hints of resistance and usage of the participation platform for one’s own benefit, e.g. by constructing a favourable identity. Both old and ‘new’(mass) media play an important role in society and with the rise of the so called ‘new media’ interaction, interactivity, and participation of consumers, ‘ordinary’ people, and citizens have become approaches both in business strategies as well as in democratization enhancement visions. In this essay the term ‘participation’ carries a political connotation following Mouffe’s description which defines the “political as a domain of the social, which can emerge in a wide range of social relations [...] Moving into the world of trans-politics, this wide range of social relations would arguably include both mediated social relations and social relations within the media system itself.” (quoted in Carpentier 2009b, pp. 4) There exists participation in and through media. The important characteristics of participation through media are the allowance for participation in public debates and self-representation in the public sphere. (Carpentier 2009b, pp. 4) Participation in media addresses the production of media output by non-professionals. There are fewer examples of mainstream media allowing for this kind of participation than alternative media. In the small number of examples an in-depth examination and evaluation of the power relations and existing imbalances needs to be done by the media professionals. (Carpentier 2009b, pp. 4) The ‘new’ media also eclipsed the already existing participatory potential of the traditional media which leads to three capital errors. As already mentioned, the significance of the traditional media is not taken into account. But they still have a permanent place in the lives of many- be it because of tradition, lacking access to ‘new’ media or because those media types are still central players to create relevance.
Essay from the year 2008 in the subject Communications - Multimedia, Internet, New Technologies, grade: 3 (vgl. Anm.), University of Helsinki (Communications), course: Media Convergence, language: English, abstract: It is not possible to avoid the two words convergence divergence in literature, discussions and theories about new media, new services, what the audience wants and the future of media nowadays as „convergence rapidly became one of the key concepts in new media discourse.”(Storsul/Stuedahl:2007:9) So it was mentioned in articles, academic texts, policy documents and industrial papers and was introduced as the new order. (Fagerjord/Storsul:2007:19) And in becoming a key concept convergence also became an important rhetorical tool that encouraged change in several fields e.g. grassroot journalism sites or media companies presenting new (future) plans for online platforms and mobile services. (Storsul/Stuedahl:2007:9) But even if the two words are omnipresent it seems as if not everybody is writing, meaning and talking about the same. Actually sometime when reading different articles and books it seems as the authors were writing and discussing totally different topics. Like Storsul and Stuedal describe it, convergence really is a buzzword.(Storsul/Stuedahl:2007:9) And it is not only a buzzword, but it bears the old human (science-fiction) visions and hopes of media enabling things being managed by one central system and/or device that organizes our whole life and we now can’t even think of. (Storsul/Stuedahl:2007:10)One very common though simple example of such futuristic thinking and visions might be the refrigerator that automatically and independently orders the needed food and drinks from the shop and they are also delivered automatically, maybe even beamed into the refrigerator.
Essay from the year 2009 in the subject Communications - Journalism, Journalism Professions, grade: 5,0/1,0, University of Helsinki (Communications), course: Nordic Media and Communication, language: English, abstract: Finland belongs to a list of countries that Hallin and Mancini place in the group of the ‘Democratic Cororatist’ model. (quoted after Hovden 2009, p.149; Hujanen 2009, p. 2) The central elements of this group are high newspaper circulation, strong professionalism and state intervention. They rose from a history of “early democratization, consensus-based governments, a history of democratic corporatism and a strong welfare state.” (quoted after Hovden 2009, p.149) These elements show clearly when taking a look at the Finnish history. Newspapers were born as political organs around 1900. 1917 Finland declared its independence and the welfare state has been built up until today. The era of newspapers as political organs ended only at the end of the 1990s and was followed by a non-political news policy. In combination to this change, in the 1950s the development of commercial media markets began and continues until today. One of the consequences of this was that the newspapers owned by media chains have to fulfil profit expectations. (Hujanen 2009, p.2) Finland has had different media eras, but the question is which cycle we are experiencing now? The media landscapes everywhere are moving, being discussed and worried about- therefore it might be the ‘era of change and challenges’. Like Ann Axelsson says, “the only certainty in our industry [the newspaper industry, A/N] is the incertitude.” (Das Magazin 2009) One major discussion focuses on the role of journalists. Therefore this essay will explore the situation in Finland, focusing on questions and developments introduced by the beginning of the so called ‘digital age’. The core will consist of issues concerning newspaper journalist since the public and scientific discussions concentrate often around the possible death of newspapers and the new requirements for newspaper journalists.
Essay from the year 2008 in the subject Communications - Multimedia, Internet, New Technologies, grade: 3 (vgl. Anm.), University of Helsinki (Communications), course: Media Convergence, language: English, abstract: It is not possible to avoid the two words convergence divergence in literature, discussions and theories about new media, new services, what the audience wants and the future of media nowadays as „convergence rapidly became one of the key concepts in new media discourse.”(Storsul/Stuedahl:2007:9) So it was mentioned in articles, academic texts, policy documents and industrial papers and was introduced as the new order. (Fagerjord/Storsul:2007:19) And in becoming a key concept convergence also became an important rhetorical tool that encouraged change in several fields e.g. grassroot journalism sites or media companies presenting new (future) plans for online platforms and mobile services. (Storsul/Stuedahl:2007:9) But even if the two words are omnipresent it seems as if not everybody is writing, meaning and talking about the same. Actually sometime when reading different articles and books it seems as the authors were writing and discussing totally different topics. Like Storsul and Stuedal describe it, convergence really is a buzzword.(Storsul/Stuedahl:2007:9) And it is not only a buzzword, but it bears the old human (science-fiction) visions and hopes of media enabling things being managed by one central system and/or device that organizes our whole life and we now can’t even think of. (Storsul/Stuedahl:2007:10)One very common though simple example of such futuristic thinking and visions might be the refrigerator that automatically and independently orders the needed food and drinks from the shop and they are also delivered automatically, maybe even beamed into the refrigerator.
Essay from the year 2009 in the subject Communications - Multimedia, Internet, New Technologies, grade: 3 (vgl. Anm.), University of Helsinki (Communications), course: Mediated Participations, language: English, abstract: This essay combines theory of power relations and identity construction in mediated participations with a case study. The two theoretical aspects are essential to consider when talking about participation in media because there are different definitions, grades, and perspectives on participation. What might seem like full participation might be restricted and controlled more than is visible to the first glance. On the other hand there might be signs and hints of resistance and usage of the participation platform for one’s own benefit, e.g. by constructing a favourable identity. Both old and ‘new’(mass) media play an important role in society and with the rise of the so called ‘new media’ interaction, interactivity, and participation of consumers, ‘ordinary’ people, and citizens have become approaches both in business strategies as well as in democratization enhancement visions. In this essay the term ‘participation’ carries a political connotation following Mouffe’s description which defines the “political as a domain of the social, which can emerge in a wide range of social relations [...] Moving into the world of trans-politics, this wide range of social relations would arguably include both mediated social relations and social relations within the media system itself.” (quoted in Carpentier 2009b, pp. 4) There exists participation in and through media. The important characteristics of participation through media are the allowance for participation in public debates and self-representation in the public sphere. (Carpentier 2009b, pp. 4) Participation in media addresses the production of media output by non-professionals. There are fewer examples of mainstream media allowing for this kind of participation than alternative media. In the small number of examples an in-depth examination and evaluation of the power relations and existing imbalances needs to be done by the media professionals. (Carpentier 2009b, pp. 4) The ‘new’ media also eclipsed the already existing participatory potential of the traditional media which leads to three capital errors. As already mentioned, the significance of the traditional media is not taken into account. But they still have a permanent place in the lives of many- be it because of tradition, lacking access to ‘new’ media or because those media types are still central players to create relevance.
Essay from the year 2009 in the subject Communications - Media and Politics, Politic Communications, grade: 4,0 => 2,0 (s. Anm.), University of Helsinki (Communications), course: European Media and Communication Policies, language: English, abstract: Europe can be defined and its countries linked together in several ways and its borders aren’t completely clear. Geography and history join us and with the start of the EU also political and more defined economical reasons. Several areas of Europe share a similar culture. But there are as many (or maybe even more) differences as similarities. E.g. Switzerland is not part of the EU, but part of Europe and inside the country itself there are 4 languages and at least as many cultures. So how could a big area like Europe have something in common if it’s not even possible in a small country like Switzerland? Media is traditionally a strong part of culture: The culture media is produced in defines its characteristics and simultaneously the media influences the culture. Regional or national radio and television seem to be a very important tool to define identity and culture. In the EU the focus lies more on economics than on building a common culture and identity. But for the EU to be accepted and therefore to function a bonding element has to exist. A shared culture and value community must be created (cf. Habermas:2001:4) and pan-European media could play a crucial role in that. It might show people living in a wide, diverse area called “Europe” that this region could be a community that actually exists and is not only machinery publishing policies and dealing with economy. The shared currency, the Euro, could have been and maybe is a step into that direction but not every EU country has the Euro (e.g. Sweden, UK) and not every country in the European area is a member of the EU (e.g. Norway, Switzerland).Commercial media companies already walk the way towards pan-European companies and media. (cf. IBM News) Why would they do it if they wouldn’t see profit in it? So even if former projects like Eurikon (cf. Euronews) have failed in the 1980’ies it seems to be worth to invest in pan-European Media both from an economical and cultural point of view. It is a challenge for national protectionism as well as for cultural and social diversity but building a community has involved the same challenges for ages.
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