Environmental Management of Energy from Biofuels and Biofeedstocks

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Biomass is a renewable resource, whose utilization has received great attention due to environmental considerations and the increasing demands of energy worldwide. Since the energy crises of the 1970s, many countries have become interested in biomass as a fuel source to expand the development of domestic and renewable energy sources, reduce the environmental impacts of energy production provide rural prosperity for its poor farmers and bolster a flat agricultural sector.  Biomass energy (bioenergy) can be an important alternative in the future and a more sustainable energy.  In fact, for large portions of the rural populations of developing countries, and for the poorest sections of urban populations, biomass is often the only available and affordable source of energy for satisfying basic needs as cooking and heating. 

The focus of this book is to present a historical overview, country perspectives, the use of biomass to produce biofuels, the current and upcoming sources of biofuels, technologies and processes for biofuel production, the various types of biofuels and, specifically, the ways and means to make biofuel production sustainable, economically feasible, minimize environmental damage and to deliver on its many promises.

The Energy and Environment book series from Scrivener Publishing and series editor, James G. Speight, aims to cover the environmental impacts and social concerns of energy production in its various forms.  This first volume in the Energy and the Environment series offers a comprehensive coverage of one of the fastest-growing and most important sources of energy, biofuels.  Future volumes will cover oil and gas, wind and solar energy, and their environmental aspects. 
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About the author

James G. Speight is a senior fuel consultant and Visiting Professor at the University of Trinidad and Tobago and Adjunct Professor of Chemical and Fuels Engineering at the University of Utah, USA. He is recognized internationally as an expert in the characterization, properties, and processing of conventional and synthetic fuels. He is the author of numerous books and papers, the editor of two journals in energy, and has won numerous awards and distinctions.

Kamel Singh is currently Design and Lead Project Manager at Energy Dynamics Ltd (EDL). He has over twenty years of industrial experience in the design and construction of process plants, pressure vessels, storage tanks, pipelines, and offshore production facilities as well as in welding engineering, quality control, and maintenance management. He has coauthored over ten scholarly papers and contributed to three books.

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Additional Information

Publisher
John Wiley & Sons
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Published on
Feb 19, 2014
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Pages
272
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ISBN
9781118915127
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Language
English
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Genres
Technology & Engineering / Power Resources / Fossil Fuels
Technology & Engineering / Power Resources / General
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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James G. Speight
Natural gas and crude oil production from hydrocarbon rich deep shale formations is one of the most quickly expanding trends in domestic oil and gas exploration. Vast new natural gas and oil resources are being discovered every year across North America and one of those new resources comes from the development of deep shale formations, typically located many thousands of feet below the surface of the Earth in tight, low permeability formations. Deep Shale Oil and Gas provides an introduction to shale gas resources as well as offer a basic understanding of the geomechanical properties of shale, the need for hydraulic fracturing, and an indication of shale gas processing. The book also examines the issues regarding the nature of shale gas development, the potential environmental impacts, and the ability of the current regulatory structure to deal with these issues. Deep Shale Oil and Gas delivers a useful reference that today’s petroleum and natural gas engineer can use to make informed decisions about meeting and managing the challenges they may face in the development of these resources. Clarifies all the basic information needed to quickly understand today’s deeper shale oil and gas industry, horizontal drilling, fracture fluids chemicals needed, and completionsAddresses critical coverage on water treatment in shale, and important and evolving technology Practical handbook with real-world case shale plays discussed, especially the up-and-coming deeper areas of shale development
Alex Epstein
Could everything we know about fossil fuels be wrong?

For decades, environmentalists have told us that using fossil fuels is a self-destructive addiction that will destroy our planet. Yet at the same time, by every measure of human well-being, from life expectancy to clean water to climate safety, life has been getting better and better.

How can this be?

The explanation, energy expert Alex Epstein argues in The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels, is that we usually hear only one side of the story. We’re taught to think only of the negatives of fossil fuels, their risks and side effects, but not their positives—their unique ability to provide cheap, reliable energy for a world of seven billion people. And the moral significance of cheap, reliable energy, Epstein argues, is woefully underrated. Energy is our ability to improve every single aspect of life, whether economic or environmental.

If we look at the big picture of fossil fuels compared with the alternatives, the overall impact of using fossil fuels is to make the world a far better place. We are morally obligated to use more fossil fuels for the sake of our economy and our environment.

Drawing on original insights and cutting-edge research, Epstein argues that most of what we hear about fossil fuels is a myth. For instance . . .

Myth: Fossil fuels are dirty.
Truth: The environmental benefits of using fossil fuels far outweigh the risks. Fossil fuels don’t take a naturally clean environment and make it dirty; they take a naturally dirty environment and make it clean. They don’t take a naturally safe climate and make it dangerous; they take a naturally dangerous climate and make it ever safer.

Myth: Fossil fuels are unsustainable, so we should strive to use “renewable” solar and wind.
Truth: The sun and wind are intermittent, unreliable fuels that always need backup from a reliable source of energy—usually fossil fuels. There are huge amounts of fossil fuels left, and we have plenty of time to find something cheaper.

Myth: Fossil fuels are hurting the developing world.
Truth: Fossil fuels are the key to improving the quality of life for billions of people in the developing world. If we withhold them, access to clean water plummets, critical medical machines like incubators become impossible to operate, and life expectancy drops significantly. Calls to “get off fossil fuels” are calls to degrade the lives of innocent people who merely want the same opportunities we enjoy in the West.

Taking everything into account, including the facts about climate change, Epstein argues that “fossil fuels are easy to misunderstand and demonize, but they are absolutely good to use. And they absolutely need to be championed. . . . Mankind’s use of fossil fuels is supremely virtuous—because human life is the standard of value and because using fossil fuels transforms our environment to make it wonderful for human life.”
James G. Speight
Unconventional reservoirs of oil and gas represent a huge additional global source of fossil fuels. However, there is much still to be done to improve techniques for their processing to make recovery and refining of these particular energy sources more cost-effective. Brief but readable, Heavy and Extra-heavy Oil Upgrading Technologies provide readers with a strategy for future production (the up-stream) and upgrading (the down-stream). The book provides the reader with an understandable overview of the chemistry and engineering behind the latest developments and technologies in the industry as well as the various environmental regulations.

Clear and rigorous, Heavy and Extra-heavy Oil Upgrading Technologies will prove tool for those scientists and engineers already engaged in fossil fuel science and technology as well as scientists, non-scientists, engineers, and non-engineers who wish to gain a general overview or update of the science and technology of unconventional fossil fuels in general and upgrading technologies in particular. The use of microorganisms and a number of physical methods, such as ultrasound, median microwave, cold plasma, electrokinetic and monocrystalline intermetallics, etc., will be discussed for the first time.

Overview of the chemistry, engineering, and technology of oil sandsMicroorganisms and a number of physical methods such as ultrasound, median microwave, cold plasma, electrokinetic and monocrystalline intermetallicsEvolving and new environmental regulations regarding oil sands production processes
James G. Speight
Natural gas and crude oil production from hydrocarbon rich deep shale formations is one of the most quickly expanding trends in domestic oil and gas exploration. Vast new natural gas and oil resources are being discovered every year across North America and one of those new resources comes from the development of deep shale formations, typically located many thousands of feet below the surface of the Earth in tight, low permeability formations. Deep Shale Oil and Gas provides an introduction to shale gas resources as well as offer a basic understanding of the geomechanical properties of shale, the need for hydraulic fracturing, and an indication of shale gas processing. The book also examines the issues regarding the nature of shale gas development, the potential environmental impacts, and the ability of the current regulatory structure to deal with these issues. Deep Shale Oil and Gas delivers a useful reference that today’s petroleum and natural gas engineer can use to make informed decisions about meeting and managing the challenges they may face in the development of these resources. Clarifies all the basic information needed to quickly understand today’s deeper shale oil and gas industry, horizontal drilling, fracture fluids chemicals needed, and completionsAddresses critical coverage on water treatment in shale, and important and evolving technology Practical handbook with real-world case shale plays discussed, especially the up-and-coming deeper areas of shale development
James G. Speight
High Acid Crudes quickly gets the refinery manager and all other relative personnel up to date on this particular type of feedstock by providing an overview and relevant details of the identification of high acid crudes and their influence on the refinery’s process units, especially regarding corrosion potential. Covering the types, effects on the various refining units, and proper acid stripping techniques, High Acid Crudes effectively trains refinery personnel with a quick reference guide for day-to-day use in today’s refineries.

Due to their discounted value but potential for higher production rates, refineries are accepting more of high acidic crude feedstocks, otherwise referred to as “opportunity or “challenging crude oils. Refining of these resources is still increasing due to high oil prices, with China dominating this market and doubling their production of high acid crudes by 2015. Processing these resources can significantly increase any refinery’s productivity, but knowledge and proper training for the refinery manager and crude supplier is key to reducing the risk that is commonly associated with high acid feedstocks, while still maintaining clean production standards.

Provides an overview of the identification of high acid crudes and their influence on the refinery’s process unitsCovers the types of high acid crudes, effects on the various refining units, and proper acid stripping techniques Trains refinery personnel as a quick reference guide for day-to-day use for today’s refinery
James G. Speight
This is an American story as told to me during many conversations that I had over a four-year period with Robert Carl Milliken (Bob). The book is important because it tells of men and women who stood up to be counted when their country called people whose deeds are fading into history and soon may be forgotten. The book incorporates the early history of Wyoming by starting with the first arrival of Bobs family in the Wyoming Territory before Statehood was conferred and follows the events which led Bob to his actions as a World War II Fighter Ace (he flew 68 combat missions). For the reader, I have also placed Bobs life in the perspective of the parallel actions that occurred in the Western United States and then during World War II in the European and Pacific Theaters. The book will serve as a reminder for those readers who are not familiar with the events of World War II but who will appreciate and understand events outside of their own experience. In addition, it will help the families of World War II veterans to remember with pride the men and women who answered the call of their country. And last but definitely not least, there is also Zellas story the young woman who Bob married on August 25 1946 and who bore four children, three daughters and one son. Zellas family history is also interesting the family can be traced back to 1617 in England and she is a descendent of one of the two regicide judges who authorized the execution of King Charles I of England after he was deposed by the forces of Oliver Cromwell during the English Civil War (1642-1649). Furthermore, this book is not only a tribute to Bob and Zella but also to Zellas brother Bobby (Master Sergeant Robert Lewis Bell) who saw action on many missions as the belly gunner in a B-24 bomber and who researched the history of the Bell family in considerable detail.
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