Are Judges Political?: An Empirical Analysis of the Federal Judiciary

Brookings Institution Press
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Over the past two decades, the United States has seen an intense debate about the composition of the federal judiciary. Are judges "activists"? Should they stop "legislating from the bench"? Are they abusing their authority? Or are they protecting fundamental rights, in a way that is indispensable in a free society? Are Judges Political? cuts through the noise by looking at what judges actually do. Drawing on a unique data set consisting of thousands of judicial votes, Cass Sunstein and his colleagues analyze the influence of ideology on judicial voting, principally in the courts of appeal. They focus on two questions: Do judges appointed by Republican Presidents vote differently from Democratic appointees in ideologically contested cases? And do judges vote differently depending on the ideological leanings of the other judges hearing the same case? After examining votes on a broad range of issues--including abortion, affirmative action, and capital punishment--the authors do more than just confirm that Democratic and Republican appointees often vote in different ways. They inject precision into an all-too-often impressionistic debate by quantifying this effect and analyzing the conditions under which it holds. This approach sometimes generates surprising results: under certain conditions, for example, Democrat-appointed judges turn out to have more conservative voting patterns than Republican appointees. As a general rule, ideology should not and does not affect legal judgments. Frequently, the law is clear and judges simply implement it, whatever their political commitments. But what happens when the law is unclear? Are Judges Political? addresses this vital question.
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About the author

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Cass R. Sunstein is the Karl N. Llewellyn Distinguished Service Professor of Jurisprudence and a professor of political science at the University of Chicago. Among his many books are Radicals in Robes: Why Extreme Right-Wing Courts Are Wrong for Americans (Basic Books, 2005) and Why Societies Need Dissent (Harvard University Press, 2005). David Schkade is the Jerome Katzin Professor in the Rady School of Management at the University of California San Diego and a coauthor of Punitive Damages: How Juries Decide (University of Chicago Press, 2003). Lisa M. Ellman holds a law degree and a master's degree in public policy from the University of Chicago and is an Associate at Mayer, Brown, Rowe & Maw LLP in Washington, D.C. Andres Sawicki , a graduate of the University of Chicago Law School, is currently clerking for the Honorable Robert D. Sack of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.

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Publisher
Brookings Institution Press
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Published on
Feb 1, 2007
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Pages
177
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ISBN
9780815782353
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Language
English
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Genres
Law / Judicial Power
Political Science / American Government / Judicial Branch
Political Science / Public Policy / Social Policy
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This content is DRM protected.
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凱斯.桑思汀
星戰就像一粒沙,當中蘊藏一世界。

星際大戰是關於選擇、犧牲與救贖的童話故事,
也是探討社會影響與公共議題的學科文本。
它發生在遙遠的銀河系,卻出奇貼近人心,直觸情感中的激越與矛盾,
看似淺白喧鬧,卻鼓勵你思考生命中許多重要的事。

原力是否存在真實生活中?
我們可以從星際大戰學到什麼?在人心方面有何啟發?

媒體評論家公認「美國最危險的人」──凱斯.桑思汀,
是當代美國重量級的法律學者、歐巴馬最信任的智囊,
但他同時也是一個名副其實的星戰迷。
他發現透過星際大戰,你能夠更透徹的了解自己,和這個世界!

本書首先探索我們對星際大戰的癡迷熱愛,探究這系列電影的不凡緣起,接著,桑思汀把星際大戰搖身一變為寶貴的學科文本,檢視它為社會、政治與道德層面所帶來的影響,辨析它對憲法、歷史、經濟學,甚至人際牽繫的啟示。書中也對於父子關係、個人選擇的自由、民主是如何變成獨裁、J.J.亞伯拉罕和喬治.盧卡斯誰會是較稱職的大法官等既複雜又有趣的議題,提出嶄新見解。

無論你是熱愛星際大戰,或是想要了解這個文化現象為何能引起不同世代之間的共鳴,都應該讀這本輕鬆迷人的不凡傑作。

桑斯汀教授寫給台灣讀者:

非常高興聽到這本真心之作能有繁體中文版,和臺灣讀者見面。前些日子我才造訪臺北,一路遇到許多不凡的人,為大家的溫暖、創意、勇氣與決心深深打動,不禁心想:我是在跟眾多絕地武士會面嗎?

我當然在書店看到許多星戰的書,臺灣友人也對星戰如數家珍。無論是路克天行者的種種故事,還是自由的艱難勝利,都在呼喚全球民眾──格外在呼喚臺灣民眾。

如同星戰所展現的,「共和」這種尊重個人權利的自治體制不易建立,亦不易維持,有時簡直難上加難。然而儘管黑暗面的威脅不斷,臺灣人民仍成功建立了欣欣向榮的民主。

願原力與你們同在──永遠同在。

◎《紐約時報》排行榜暢銷書
◎《華盛頓郵報》排行榜第一名
黃丞儀 中研院法律學者 專文導讀
藍祖蔚 資深影評人
馮勃翰 臺大經濟系副教授                 ────齊力推薦
張鐵志 文化政治評論家
臥斧  文字工作者
吳定謙 演員、導演
《時代雜誌》《經濟學人》《泰晤士報》《紐約客》《財富》

各界佳評

娛樂性佳……星際大戰的絕佳入門指南,助讀者從絕地學徒蛻變為絕地武士。
──《時代雜誌》

愉悅好讀……說理中不失樂趣,輕鬆中不失沉穩……讀來順暢無比。這本書的原力很強。
──《經濟學人》

無論你是對星際大戰抱持熱愛,還是想探究法律理論或行為經濟學的入門概念,都不妨讀一讀這本輕鬆迷人的透澈傑作。
──《泰晤士報》

一趟出奇貼切卻深具啟發的銀河之旅……桑思汀舉出許多饒富趣味的例子與觀點。
──《華盛頓郵報》

即將成為大學必讀書目的一本書。
──末日阿宅評論網(Geeks of Doom)

星際大戰打造的「舊日」銀河,一直在夜空中向影迷眨眼睛,而本書是最好的便車指南。
──藍祖蔚,資深影評人

星際大戰可能是電影史上獨一無二的作品──故事描述空想未來,但骨幹源自神話典型,根植於通俗娛樂,但衍生出哲學、宗教、經濟以及政治多方討論。相關論述量多紛雜,若想快速一窺星戰世界堂奧,本書是極佳入門。
──臥斧,文字工作者

能成為經典的作品,背後必有觸動人心的哲理。風靡全球近四十年的星際大戰不僅創造了一個華麗的奇幻世界,更是一部適合用社會科學角度來分析的大作。就讓本書帶領我們跳躍到電影幕後遼闊無邊的超空間吧!
──吳定謙,演員、導演

在這本傑作中,桑思汀藉星際大戰探討身為父母、子女與人類的大哉問,足以讓你改變對自己這趟人生旅程的看法,甚至拿起電話打給老爸。
──華特.艾薩克森,《賈伯斯傳》作者

桑思汀在這本傑作融會了隱形的大猩猩、熱門歌曲、陰謀論與憲法。無論你是熱愛星際大戰電影、喜歡探討世事,或僅僅愛著父親,本書都能帶來啟發與反思。
──鄧肯.華茲,康乃爾大學社會學博士

作者簡介

凱斯.桑思汀|Cass R. Sunstein

美國當代最頂尖的憲法學者、歐巴馬總統最信任的智囊、《星際大戰》的影迷,和三位孩子的父親。

美國被引用次數最多的法律學者,過去近20年來率先將行為經濟學運用在各種議題的探討。曾在芝加哥大學任教27年。2009至2012年間擔任白宮資訊及管制事務辦公室主任。2013至2014年,擔任情報和通訊科技審查小組委員,直接隸屬美國總統,影響力之鉅,被政治脫口秀主持人稱為「美國最危險的人」。目前為哈佛大學法學院教授,也是哈佛「行為經濟學和公共政策計畫」的發起人和負責人。
桑思汀著作豐富,最廣為人知的有與諾貝爾經濟學獎得主理查.塞勒合著的《推出你的影響力》,另外還有《剪裁歧見》《破解團體迷思》《網路會顛覆民主嗎》《選擇不選擇》等書。

譯者簡介
林力敏
輔仁大學翻譯所畢業,曾獲聯合報文學獎、梁實秋文學獎、林榮三文學獎等國內重要文學獎項,曾任聯合報〈繽紛版〉專欄作家。愛騎車兜風,持續探索各類新知、探究文學與人生。譯有《人生問題的有益答案》《康乃爾最經典的思考邏輯課》《房間裡最有智慧的人》《石油與美元》等。

目錄

寫在前面
各界好評
星際大戰系列電影
星際大戰角色簡介
推薦序 
序 言 我們可以從星際大戰學到什麼?
第一章 我是你的父親:喬治盧卡斯的旅程
第二章 一部原先沒有人喜歡的電影,卻變成時代的經典
第三章 成功的祕訣:真的好看、時機剛好或純屬幸運?
第四章 觀看星際大戰的十三種方式
第五章 父與子:唯有牽絆能使你獲得救贖
第六章 選擇的自由:一切取決於你
第七章 挺身反抗:帝國為何陷落,民主如何變成獨裁?
第八章 憲法新部曲:言論自由、性別平等與同性婚姻
第九章 原力與英雄之旅:魔法、信念與直擊心坎的人性
第十章 星戰的神話,我們的故事
致 謝

Cass R. Sunstein
With the election of Donald J. Trump, many people on both the left and right feared that America’s 240-year-old grand experiment in democracy was coming to an end, and that Sinclair Lewis’ satirical novel, It Can’t Happen Here, written during the dark days of the 1930s, could finally be coming true. Is the democratic freedom that the United States symbolizes really secure? Can authoritarianism happen in America?

Acclaimed legal scholar, Harvard Professor, and New York Times bestselling author Cass R. Sunstein queried a number of the nation’s leading thinkers. In this thought-provoking collection of essays, these distinguished thinkers and theorists explore the lessons of history, how democracies crumble, how propaganda works, and the role of the media, courts, elections, and "fake news" in the modern political landscape—and what the future of the United States may hold.

Contributors include:

Martha Minow, dean of Harvard Law SchoolEric Posner, law professor at the University of Chicago Law SchoolTyler Cowen, economics professor at George Mason UniversityTimur Kuran, economics and political science professor at Duke UniversityNoah Feldman, professor of law at Harvard Law SchoolJonathan Haidt, social psychologist and Professor of Ethical Leadership at New York University’s Stern School of BusinessJack Goldsmith, Professor at Harvard Law School, Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, and co-founder of LawfareStephen Holmes, Professor of Law at New York UniversityJon Elster, Professor of the Social Sciences at Columbia UniversityThomas Ginsburg, Professor of International Law and Professor of Political Science at the University of Chicago and a member of the American Academy of Arts and SciencesCass R. Sunstein, Robert Walmsley University Professor, Harvard UniversityDuncan Watts, sociologist and principal researcher at Microsoft Research

Richard H. Thaler
El libro que inspiró a Barack Obama los fundamentos de la política al demostrar el poder de un pequeño empujón.

Por el Premio Nobel de Economía 2017 Richard H. Thaler.

En Un pequeño empujón, considerado ya un clásico y uno de los mejores libros sobre economía y política de las últimas décadas, Cass R. Sunstein y Richard H. Thaler, premio Nobel de Economía, observan cómo nuestras percepciones y decisiones dependen del modo en que se organizan ante nosotros las diferentes opciones. Gobiernos y empresas, pero también padres, profesores y médicos, se convierten así en una especie de «arquitectos de la elección».

A través de leves impulsos, conscientes, a menudo invisibles y cuyo coste económico y político es irrisorio, las personas e instituciones públicas o privadas pueden incentivar sin mermar la libertad de elección de los ciudadanos, y obtener así grandes logros en relación con la sanidad pública, las finanzas o la lucha contra la desigualdad. Un libro esencial para quienes formulan nuestras políticas públicas, pero cuya aplicabilidad en nuestras vidas cotidianas es sorprendente y maravillosamente eficaz.

Críticas:
«¿Cuántas veces se encuentra uno con un libro a la vez importante y divertido, práctico y profundo? De lectura obligada para quien quiera ver mejorar el funcionamiento de nuestras mentes y nuestra sociedad.»
Daniel Kahneman, Premio Nobel de Economía y autor de Pensar rápido, pensar despacio

«Me entusiasma este libro. Es uno de los pocos que han cambiado de un modo trascendente mi manera de ver el mundo.»
Steve Levitt, autor de Freakonomics

«El libro más importante que he leído en veinte años.»
Barry Schwartz, The American Prospect

«Fabuloso. Cambiará tu forma de pensar, no solo sobre el mundo que te rodea y algunos de sus mayores problemas, sino también sobre ti mismo.»
Michael Lewis, autor de La gran apuesta y Deshaciendo errores

Geoffrey R. Stone
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