Constructing an expansive historical archive, Ballantyne draws on film, sculpture, fiction, and Web sites, as well as private papers, government records, journalism, and travel narratives. He proceeds from a critique of recent historiography on the development of Sikhism to an analysis of how Sikh identity changed over the course of the long nineteenth century. Ballantyne goes on to offer a reading of the contested interpretations of the life of Dalip Singh, the last Maharaja of Punjab. He concludes with an exploration of bhangra, a traditional form of Punjabi dance that diasporic artists have transformed into a globally popular music style. Much of bhangra’s recent evolution stems from encounters of the Sikh and Afro-Caribbean communities, particularly in the United Kingdom. Ballantyne contends that such cross-cultural encounters are central in defining Sikh identity both in Punjab and the diaspora.
Tony Ballantyne is Senior Lecturer in History at the University of Otago in New Zealand. He is the author of Orientalism and Race: Aryanism in the British Empire and a coeditor of Bodies in Contact: Rethinking Colonial Encounters in World History, also published by Duke University Press.
With analysis of events dating to the 1920s and the establishment of Muslim separatism and Hindu fundamentalism, extending to the 1990s when the Sangh Parivar's narrative of national history' reached its pinnacle with the demolition of the Babri Masjid and the attainment of state power, and terminating in 2004 when the BJP lost power and prominence at the center, this illuminating discourse is readily accessible to students and scholars of contemporary Indian politics and society.
Prayer is an essential part of Sikhism. As food nourishes and strengthens the body, prayer purifies the mind uplifts the soul.
Sikhs are ordained to rise in the morning and meditate on the Name of God ‘Waheguru’.
They are also expected to do ‘Nitnem’ which literally means ‘Daily Routine’.
Nitnem is composed of a collection of five prayers to be done during different periods of the day.
Morning (3 prayers) Japji Sahib, Jaap Sahib and Sawaiye.
Evening (1 prayer) – Rehras Sahib
Night (1 prayer) – Kirtan Sohila
Ardaas should be done after every prayer session.
I have included Ardaas for the reader in this book too.
The person who forms the habit of doing Nitnem daily, ultimately experiences bliss and peace.
While the best experience would be derived from reading the prayers in Gurmukhi, there should be no hindrance for anyone who does not know the Gurmukhi script, to do Nitnem
While every effort has been made to simplify the transliteration, I encourage the reader to read the prayers while listening to them in audio format a couple of times.
This will help them grasp the correct pronunciation.
There is a section for links to the individual prayers in YouTube. This will help to get the correct pronunciation, or if you wish to just listen to the prayers.
This prayer book is perfect to carry around in one’s device, so the prayers can be performed from anywhere.
It is also a wonderful gift to offer to friends and family.
After doing prayers regularly, one can look for translation books to assist in helping understand the Bani.
I am certain that by Waheguru ji’s grace, the reader will eventually seek to learn the Gurmukhi script.
Vive La Révolution!
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