Scott Page gives a concise primer on how diversity happens, how it is maintained, and how it affects complex systems. He explains how diversity underpins system level robustness, allowing for multiple responses to external shocks and internal adaptations; how it provides the seeds for large events by creating outliers that fuel tipping points; and how it drives novelty and innovation. Page looks at the different kinds of diversity--variations within and across types, and distinct community compositions and interaction structures--and covers the evolution of diversity within complex systems and the factors that determine the amount of maintained diversity within a system.
The Theme on Biodiversity: Structure and Function discusses matters of great relevance to our world such as: Characterization of Biodiversity; Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning; Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Biodiversity Dynamics; Evolutionary and Genetic Aspects of Biodiversity; Biodiversity Monitoring, Assessment, Data Management, and Indicators; The Value of Biodiversity; Halting Biodiversity Loss: Fundamentals and Latest Trends of Conservation Science and Action; Application of Ecological Knowledge to Habitat Restoration. These two volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.
The second edition of the book covers a complete range of the topics pertaining to the subject such as meaning of biodiversity, its history, importance of species diversity, systematics, determination of status of bioresources, pattern of distribution of global species, genetic diversity and ecosystem diversity. It also elaborates on various drivers that lead to biodiversity loss and its impact on global climate. Moreover, the topics on biopiracy, related laws and policies, and the importance of indigenous knowledge of several communities are also described in the text. The use of biotechnology-based methods and various measures to preserve natural resources and conserve biodiversity is the highlight of the text. Moreover, the book provides a detailed account of the conservation measures of biodiversity, especially those implemented by the government.
This book is primarily designed for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of Environmental Science, Zoology and Botany. Besides, it will also be useful for postgraduate diploma or other professional courses in Environmental Science and also for the researchers.
NEW TO THE SECOND EDITION
• ‘Project Tiger’ and ‘Project Elephant’ are introduced in the chapter on Conservation Practice.
• Various sections have been revised and updated throughout the book.
• A few figures have been added and many others have been replaced for better illustration.
• Explains the contemporary topics such as green accounting and sustainable management of natural resources in an easy-to-understand manner.
• Incorporates a number of photographs, flow charts, diagrams and tables.
• Provides chapter-end review questions to help students check their understanding of the subject.
• Includes MCQs (with answers given at the end of the book).
• Gives an elaborate glossary of technical terms to acquaint the students with the related terminologies.
Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of life, viral replication, epidemics, language evolution, and the emergence and breakdown of societies.
Written at an undergraduate mathematical level, this book provides the essential theoretical tools and foundations required to develop basic models to explain collective phase transitions for a wide variety of ecosystems.
Focusing on the moment-to-moment behavior of ant colonies, Deborah Gordon investigates the role of interaction networks in regulating colony behavior and relations among ant colonies. She shows how ant behavior within and between colonies arises from local interactions of individuals, and how interaction networks develop as a colony grows older and larger. The more rapidly ants react to their encounters, the more sensitively the entire colony responds to changing conditions. Gordon explores whether such reactive networks help a colony to survive and reproduce, how natural selection shapes colony networks, and how these structures compare to other analogous complex systems.
Ant Encounters sheds light on the organizational behavior, ecology, and evolution of these diverse and ubiquitous social insects.
The Difference reveals that progress and innovation may depend less on lone thinkers with enormous IQs than on diverse people working together and capitalizing on their individuality. Page shows how groups that display a range of perspectives outperform groups of like-minded experts. Diversity yields superior outcomes, and Page proves it using his own cutting-edge research. Moving beyond the politics that cloud standard debates about diversity, he explains why difference beats out homogeneity, whether you're talking about citizens in a democracy or scientists in the laboratory. He examines practical ways to apply diversity's logic to a host of problems, and along the way offers fascinating and surprising examples, from the redesign of the Chicago "El" to the truth about where we store our ketchup.
Page changes the way we understand diversity--how to harness its untapped potential, how to understand and avoid its traps, and how we can leverage our differences for the benefit of all.
This one-of-a-kind guide to spin glasses begins by explaining the fundamentals of order and symmetry in condensed matter physics and how spin glasses fit into--and modify--this framework. It then explores how spin-glass concepts and ideas have found applications in areas as diverse as computational complexity, biological and artificial neural networks, protein folding, immune response maturation, combinatorial optimization, and social network modeling.
Providing an essential overview of the history, science, and growing significance of this exciting field, Spin Glasses and Complexity also features a forward-looking discussion of what spin glasses may teach us in the future about complex systems. This is a must-have book for students and practitioners in the natural and social sciences, with new material even for the experts.