The authors begin by considering the possible role of prejudice, economic deprivation, and discrimination, and the cognitive responses and emotions they can trigger. Such responses tend in turn to increase the importance of group membership, and promote intergroup differentiation and polarization, a process which is often accompanied by more pronounced and more extreme religious and ideological beliefs. The book also describes the role of cultural values and social climate in processes of radicalization, as well as the role of personality factors and demographics such as age and marital status.
As for violent terrorist action itself, this final most radical stage is elicited by a number of group factors such as groupthink, isolation, and leadership. Certain cognitive mechanisms – for example, dehumanizing the target and attributing responsibility elsewhere – can also provide excuses for violence. The book explores why some groups turn to violence and others don’t, and it addresses processes of disengagement, deradicalization programs, and other methods used to inhibit the spread of radicalization and terrorism.
The Psychology of Radicalization and Terrorismtakes a unique and systematic approach to a vital topic, integrating knowledge from diverse literatures, and using social psychology as a basis for comprehending human behaviour. It will be essential reading for students and researchers from all disciplines seeking a greater understanding of terrorism and violent political conflict in all its forms.
Willem Koomen has been affiliated with the Department of Social Psychology of the University of Amsterdam since 1963. His research interests include social cognition, and particularly stereotyping and stigmatization.
Joop van der Pligt was a professor in social psychology at the University of Amsterdam. His research interests pertained to attitudes, perceived risk and affect in relation to decision making. He died in 2015, when this book was almost completed.
Individual risk factors for aggression and violence from different research perspectives are then examined. First, there is a cognitive neuroscientific, neuropsychological, and psychophysiological study of the brain. It then explores the developmental psychological factors in aggressive behavior, incorporating work on gender and the family. Other perspectives include the role of testosterone, individual differences, and whether humans are innately wired for violence.
The following sections moves from the individual to the contextual risk factors for aggression, including work on the effects of adverse events and ostracism, guns and other aggressive cues including violent media, and drugs and alcohol.
Targets of aggression and violence are covered in the next section, including violence against women and loved ones; aggression between social groups; and the two very contemporary issues of cyberbullying and terrorism.
The book concludes with work showing how we may make the world a more peaceful place by preventing and reducing aggression and violence.
The volume is essential reading for upper-level students and researchers of psychology and related disciplines interested in a rigorous and multi-perspective overview of work on aggression and violence.
The book covers individual and collective aspects of self-continuity, while a final section explores the relationship between these two forms. Topics include environmental and cultural influences on self-continuity; the interplay of autobiographical memory and personal self-continuity; the psychological function of self-continuity; personal and collective self-continuity; and resistance to change. The volume is rounded off with commentaries on the central issues and themes that have been discussed.
The book provides a unique sourcebook for this important topic and will appeal not only to upper-level students and researchers in social psychology, but, in view of the multiple perspectives represented in the volume, it will also appeal to cognitive, developmental, and personality psychologists.
Social categorization, how we classify ourselves and others, exerts a profound influence on our thoughts, beliefs, feelings, and behaviors. In this volume, Richard Crisp and Miles Hewstone bring together a selection of leading figures in the social sciences to focus on a rapidly emerging, but critically important, new question: how, when, and why do people classify others along multiple dimensions of social categorization? The volume also explores what this means for social behavior, and what implications multiple and complex perceptions of category membership might have for reducing prejudice, discrimination, and social exclusion.
Topics covered include:
the cognitive, motivational, and affective implications of multiple categorization
the crossed categorization and common ingroup methods of reducing prejudice and intergroup discrimination
the nature of social categorization among multicultural, multiethnic, and multilingual individuals.
Multiple Social Categorization: Process, Models and Applications addresses issues that are central to social psychology and will be of particular interest to those studying or researching in the fields of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations.