Dictionary of Combining Forms

English Word Power

Book 6
Manik Joshi
1
Free sample

What are “Combining Forms”?

Combining form is a form of a word that can combine with free word, root word or another combining form to get a new word. ‘Combining form’ adds extra meaning to the new word. ‘Combining form’ is added to the beginning or end of free word, root word or another combining form.

(A). Examples of “Combining form + Free Word”:

Agro- + Industry = Agro-industry
Agro- denotes: connected with farming


(B). Example of “Combining form + Root Word”:

Aero- + Gramme = Aerogramm
Aero- denotes: connected with aircraft
Gramme denotes: writing


(C). Examples of “Combining form + Combining form”:

Hydro- + -Logy = Hydrology [the scientific study of the earth's water]
Hydro- denotes: relating to water
-Logy denotes: a subject of study


IMPORTANT NOTES:


1. “Combining form” generally cannot stand alone as free words, but there are many exceptions to this rule.
EXAMPLES:
Combining Form: -like [free word]
lotus + -like = lotus-like
rope + -like = rope-like
-like- denotes: similar to the thing that is mentioned


2. Many Words ending in “-ed”, “-en”, etc. are used as COMBINING FORMS.
EXAMPLES:
Combining Form: -based (ending in ‘-ed’)
foreign + -based = foreign-based
demand + -based = demand-based
-based denotes: containing something as an important feature or part


3. Many words ending in “-ing” are used as COMBINING FORMS.
EXAMPLES:
Combining Form: -looking (ending in ‘-ing’)
fine + -looking = fine-looking
suspicious + -looking = suspicious-looking
-looking- denotes: to be appearing in a way that is mentioned


Alphabetical List of Combining Forms Along With Their Meanings And Examples

Combining Forms -- A

AERO-
Used to form: adjectives, adverbs and nouns
General meaning: connected with aircraft
Examples:
aerobatics / aerodrome / aerodynamics / aerofoil / aerogramme (also, aerogram) / aeronaut / aeronautics / aerospace / aerostat

******

-AFFECTED
Used to form: adjectives
General meaning: suffering from the thing that is mentioned
Examples [along with their use in phrases]:
drug-affected ---- [drug-affected newborns]
famine-affected ---- [famine-affected village]
flu-affected ---- [flu-affected patients]
militancy-affected ---- [militancy-affected state]
quake-affected ---- [quake-affected hills]

Other Examples:
flood-affected / cyclone-affected / explosion-affected / drought-affected / rain-affected / violence-affected

******

AFRO-
Used to form: adjectives and nouns
General meaning: African
Examples [along with their use in phrases]:
Afro-Brazilian ---- [Afro-Brazilian heritage]
Afro-British ---- [Afro-British people]
Afro-Caribbean ---- [Afro-Caribbean cooperation]
Afro-Colombian ---- [Afro-Colombian celebrities]
Afro-Cuban ---- [Afro-Cuban player]
Afro-descendant ---- [Afro-descendant communities]
Afro-Iranian ---- [Afro-Iranian minority]
Afro-Latina ---- [Afro-Latina engineers]
Afro-Mexican ---- [Afro-Mexican students]
Afro-Palestinian ---- [Afro-Palestinian group]
Afro-Turk ---- [Afro-Turk music star]


ALL-
Used to form: adjectives and adverbs
General meaning: each and every one | totally | in the highest degree
Examples:
all-American / all-around / all-British / all-Canadian / all-clear / all-consuming / all-embracing / all-encompassing / all-important / all-inclusive / all-night / all-nighter / all-out / all-over / all-party / all-pervading / all-powerful / all-purpose / all-round / all-rounder / all-star / all-ticket / all-time
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About the author

Manik Joshi was born on Jan 26, 1979 at Ranikhet and is permanent resident of Haldwani, Kumaon zone of India. He is an Internet Marketer by profession. He is interested in domaining (business of buying and selling domain names), web designing (creating websites), and various online jobs (including 'self book publishing'). He is science graduate with ZBC (zoology, botany, and chemistry) subjects. He is also an MBA (with specialization in marketing). He has done three diploma courses in computer too. ManikJoshi.com is the personal website of the author.

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Manik Joshi
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Published on
Oct 25, 2014
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Pages
82
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Language
English
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Language Arts & Disciplines / Public Speaking
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WHAT ARE “LITERARY WORDS”?

‘Literary words’ are associated with literature.
‘Literary words’ are typical of a work of literature and imaginative writing.
‘Literary words’ are used with a particular meaning, in narrative, drama, poetry and other writing in a literary manner.

This book has been divided into three sections:
Section 01: Common Literary Words
Section 02: Figurative Use of the Words
Section 03: Glossary of Literary Terms

IMPORTANT NOTES

NOTE -- A:
ELEVATED WORDS
Use of an ‘Elevated’ Word in Place of a ‘Simple’ Word
‘Elevated language’ is widely used in literature.
Elevated Word -- a word that is used to show a high intellectual level
Simple Word -- a word that is used to keep conversation simple in daily life

Example 1:
‘Behold’ [elevated word] | ‘See’ [simple word]
Meaning of ‘behold’ and ‘see’:
to become aware of something by using your eyes

Example 2:
‘Blithe’ [elevated word] | ‘Happy’ [simple word]
Meaning of ‘blithe’ and ‘happy’:
showing or feeling pleasure

******

NOTE -- B:
FIGURATIVE USE OF THE WORDS
Many words and phrases are used in a different (literary) way from their usual (literal) meanings to produce a special effect. [I have put these words together in Section-2 (figurative use of the words) of this book.]

Example-1:
ache: In general sense -- to feel a continuous pain
His leg ached because of injury.
ache: In literary sense -- to be very sad
His false accusations made our heart ache. [= made us sad]

Example-2:
Flash: In general sense -- to shine brightly for a few moments
Camera flashed once.
Flash: In literary sense -- to suddenly show a strong emotion
Their eyes flashed with horror.


******

NOTE -- C:
‘LITERARY TERMS’
There are many words which are used to describe particular form of writing in a literary work, or used in analysis, discussion, classification, and criticism of a literary work. [I have defined these terms in Section-3 (glossary of literary terms) of this book.]

Examples:
catharsis -- the process of releasing strong feelings through artistic activities
diction -- the choice and use of words to create a specific effect in a literary work
epithet -- a word or expression used to attribute special quality to somebody/something
genre -- a particular category, style or type to which a literary wok belongs
holograph -- handwritten piece of writing by its author
idyll -- a poem that describes a peaceful and happy scene
juvenilia -- a literary work produced by an artist, in his/her youth
melodrama -- a literary work that is full of exciting and exaggerated events or emotions
opera -- a dramatic work where a majority of the words are sung to music
panegyric -- a speech or written composition that praises somebody/something
prosody -- the patterns of rhythms and sounds in poetry
quatrain -- a verse of a poem that has four lines
refrain -- a line or number of lines of a song or poem that is repeated after each verse
scene -- one of the small sections within an act (a major division) of a play
semantic -- relating to the meaning of words and sentences
trilogy -- a set of three books, plays, movies, etc. on the same characters or subject

figure of speech -- an expression in which a word or phrase represents one thing in terms of something dissimilar (non-literal) to create a particular effect in somebody’s mind, or in which an emphasis is produced by patterns of sound. [Some common figures of speech are as follows -- alliteration, anaphora, antistrophe. apostrophe, assonance, consonance, hyperbole, irony, litotes, metaphor, metonymy, periphrasis, personification, simile, synecdoche]
What are “Old-fashioned Words”?

Definition of ‘Old-fashioned words’:
“Words and expressions that were common in the past but are passing out of ordinary use.”

‘Old-fashioned words’ are also known as ‘archaic words’. Many people use the term ‘old use’ for the words and expressions that were common in the past but have passed out of ordinary use.
These words are mainly used in historical novels. They are also used to amuse people.

Examples:
Old-fashioned word:
dandified [adjective]
(of a man) too careful about his look or clothes

Old-fashioned word:
vamoose [verb]
to leave fast

Old-fashioned idiom
blot your copybook -- to do something bad to spoil your good reputation among people

Old-fashioned phrasal verb
buck up! -- used to tell somebody to make haste


Detailed list of “old-fashioned words”, parts of speech they belong to, and their meanings are as follows:


Old-fashioned Words -- A

abed [adverb]
in bed

abide [verb]
to stay or live in a place
Use in a sentence: Everybody must abide by the law.

abroad [adverb]
outside; outdoors

accidence [noun]
the part of grammar that deals with the change in the form of a word

accursed [adjective]
having a bad magic spell on something
Use in a sentence: They lived in the forest as if accursed. || There is no escaping the sense of anxiety that we humans are accursed with.

adieu [exclamation]
goodbye
Use in a sentence: They bid adieu to him with mixed emotions.

addled [adjective]
confused / (of an egg) not fresh
Use in a sentence: He is not a silly and addled dude.

without further/more ado [idiom]
at once; immediately
Use in a sentence: Once it was sure that the area had been secured, the children were without more ado accompanied to the assembly hall.

adventurer / adventuress [noun]
a person who is very fond of going to unusual places or gaining new experiences
Use in a sentence: She is a hard-core adventuress, a travel journalist, who has traveled around the world.

aerodrome (airdrome) [noun]
a small airport
Use in a sentence: The extension of the runway was aimed at better services for private operators at the aerodrome.

affair [noun]
an strange or inexplicable thing

affright [verb]
to scare; to frighten
Use in a sentence: Let nothing affright you.

ague [noun]
malaria, dengue or other disease that causes fever and shivering

ail [verb]
to make somebody ill/sick

air hostess [noun]
a female flight attendant

alack [exclamation]
a word that is used to show you are sad or sorry
Use in a sentence: Alas and alack, only a few of those stories are all that funny.

alas [exclamation]
a word that is used to show you are sad or sorry
Use in a sentence: His experiments, alas, were flawed and had been mythologized.

be all up (with somebody) [idiom]
to be the end for somebody

almoner [noun]
a person employed by a hospital to handle financial and social problems of patients
Use in a sentence: They wanted a more active almoner, who could find innovative ways to help the poor.

alms [noun]
money, clothes, food, etc. given to beggars or poor people
Use in a sentence: They were injured in a stampede to receive alms being distributed by a charity.

in the altogether [idiom]
without wearing any clothes

Amerindian [noun]
Native American
Use in a sentence: The word 'guava' originates from the language of the Arawaks, an Amerindian people from the Caribbean.

ammo [noun]
ammunition
Use in a sentence: They have tested and run a lot of ammo through their rifles.

amour [noun]
a secret love affair

anon [adverb]
soon; early, immediately; in a moment

apoplexy [noun]
the sudden and complete loss of the ability to sense or move
apoplectic [adjective]
related to apoplexy

apparel [noun]
formal clothes
Use in a sentence: The US apparel industry is highly fragmented with many players.

applesauce [noun]
nonsense
Use in a sentence: All politics is applesauce!

apprehend [verb]
to understand, realize or be aware of something
Use in a sentence: Making language easy to apprehend is intrinsic to making it appealing.

apricity [noun]
the sun’s warmth on a cold winter’s day

aright [adverb]
correctly or properly
What are “Humorous Words”?

What is Humor? [HUMOUR [(British English) | HUMOR (AMERICAN ENGLISH)]
Humor is something that is funny, comical, or amusing

Definition of ‘Humorous Words’
Words that are intended to be amusing, entertaining, funny, or comical are called humorous words.

Examples:
beak [noun] – large or pointed nose of somebody
ego-surfing [noun] – the activity of searching your name in different websites on Internet
iron rations [noun] – a small amount of food carried for emergency by soldiers, etc. while climbing or walking
unhand [verb] – to release somebody that you are holding


Besides “Humorous Words”, there are some Idioms and Phrasal Verbs which are used to express humor (amusement or funniness)
Example- (idiom): a big cheese – a very important and influential person in a big organization
Example- (phrasal verb): gird (up) your loins – to get ready to do a difficult task or activity


NOTE: Many ‘Humorous Words’ are also used in ‘formal’, ‘informal’ or other sense
Example:
BEAST
beast [noun] [Humorous] – a person or thing who is unpleasant
beast [noun] [Informal] – a thing of a particular type
beast [noun] [Formal] – a large and dangerous animal


Detailed list of ‘humorous words’, parts of speech they belong to, and their meanings are as follows:

Humorous Words -- A

abaya [noun]
a full-length, sleeveless outer garment worn by Arabs

abdicate [verb]
to give up all hope of ever having a flat stomach

abibliophobia [noun]
the fear of running out of reading material

abomasums [noun]
the fourth stomach of a ruminant, such as a cow or sheep

absquatulate [verb]
to abruptly leave or abscond with something

academe [noun]
the world of studying, teaching, etc. at academic institutions e.g. universities and colleges

accoutrements (accouterments) [noun]
pieces of equipment that are required for an activity; accessories

acerbate [verb]
to embitter somebody

acidulous [adjective]
rather sour or sharp in speech, manner, etc.

adjourn to… [phrasal verb]
to go to another place to calm down

of advanced years | sb's advanced age [idiom]
used to show that somebody is ‘very old’ or aged

agelast [noun]
one who never laughs

aglet [noun]
the plastic tip on the end of a shoelace

alack [exclamation]
used to express sadness or regret

allegator [noun]
someone who alleges

allergic [adjective]
strong dislike towards somebody

amatory [adjective]
relating to physical activity or desire

amphibology [noun]
grammatically ambiguous phrase or sentence (e.g.: he talked to his son and his daughter)

amphisbaena [noun]
a mythical serpent with a head at each end

anencephalous [adjective]
lacking a brain

anfractuous [adjective]
circuitous or winding

anguilliform [adjective]
resembling an eel

anserine [adjective]
goose-like | silly or foolish

antediluvian [adjective]
traditional or out-of-date

anthropophagy [noun]
cannibalism

apolaustic [adjective]
devoted to the seeking of enjoyment

apple-knocker [noun]
ignorant or unsophisticated person

appurtenance [noun]
a smaller part of something larger, superior or more significant

archipelago [noun]
a chain of islands

argle-bargle [noun]
meaningless and abundant talk or writing

argus-eyed [adjective]
vigilant, referring to Argos, a Greek mythological watchman with a hundred eyes

argute [adjective]
shrewd

argy-bargy [noun]
noisy arguing

assignation [noun]
a secret meeting with a lover

autotomy [noun]
the casting off of a limb or other part of the body by an animal under threat, such as a lizard

avuncular [adjective]
uncle-like
What are “Compound Words”?

A compound word consists of two or more base words. Meaning of Compound word is often different from the separate base words.

Compound Words and Parts of Speech
Compound words are mostly nouns, adjectives, and verbs.

Kinds of Compound Words
Compound words are of three types:

(A). Closed Compound Words:
Words are joined together. There is no space or hyphen between the words.
Examples: firefly / softball / redhead / keyboard / makeup / notebook

(B). Hyphenated Compound Words:
Words are joined together by a hyphen.
Examples: daughter-in-law / over-the-counter / six-year-old

(C). Open Compound Words:
Words are not joined together. Words are open or separate. In other words, there is a space between the words.
Examples: post office / real estate / full moon / half sister

Some general rules regarding use of hyphens:-
Compound Adjectives are often hyphenated.
If compound adjective precedes a noun, they are hyphenated
Examples:
low-paying job [low- paying is a compound adjective; job is a noun]
easy-going celebrity [easy-going is a compound adjective; celebrity is a noun]

Adverbs that end in –ly and compounded with another modifier are generally not hyphenated:
Examples:
deeply held beliefs
genetically modified foods
highly placed sources
quietly organized meeting


ALSO NOTE:
1. Some compound words may have more than one form but these forms may belong to different parts of speech.

Examples:
bread and butter [open form] [noun]
bread-and-butter [closed form] [adjective]

charge sheet [open form][noun]
chargesheet [closed form] [verb]

fast track [open form] [noun]
fast-track [hyphenated form] [adjective, verb]

first degree [open form] [noun]
first-degree [hyphenated form] [adjective]

full time [open form] [noun]
full-time [hyphenated form] [adjective, adverb]

gift wrap [open form] [noun]
gift-wrap [hyphenated form] [verb]

hard core [open form] [noun]
hard-core [hyphenated form] [adjective]

hard line [open form] [noun]
hard-line [hyphenated form] [adjective]

road test [open form] [noun]
road-test [hyphenated form] [verb]

second hand [open form] [noun]
second-home [hyphenated form] [adjective]


2. Some compound words which are hyphenated in American English are not hyphenated in British English.
Example: cash-back [American English]; cashback [British English]


3. Compound words are mainly formed in the following ways:
(a). adjective + adjective [example: bittersweet]
(b). adjective + noun [example: blackboard]
(c). adjective + verb [example: broadcast]
(d). adjective + past participle [example: cold-blooded]
(e). adjective + present participle [example: free-standing]
(f). adverb (or preposition) + adjective [example: ingrown]
(g). adverb (or preposition) + noun [example: afterlife]
(h). adverb (or preposition) + verb [example: cutback]
(i). adverb + past participle [example: brightly lit]
(j). adverb + present participle [example: long-lasting]
(k). noun + adjective [example: blood red]
(l). noun + adverb (or preposition) [example: hanger-on]
(m). noun + noun [example: airman]
(n). noun + verb [example: air-condition]
(o). noun + past participle [example: sun-dried]
(p). verb + adverb (or preposition) [example: breakdown]
(q). verb + noun [example: bathroom]
(r). gerund + noun [example: bleaching powder]
(s). noun + gerund [example: air-conditioning]

Detailed list of Compound words in Alphabetical Order. [All compound words have been grouped according to the parts of speech they belong to.)
Informal Words are connected with normal communication to your colleagues, acquaintances, family members, etc. | Informal words are more common in speech than in writing. | Informal words are used in ‘unofficial’ language. These words are not used in ‘official’ or formal writing | This book covers around 1400 Informal words (including name of parts of speech they belong to) and their meanings | IMPORTANT NOTE: Many informal words are used in both American and British English in the same way. However, some informal words are particularly used in American English only. Similarly, some informal words are particularly used in British English only. | INFORMAL WORDS – A -- A1 [adjective] -- very good | abs [noun] -- the muscles of the abdomen | ace [adjective | noun] -- very good | number one | achy [adjective] -- affected by an uninterrupted pain that is small in degree | ack-ack [noun] -- the non-stop firing of guns at aircraft | ad [noun] -- advertisement | adman [noun] -- a person who works in advertising or promotion | adore [verb] -- to be very fond of something | aggravate [verb] -- to intentionally irritate somebody | a gogo [adjective] -- in large quantities | airhead [noun] -- an unintelligent or stupid person | all [adverb] -- enormously | allergic [adjective] -- having an aversion of somebody/something | all right [adverb] -- used to emphasize something | almighty [adjective] -- enormous or severe | alphabet soup [noun] -- extremely difficult language with abbreviations or symbols | ammo [noun] -- ammunition [supply of bullets, etc; very important information for argument] | amp [noun] -- amplifier [a type of electrical device] | appalling [adjective] -- extremely bad or poor | arm candy [noun] -- a beautiful woman accompanied by a man in a public event | arm-twisting [noun] -- the use of physical power or great pressure to convince somebody to do something | artsy (arty) [adjective] -- enormously interested in the arts | artsy-fartsy (arty-farty) [adjective] -- connected with the arts | Aussie [noun] -- a person or native from Australia | awful [adjective] -- very bad | used to emphasize a large quantity or sum of something | axe (ax) [verb] -- to kill somebody with an axe | to get rid of a scheme, service, system, etc. | to dismiss somebody from their job | **** |  INFORMAL WORDS -- Particularly Used In AMERICAN ENGLISH: | ace [verb] -- to be successful | all-nighter [noun] -- a time when somebody stay awake all night, mainly for studying | ambulance chaser [noun] -- a lawyer connected with cases of accident claims | amped [adjective] -- excited | antsy [adjective] -- unable to keep still | any [adverb] -- ‘at all’ [used at the end of negative sentences] | A-OK [adjective] -- in satisfactory or perfect condition, manner or style. | attaboy / attagirl [exclamation] -- used to admire or encourage a boy or man / girl or woman | awesome [adjective] -- first-rate, excellent or pleasurable | awful [adverb] -- extremely or enormously | INFORMAL WORDS -- Particularly Used In BRITISH ENGLISH: | admin [noun] -- Administration [activities connected with organizing something] | afters [noun] -- a sweet dish that is eaten after meal | ages -- [noun] a very long time | aggro [noun] -- cruel, hostile and aggressive behavior | airy-fairy [adjective] -- impractical, unreasonable, unclear | all right [exclamation] -- used to say hello | all-singing, all-dancing [adjective] -- (of a machine) having a advanced features | anorak [noun] -- a boring person who is very fond of learning facts or collecting things | appro [noun] -- on approval [connected with shopping activities] | argy-bargy [noun] -- noisy argument or difference of opinions |
WHAT ARE “LITERARY WORDS”?

‘Literary words’ are associated with literature.
‘Literary words’ are typical of a work of literature and imaginative writing.
‘Literary words’ are used with a particular meaning, in narrative, drama, poetry and other writing in a literary manner.

This book has been divided into three sections:
Section 01: Common Literary Words
Section 02: Figurative Use of the Words
Section 03: Glossary of Literary Terms

IMPORTANT NOTES

NOTE -- A:
ELEVATED WORDS
Use of an ‘Elevated’ Word in Place of a ‘Simple’ Word
‘Elevated language’ is widely used in literature.
Elevated Word -- a word that is used to show a high intellectual level
Simple Word -- a word that is used to keep conversation simple in daily life

Example 1:
‘Behold’ [elevated word] | ‘See’ [simple word]
Meaning of ‘behold’ and ‘see’:
to become aware of something by using your eyes

Example 2:
‘Blithe’ [elevated word] | ‘Happy’ [simple word]
Meaning of ‘blithe’ and ‘happy’:
showing or feeling pleasure

******

NOTE -- B:
FIGURATIVE USE OF THE WORDS
Many words and phrases are used in a different (literary) way from their usual (literal) meanings to produce a special effect. [I have put these words together in Section-2 (figurative use of the words) of this book.]

Example-1:
ache: In general sense -- to feel a continuous pain
His leg ached because of injury.
ache: In literary sense -- to be very sad
His false accusations made our heart ache. [= made us sad]

Example-2:
Flash: In general sense -- to shine brightly for a few moments
Camera flashed once.
Flash: In literary sense -- to suddenly show a strong emotion
Their eyes flashed with horror.


******

NOTE -- C:
‘LITERARY TERMS’
There are many words which are used to describe particular form of writing in a literary work, or used in analysis, discussion, classification, and criticism of a literary work. [I have defined these terms in Section-3 (glossary of literary terms) of this book.]

Examples:
catharsis -- the process of releasing strong feelings through artistic activities
diction -- the choice and use of words to create a specific effect in a literary work
epithet -- a word or expression used to attribute special quality to somebody/something
genre -- a particular category, style or type to which a literary wok belongs
holograph -- handwritten piece of writing by its author
idyll -- a poem that describes a peaceful and happy scene
juvenilia -- a literary work produced by an artist, in his/her youth
melodrama -- a literary work that is full of exciting and exaggerated events or emotions
opera -- a dramatic work where a majority of the words are sung to music
panegyric -- a speech or written composition that praises somebody/something
prosody -- the patterns of rhythms and sounds in poetry
quatrain -- a verse of a poem that has four lines
refrain -- a line or number of lines of a song or poem that is repeated after each verse
scene -- one of the small sections within an act (a major division) of a play
semantic -- relating to the meaning of words and sentences
trilogy -- a set of three books, plays, movies, etc. on the same characters or subject

figure of speech -- an expression in which a word or phrase represents one thing in terms of something dissimilar (non-literal) to create a particular effect in somebody’s mind, or in which an emphasis is produced by patterns of sound. [Some common figures of speech are as follows -- alliteration, anaphora, antistrophe. apostrophe, assonance, consonance, hyperbole, irony, litotes, metaphor, metonymy, periphrasis, personification, simile, synecdoche]
500 Words and Their Synonyms

Synonym is a word that has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word.

Sample This:

English Synonyms – A

001. ABET -- (meaning) to encourage somebody to do something illegal
Synonyms for ‘Abet’ --
incite / instigate / provoke

******

002. ABEYANCE -- (meaning) being stopped for a period of time
Synonyms for ‘Abeyance’ --
dormancy / intermission / suspension

******

003. ABILITY -- (meaning) the fact that somebody is able to do something
Synonyms for ‘Ability’ --
aptitude / capability / competence / knack / potential / proficiency / skill / talent

******

004. ABLAZE -- (meaning) burning; on fire
Synonyms for ‘Ablaze’ --
aflame / afire / alight

******

005. ABRASIVE -- (meaning) not smooth
Synonyms for ‘Abrasive’ --
coarse / harsh / rough

******

006. ABSENCE -- (meaning) not available, present, etc.
Synonyms for ‘Absence’ --
nonexistence / nonappearance / nonattendance

******

007. ABSTRUSE -- (meaning) difficult to understand
Synonyms for ‘Abstruse’ --
arcane / complicated / convoluted / esoteric / garbled / inarticulate / incoherent / incomprehensible / indecipherable / inexplicable / intricate / obscure / rarefied / recondite / unfathomable / unintelligible / unplumbed

******

008. ABUSE -- (meaning) unfair or cruel treatment
Synonyms for ‘Abuse’ --
brutality / cruelty / exploitation / ill-treatment / maltreatment / mistreatment / misuse / spitefulness / viciousness

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009. ABYSS -- (meaning) a very deep crack in the ground
Synonyms for ‘Abyss’ --
chasm / gulf

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010. ACCEDE -- (meaning) to agree to a demand, request, proposal, etc.
Synonyms for ‘Accede’ --
acquiesce / approve / assent / commend / comply / endorse / grant / permission / ratify / sanction

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011. ACCENTUATE -- (meaning) to make something more noticeable
Synonyms for ‘Accentuate’ --
emphasize / highlight / underline / underscore

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012. ACCLIMATIZE -- (meaning) to get used to new situation
Synonyms for ‘Acclimatize’ --
adapt / adjust

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013. ACCOMPLISH -- (meaning) to succeed in getting something
Synonyms for ‘Accomplish’ --
attain / conquer / manage

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014. ACCOST -- (meaning) to come near to somebody/something
Synonyms for ‘Accost’ --
advance / approach / confront

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015. ACCREDITED -- (meaning) officially recognized
Synonyms for ‘Accredited’ --
certified / endorsed / licensed

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016. ACCRUAL -- (meaning) increase in something over a period of time
Synonyms for ‘Accrual’ --
accretion / addition / amassing / buildup / gathering

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017. ACCUSE -- (meaning) to say somebody is guilty of something
Synonyms for ‘Accuse’ --
arraign / blame / charge / impeach / indict / prosecute

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018. ACQUIT -- (meaning) to say officially that somebody is not guilty for a crime
Synonyms for ‘Acquit’ --
absolve / exculpate / exonerate

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019. ADMIRATION -- (meaning) praise or approval
Synonyms for ‘Admiration’ --
acclaim / accolade / applause / approbation / commendation / ovation

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020. ADMIRING -- (meaning) behavior that shows that you respect somebody/something
Synonyms for ‘Admiring’ --
chivalrous / considerate / courteous / deferential / gracious / respectful / reverent / reverential

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021. ADROIT -- (meaning) skillful and accurate
Synonyms for ‘Adroit’ --
agile / deft / dexterous / natty / nifty / nimble / swift

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022. ALARMING -- (meaning) causing feeling of fear and worry
Synonyms for ‘Alarming’ --
baffling / bewildering / confounding / disconcerting / disquieting / distressing / perplexing / puzzling / tormenting / upsetting / worrying

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Modal Auxiliary Verb (or ‘Modal Verb’ or ‘Modal Auxiliary’) is a verb that is used with another verb (not a modal verb) to express ability, intention, necessity, obligation, permission, possibility, probability, etc.

English modal auxiliary verbs - may, might, can, could, will, would, shall, should, must, need, used(to), ought(to), dare | different patterns and examples | may and might are used to express- possibility, compulsion, obligation, probability (in present and future) | can, could are used to express- ability, probability, possibility, suggestion, request, condition | will, would are used to express- action in future, present habit, compulsion, obligation | shall, should are used to express- action in future, suggestion, surprise, importance or purpose | need is used to express necessity | used(to) is used to express- past habit | ought(to) is used to express- probability, recommendation, obligation, advise | dare is used to express– be brave enough to

Sample This:

Modal Auxiliary Verb -- May and Might

‘May’ and ‘Might’ are used to show Possibility and Probability
‘May’ and ‘Might’ are used to ask for Permission
‘May’ is used to give or refuse Permission

Some Important Uses of ‘May’ and ‘Might’

To say what the purpose of something is
We eat that we may live.
Her prayer was that the child might live.
That he might be well fed his mother starved herself.

To admit that something is true before introducing another point, argument, etc.
You may not return to past glory, but don't stop believing.
City may not have the roads to drive sports car, but it has excellent infrastructure.
It may not be wise, but using force may be lawful.
I may not have deserved the house I bought, but I'm glad I own it.
He may not have been loved, but he was respected.
We may have had to go without food, but he is very considerate.

‘May’ is used to express wishes and hopes
May you live prosperous life!

‘May’ is used to give or refuse Permission [In Informal and Polite Way]
You may contact us for queries regarding donations.
When you have finished your work you may go home.
Note: Never use ‘might’ to give permission. [Always use ‘may’]
Never use ‘might not’ to refuse permission. [Always use ‘may not’]

Difference between ‘May’ and ‘Might’
Note: ‘Might’ is the past equivalent of ‘may’ in indirect speech.
But it is used in the same way as ‘may’ to talk about the present or future.

‘May’ denotes more possibility/probability
‘Might’ denotes less possibility/probability
It may rain tomorrow (Perhaps a 75% chance) - More possible
It might rain tomorrow (Perhaps a 50% chance) - Less possible

‘Might’ also denotes ‘would perhaps’
You might attract President’s attention later. (= Perhaps you would attract.)
He might have to go (Perhaps he had to go.)

‘Might’ is frequently used In conditional sentences
If I pursued studies further, I might learn more.
If I had pursued studies further, I might have learned more.

‘Might’ has limitations while ‘asking permission’
‘Might’ is very polite and formal. It is not common. It is mostly used in indirect questions.
I wonder if I might work on your computer.

Note: ‘Maybe’ is an adverb. [‘Maybe’ means ‘perhaps’]
Maybe he came to know something secret and was removed from the post.

ALSO NOTE:
Difference Between ‘May’ and ‘Can’
‘May’ is more formal than ‘Can’
‘May’ is mostly used in ‘formal’ English.
‘Can’ is mostly used in ‘informal’ (or spoken) English
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What are “Old-fashioned Words”?

Definition of ‘Old-fashioned words’:
“Words and expressions that were common in the past but are passing out of ordinary use.”

‘Old-fashioned words’ are also known as ‘archaic words’. Many people use the term ‘old use’ for the words and expressions that were common in the past but have passed out of ordinary use.
These words are mainly used in historical novels. They are also used to amuse people.

Examples:
Old-fashioned word:
dandified [adjective]
(of a man) too careful about his look or clothes

Old-fashioned word:
vamoose [verb]
to leave fast

Old-fashioned idiom
blot your copybook -- to do something bad to spoil your good reputation among people

Old-fashioned phrasal verb
buck up! -- used to tell somebody to make haste


Detailed list of “old-fashioned words”, parts of speech they belong to, and their meanings are as follows:


Old-fashioned Words -- A

abed [adverb]
in bed

abide [verb]
to stay or live in a place
Use in a sentence: Everybody must abide by the law.

abroad [adverb]
outside; outdoors

accidence [noun]
the part of grammar that deals with the change in the form of a word

accursed [adjective]
having a bad magic spell on something
Use in a sentence: They lived in the forest as if accursed. || There is no escaping the sense of anxiety that we humans are accursed with.

adieu [exclamation]
goodbye
Use in a sentence: They bid adieu to him with mixed emotions.

addled [adjective]
confused / (of an egg) not fresh
Use in a sentence: He is not a silly and addled dude.

without further/more ado [idiom]
at once; immediately
Use in a sentence: Once it was sure that the area had been secured, the children were without more ado accompanied to the assembly hall.

adventurer / adventuress [noun]
a person who is very fond of going to unusual places or gaining new experiences
Use in a sentence: She is a hard-core adventuress, a travel journalist, who has traveled around the world.

aerodrome (airdrome) [noun]
a small airport
Use in a sentence: The extension of the runway was aimed at better services for private operators at the aerodrome.

affair [noun]
an strange or inexplicable thing

affright [verb]
to scare; to frighten
Use in a sentence: Let nothing affright you.

ague [noun]
malaria, dengue or other disease that causes fever and shivering

ail [verb]
to make somebody ill/sick

air hostess [noun]
a female flight attendant

alack [exclamation]
a word that is used to show you are sad or sorry
Use in a sentence: Alas and alack, only a few of those stories are all that funny.

alas [exclamation]
a word that is used to show you are sad or sorry
Use in a sentence: His experiments, alas, were flawed and had been mythologized.

be all up (with somebody) [idiom]
to be the end for somebody

almoner [noun]
a person employed by a hospital to handle financial and social problems of patients
Use in a sentence: They wanted a more active almoner, who could find innovative ways to help the poor.

alms [noun]
money, clothes, food, etc. given to beggars or poor people
Use in a sentence: They were injured in a stampede to receive alms being distributed by a charity.

in the altogether [idiom]
without wearing any clothes

Amerindian [noun]
Native American
Use in a sentence: The word 'guava' originates from the language of the Arawaks, an Amerindian people from the Caribbean.

ammo [noun]
ammunition
Use in a sentence: They have tested and run a lot of ammo through their rifles.

amour [noun]
a secret love affair

anon [adverb]
soon; early, immediately; in a moment

apoplexy [noun]
the sudden and complete loss of the ability to sense or move
apoplectic [adjective]
related to apoplexy

apparel [noun]
formal clothes
Use in a sentence: The US apparel industry is highly fragmented with many players.

applesauce [noun]
nonsense
Use in a sentence: All politics is applesauce!

apprehend [verb]
to understand, realize or be aware of something
Use in a sentence: Making language easy to apprehend is intrinsic to making it appealing.

apricity [noun]
the sun’s warmth on a cold winter’s day

aright [adverb]
correctly or properly
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