时间及国家间进行比较的一个一致性的基础。不过,专利数据十分繁杂,必须谨慎小心 地设计和解释专利指标。从1994年经合组织的第1本专利手册《测度科学技术活动:用作 科技指标的专利数据》)出版以来,在数据提供和基于专利数据的统计分析方面都已取
OECD 2009年出版的《专利统计手册》汇集了本领域的近期进展状况。它为使用专利 数据来测度科技活动的范围提供了指导准则,并提出了编制和解释专利指标的建议。《专利统计手册》旨在显示专利统计数据可用于哪些用途,又不可用于哪些用途,以及
该如何进行专利统计确保可以在最大程度地提供有关科技活动的信息同时又将统计“争 议”和偏差减到最小。最后,本书描述了如何使用专利数据来分析与技术变化和专利申 请活动有关的很多问题,包括产业和科学的联系、公司的专利申请策略、研究的国际化
Organised into eight chapters, this report examines early childhood education, schooling, transitions beyond initial education, higher education, adult learning, outcomes and returns, equity, and innovation. The chapters are structured around key findings and policy directions emerging from recent OECD educational analyses. Each entry highlights the main message in a concise and accessible way, with a brief explanation and reference to the original OECD source.
"The large issues that the very conciseness of this book brings into focus might suggest that brevity is an underrated virtue in the educational literature." - Paul Temple, Institute of Education, University of London, reviewing in the London Review of Education
It is essential for long-term world prosperity that countries' commitment to trade and investment liberalisation be sustained. To be credible, that commitment must be rooted in and enjoy broad public support and understanding. This makes it all the more important to communicate what trade and investment liberalisation can and cannot do and be held responsible for.
Trade and investment liberalisation is not painless. It should not be viewed as a cure-all nor presented as an end in itself. It is, however, an essential component of any coherent set of policies aimed at helping societies adjust to - and take advantage of - technology-driven transformations whose pace and depth are unprecedented.
The stakes are high. This book examines the various channels through which open markets deliver considerable benefits to societies and their citizens; recalls the real pocket-book costs of protectionism; and addresses the full range of concerns that feature prominently in ongoing discussions over the effects of market liberalisation on employment, income distribution, environmental protection and national sovereignty.
A central message of this book is that liberalisation forms part of the solution to the concerns of citizens, rather than being their root cause. The book's comprehensive treatment of the ins and outs of trade and investment liberalisation should make an important contribution to the public debate. It is essential reading for public officials, business leaders and private citizens who wish to take an active part in it.
PISA Computer-Based Assessment of Student Skills in Science describes how the 2006 survey was administered, presents 15-year-olds’ achievement scores in science and explains the impact of information communication technologies on both males’ and females’ science skills. While males outperformed females on the computer-based test in all three countries, females in Iceland and males in Denmark performed better than their counterparts on the paper-and-pencil test. The evidence shows that, overall, males are more confident and use computers more frequently. While females tend to use the Internet more for social networking activities, males tend to browse the Internet, play games and download software.
Readers will also learn how students reacted to the electronic questionnaire and how it compared with pencil-and-paper tests. In general, there were no group differences across test methods buts students enjoyed the computer-based test more than the paper-and-pencil test.