पंचतंत्र (Hindi Sahitya): Panchtantra (Hindi Stories)

Bhartiya Sahitya Inc.
112
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भारतीय साहित्य की नीति और लोक कथाओं का विश्व में एक विशिष्ट स्थान है। इन लोकनीति कथाओं के स्रोत हैं, संस्कृत साहित्य की अमर कृतियां - पंचतंत्र एवं हितोपदेश। पंचतंत्र के रचयिता श्री विष्णु शर्मा ने अनेक पशु-पक्षियों को माध्यम बनाकर नीति की कथाएं कही हैं। वे कथाएं और उनके बीच में आयी हुई सूक्तियां आज के इस आपा-धापी के युग में निश्चय ही मानव के लिए उपयोगी हैं। बालकों के लिए ही नहीं वयस्क एवं प्रौढ़ व्यक्तियों के लिए भी ये कहानियां समान रूप से उपयोगी एवं संग्रहणीय हैं।
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Additional Information

Publisher
Bhartiya Sahitya Inc.
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Published on
May 5, 2013
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Pages
38
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ISBN
9781613012291
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Language
Hindi
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Genres
Fiction / Fantasy / Historical
Fiction / Short Stories (single author)
Foreign Language Study / Hindi
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Read Aloud
Available on Android devices
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Eligible for Family Library

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खुशवन्त सिंह
कौन कहता है कि कहानी का अंत हो चुका है? भारत में तो अभी-अभी इसका पुनर्जन्म हुआ है और साहित्यिक पंडितों के अनुसार इसकी जन्मपत्री में लिखा है कि इसकी उम्र बहुत लंबी और समृद्ध होगी। अन्य अनेक विकासशील देशों की तरह भारत में भी कागज की उपलब्धता और प्रिटिंग की तकनीक शुरू होने से पहले साहित्य की दो ही विधाएँ प्रचलित थीं–एक कविता और दूसरी लोक-नाट्य। इन दोनों विधाओं का माध्यम अलिखित था। रचनाओं को कंठस्थ कर पीढ़ी-दर-पीढ़ी आगे बढ़ाया जाता था। सामान्य जन में शिक्षा का प्रसार होना तो अभी हाल की ही घटना है। कविता और लोक-नाट्य के बाद जो एक और विधा लोगों में लोकप्रिय थी, वह थी, ‘लतीफा’ या ‘दंतकथा’ थोड़े से शब्दों में कोई शिक्षा या संदेश देने का माध्यम होती थीं ये कथाएँ जिनका अंत हमेशा एक ऐसी पंक्ति से होता था जिसमें कथा का सार छुपा होता।
Vishnu Sharma
The Panchatantra contains the most widely known stories in the world. If it were further declared that the Panchatantra is the best collection of stories in the world, the assertion could hardly be disproved, and would probably command the assent of those possessing the knowledge for a judgment. Assuming varied forms in their native India, then traveling in translations, and translations of translations, through Persia, Arabia, Syria, and the civilized countries of Europe, these stories have, for more than twenty centuries, brought delight to hundreds of millions.

Since the stories gathered in the Panchatantra are very ancient, and since they can no longer be ascribed to their respective authors, it is not possible to give an accurate report of their genesis, while much in their subsequent history will always remain obscure. Dr. Hertel, the learned and painstaking editor of the text used by the present translator, believes that the original work was composed in Kashmir, about 200 b.c. At this date, however, many of the individual stories were already ancient. He then enumerates no less than twenty-five recensions of the work in India. The text here translated is late, dating from the year 1199 A.D.

It is not here intended to summarize the history of these stories in India, nor their travels through the Near East and through Europe. The story is attractive—whose interest is not awakened by learning, for example, that in this work he makes the acquaintance of one of La Fontaine's important sources? Yet here, as elsewhere, the work of the "scholars" has been of somewhat doubtful value, diverting attention from the primary to the secondary, from literature itself to facts, more or less important, about literature. The present version has not been made by a scholar, but the opposite of a scholar, a lover of good books, eager, so far as his powers permit, to extend an accurate and joyful acquaintance with the world's masterpieces. He will therefore not endeavor to tell the history of the Panchatantra, but to tell what the Panchatantra is.

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