How to Start a Sentence

English Daily Use

Book 1
Manik Joshi
10
Free sample

This Book Covers The Following Topics:

How to Start a Sentence
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘AS’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘AFTER’ and ‘BEFORE’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘BY’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘FOR/FROM
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘IF’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘OF/ON/OUT’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘TO’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘IN’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘WITH’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘QUESTION WORDS’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘ING’ FORM of VERBS
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘PAST PARTICIPLES’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘-LY Words’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘PRONOUNS’
Start a Sentence – Miscellaneous
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)

Sample This:

There are different ways to start a sentence in English. Using pronoun (I, we, you, they, he, she, it) is the most popular way to begin a sentence. But there are many other words which are widely used to start a sentence. They might be question words (what, where, etc.). They might be words formed from verbs, ending in –ing, -ed, -en, etc. Besides, words such as ‘to’ ‘in’ ‘with’, ‘if’, ‘after’ are also used to begin a sentence.
Here, you will learn various words and phrases to start a sentence with.

Important Note:
Starting a sentence with ‘and’ or ‘but’ is correct or not!

Using ‘And’ or ‘But’ to begin a sentence is generally considered grammatically Incorrect. But there is no hard and fast rule in this regard. So, you can use ‘And’ or ‘But’ to begin a sentence. But avoid excessive use of these words to begin a sentence. Use these words in the beginning of a sentence only when they really give strength to your language.

Note: It is said that a sentence should not be begun with a conjunction of any kind, especially one of the FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). But this is not hard and fast rule. Particularly in spoken English, starting a sentence with ‘And’ or ‘But’ is common.


How to start a sentence -- Using ‘AS’

As a matter of fact no notice was given to anyone.
As a policeman myself, I am aware of all the laws.
As against last time four days, the fair will last for five days this year.
As always, he won the match.
As an interim arrangement, we directed the authorities not to return the land.
As fate would have it, he crossed the international border.
As for David, he is doing fine.
As he got busy, she picked up his son.
As he grew older, he developed his communications skills.
As if the bad power situation in the city wasn’t enough, the hike in power tariff has come as the last straw for residents.
As in the past, party president distanced herself from the government’s unpopular decision.
As long as here is violence by unruly mobs, use of police force is inevitable.
As often happened, he forgot to send me reply.
As part of the deal, they will hand-over control of five west bank towns.
As penance, he vowed to never scold any kid ever again.
As per his version, nobody had got injured in the incident.
As per rules, the same bill should be passed by the two Houses of the Parliament before it is sent to the President for his signature and promulgation for implementation.
As sanitary workers are absent on most of the days, sweeping of that road is also irregular resulting in trash along the road.
As the bus was nearing, / As the bus neared him, he moved aside.
As the day progressed, over a hundred men protestors gathered at the office.
As the electric cables are hanging loosely, it may anytime lead to major accident if any passer-by comes into contact.
As the mercury levels are dropping each day, difficulties for the poor are constantly rising.
As the war widened, they had to leave the city.
As we progresses, it is going to become more and more difficult.
As you know, I have sent him a letter.
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About the author

Manik Joshi was born on Jan 26, 1979 at Ranikhet and is permanent resident of Haldwani, Kumaon zone of India. He is an Internet Marketer by profession. He is interested in domaining (business of buying and selling domain names), web designing (creating websites), and various online jobs (including 'self book publishing'). He is science graduate with ZBC (zoology, botany, and chemistry) subjects. He is also an MBA (with specialization in marketing). He has done three diploma courses in computer too.

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Additional Information

Publisher
Manik Joshi
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Published on
Oct 25, 2014
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Pages
71
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ISBN
9781491212318
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Language
English
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Genres
Language Arts & Disciplines / Public Speaking
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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This Book Covers The Following Topics:

What are “Interrogative Sentences”?
Structure (1) -- Wh-Question Word + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(1A). What + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(1B). When + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(1C). Where + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(1D). Which + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(1E). Who + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(1F). Whom + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(1G). Whose + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(1H). Why + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(1I). How + Be/Do/Have/Modal
Structure (2) -- Wh-Question Word + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(2A). What + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(2B). When + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(2C). Where + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(2D). Which + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(2E). Who + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(2F). Whom + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(2G). Whose + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(2H). Why + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(2I). How + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
Structure (3) -- Wh-Question Word + Main Verb (Present or Past)
Structure (4) – Interrogatives Sentences – Be/Do/Have/Modal
(4A). Interrogatives Starting From – Am, Is, Are, Was, Were
(4B). Interrogatives Starting From – Do, Does, Did
(4C). Interrogatives Starting From – Have, Has, Had
(4D). Interrogatives Starting From – Modal Verbs
Structure (5) -- Question Tags
Structure (6) -- What if
Structure (7) – How Long/How Much/How Many
Structure (8) -- Wh-Question Word + To + Verb Word
Structure (9) – “What About” and “How About”
Structure (9) – “What About” and “How About”
Structure (10) – Alternative Questions
Structure (11) – Indirect Questions
Formation of Interrogatives from Affirmatives
Exercises

Sample This:

What are “Interrogative Sentences”?

Interrogative sentences are used to ask questions. An interrogative sentence ends with a question mark.
Most common interrogative words are as follows:
What, When, Where, Which, Who, Whom, Whose, Why, How

Interrogative words and what they refer:
What – refers ‘specific information’ or confirmation/repetition
When – refers ‘at what time’ or ‘on what occasion’
Where – refers ‘in what place, position or situation’
Which – refers ‘choice or alternative’
Who – refers ‘identity’ of a subject (person/people)
Whom – refers ‘identity’ of a object (person/people)
Whose – refers ‘who something belongs to’
Why – refers ‘reason, explanation or purpose’
How – refers ‘way or manner’, ‘condition or quality’

These words are called 'Wh-question words' because all these words contain letter ‘w’ and ‘h’. All these words (except ‘how’) even start from ‘Wh’.

NOTE: The following words are also used to ask questions:
Whatever, Whenever, Wherever, Whoever
These forms show ‘surprise, confusion, or emphasis.

Besides ‘Wh-question words’, Auxiliary Verbs ‘Be’, ‘Do’, ‘Have’, and ‘Modal Verbs’ are also used to form interrogative sentences. Following is the list of auxiliary and modal verbs:
Auxiliary Verb-- Be-- Am, Is, Are, Was, Were
Auxiliary Verb-- Do-- Do, Does, Did
Auxiliary Verb-- Have-- Have, Has, Had
Modal Verbs-- May, Might, Can, Could, Will, Would, Shall, Should, Must, Need, Used (To), Ought (To), Dare
You can begin sentences with these verbs to form Yes/No interrogative sentences.


(1A). What + Be/Do/Have/Modal

What is a good pet to give a five-year-old child?
What is a long way away?
What is a reasonable grocery budget?
What is age got to do with it?
What is all that?
What is Australia's national food?
What is behind nation's food shortages?
What is better for your company: happy staff or short-term profits?
What is Brazil to you?
What is going on in India?
What is going to take place over the next 90 minutes?
What is in the haze we are breathing?
What is it about the first day of the year that gets us so excited?
What is it and does it work?
What is it like to be sectioned?
What is it like to fly an Airbus A380?
What is it like to have won an unlimited supply of something?
What is it like to live in a hut?
What are “Imperative Sentences”?

The word "imperative" is derived from the term "emperor".
Imperative sentences are used to give commands (orders).
Imperative sentences are also used to give instruction/advice/suggestion/warning/invitation/appeal.
Imperative sentences are also used to make a request. You should use ‘please’ (or other polite word) in the beginning or at the end of the sentence to make a request.
An imperative sentence begins with the base (first) form of a verb which is also called verb word. In imperative sentence, subject - ‘you’ - is understood. However, for first and third person imperative, imperative sentence begins with ‘let’.
You can end imperative sentence with period (.) or exclamation (!). Exclamation is used to show direct and firm command.
‘Imperative’ is one of the three moods of an English verb (indicative, imperative and subjunctive).

EXAMPLES OF IMPERATIVE SENTENCES:

(A). DIRECT ORDER
Attend the meeting.
Discharge your duty.
Enforce the law.
Quash the previous order.
Return to work.
Vacate this place.

(B). INSTRUCTION
Climb the stair.
Fill out this form.
Go on foot.
Hang a painting.
Light a candle.
Note this down.
Open up the cage.
Push a trolley.
Spell it out.
Tie your shoe laces.
Unpack the luggage.

(C). INFORMAL ADVICE
Book a hotel room.
Improve your appearance.
Mend your ways.
Walk elegantly.

(D). SUGGESTION
Follow your dreams
Keep up your English.

(E). WARNING
Don’t Jump that gate!
Watch out for traffic signal!

(F). INVITATION
Come to the party with me.
Have a meal with us.
Let’s stay in my house.

(G). APPEAL
Be Silent.
Let’s curb the menace of drugs addiction.

(H). REQUEST
Give me five hundred dollars, please.
Come soon, please.

Other Uses of Imperative Sentences:
1. Wish -- Have a safe journey.
2. Apology -- Pardon me.
3. Permission -- Join us if you want.
4. Public Notice --
Imperatives are used on signboards or notice board:
Keep off the grass.
Insert your ATM card.
Pull the door.
Push inside.

Important Note -- An imperative sentence can imply different senses (command/instruction/advice, etc.) based on the intonation. [Note: ‘Intonation’ is defined as the rise and fall of the voice in speaking, as this affects the meaning of what is being said.]


English Imperative Sentences -- A

Abide by the commission’s verdict.
Accept his decision.
Achieve your target.
Acknowledge achievements of women.
Acquire land for road infrastructure.
Act quickly. / Act swiftly.
Add details to this report.
Address a press conference.
Address his concerns regarding payments next week.
Address their demands.
Adhere to dos and don’ts of the pilgrimage.
Adhere to the standard operating procedure.
Adjust the rules to help consumers.
Adjust to a new location.
Admire your parents.
Adopt ‘do it right’ approach.
Adopt a good strategy in choosing right candidates.
Adopt long-term vision for industry.
Adopt modern technology.
Adopt wait and watch policy.
Adopt zero tolerance against underage driving.
Aim it.
Airlift the injured to the state capital for treatment.
Allow her to explain herself completely without interrupting her.
Allow him to return home.
Alter the course of your life.
Amend the act.
Analyze the reasons for your defeat.
Analyze the sample.
Announce a compensation for the victim’s family.
Announce your candidacy.
Answer the question.
Anticipate rate hikes.
Apologize if you hurt someone.
Apply band aid / Apply ointment.
Apply colours on his forehead.
Apply for a job.
Apply for marks verification.
Apply for passport.
Appoint a manager.
Appreciate compassionate behaviour.
Approach him for help.
Approach the court.
Approve the plan.
Arrange everything before it is late.
Arrange for cash to meet your expenses.
Arrange funds from your relatives.
Arrange funds on your own.
Arrive early on the scene.
Ask for a receipt.
Ask for more information.
Ask him his name.
Ask him what had happened.
Ask politely.
Ask the right questions.
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

BY NO MEANS
LITTLE
BUT NOT
NEVER
NO/NOT/NEVER ------- NOR
NO/NOT/NEVER ------- OR
NEITHER ------- NOR
NOBODY/NO ONE
NOTHING
NO DOUBT
NO LONGER
NO MATTER + Question Word
NOT + LONG AGO
NOT/NOT ONLY & BUT
NOT + -ING form of Verb
NOT TO + MAIN VERB
RARELY
SELDOM
MISCELLANY
TENSE - Negative Statements
Present Tense – Negative Statements
Past Tense – Negative Statements
Future Tense – Negative Statements
Negative Forms of Modals
Exercises: 1
Exercises: 2

Sample This:


BY NO MEANS
Meaning: Not At All

Based on a rough count, by no means definitive, they had about 625 tents set up last year.
By no means am I saying this is a bad thing, but it is not a choice that I made.
By no means did we settle on anything.
By no means does he think children need to go through terrible times to be better people.
By no means is he guaranteed to win.
By no means is this fight over or even anywhere near under control.
By no means let him dominate the conversation.
By no means should individuals or groups be allowed to go that building.
By no means should we be complacent with being second.


LITTLE
Meaning: Small

[Little + Auxiliary Verb + Subject]
Little do managers and executives realize that delay is in itself a decision!
Little do they know that she is better qualified than any of them in survival skills.
Little do they know that the journey ahead is not going to be easy.
Little do they know that their loss is actually a win for all of us, including for them.
Little do we realize the exact meaning or the appropriate use of many terms.


BUT NOT

But not for a minute did he make me feel angry.
Embassy shutdowns happen, but not usually on this scale.
Gender equality is still a goal, but not a present reality, for university campuses around the world.
He could be right, but not for the reason he thinks.
He has time for sports but not for family.
He is clearly the strongest but not superhuman.
He looks comfortable but not great.


NEVER
Meaning: Not At Any Time/Not On Any Occasion

Contractor left the work midway and never came back to finish it.
He gave a press conference explaining he never did anything wrong in his career.
He had to come clean but he never did.
He never does anything for us.
He never does anything truly charitable.
He never went to class.
He said he would text me after the weekend but never did.
He thought he was never in with a chance of becoming a mayor last year.
His wife is soft-spoken and never hurt anyone.
I am ashamed that I saw injustice and never did anything about it.
I am not sure he will even make the team, never mind have a big role.
I am sure I will never forget this moment.
I could never go back.
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

1. What is an “Exclamation”?
2. Exclamatory Sentences
3. Exclamatory Sentences with ‘What’
4. Exclamatory Sentences with ‘How’
5. Exclamatory Sentences with So and Such
6. Exclamations in Declarative Sentences
7. Exclamations in Interrogative Sentences
8. Exclamations in Imperative Sentences
9. Detailed List of Interjections
10. Using ‘Common Words’ as Exclamations
11. Useful Exclamatory Phrases/Sentences
12. Other Patterns
13. List of Emotions Shown by Exclamations
Exercise: 1
Exercise: 2

Sample This:

1. What is an “Exclamation”?

DEFINITION: An exclamation (or interjection) is a short sound, word or phrase which is spoken suddenly to express strong emotion.
Or
Exclamatory words that can stand alone as a sentence while expressing emotions or reactions are called exclamations (or interjections).

Exclamation mark (!) should be written after an exclamation. “Exclamation Mark” is called "Exclamation Point" in American English.

There are many exclamatory words (interjections or exclamations) which are often used in daily life. Some of these words express one strong emotion while others express two or more strong emotions. They do not have a grammatical purpose in the sentence and are not associated to the other parts of the sentence. They do not play the role of a subject or a verb. They can stand by themselves, or are placed before, after or in middle of a sentence to express a strong emotion or feeling.

Examples:
Exclamatory Word -- Alas!
Represents feeling of ‘Sadness, Sorry’

Exclamatory Word -- Um!
Represents feeling of ‘Hesitation’

Exclamatory Word -- Yum!
Represents feeling of ‘Pleasant Taste or Smell’

You can use exclamations to show the following emotions:

admiration, affection, anger, annoyance, anticipation, apathy, approval, attention, awe, confusion, delight, despair, disappointment, disapproval, discontent, dislike, distress, eagerness, elation, enjoyment, excitement, fear, frustration, grief, happiness, humour, hurt, irritation, joy, love, mourning, pain, panic, pleasure, pride, remorse, respect, shame, shock, sorrow, sorry, surprise, sympathy, terror, wonder, etc.

IMPORTANT NOTES:

(1). Use Of An Exclamation (Interjection) In A Sentence

(a). Beginning A Sentence With An Interjection
When you begin a sentence with an interjection you can place either comma (,) or exclamatory mark (point) (!) after the interjection.

Examples:
Ah, what a wonderful gift!
Comma (,) after an interjection expresses less emotion.

Ah! What a wonderful gift!
Exclamatory mark (point) (!) after an interjection expresses more emotion.

Note: Both the sentences have exclamatory mark at the end.

Obviously, both are exclamatory sentences. But second one is more emphatic. Also note: if you put comma after an interjection then next word in the sentence will begin from small letter but if you put exclamatory mark after an interjection then next word in the sentence will begin from capital letter.

Important Note: You can also end the sentence with period (.) or question mark (?) to show mild emotion.
Ah, what a wonderful gift.
Ah! What a wonderful gift.

Wow, We won.
Oh, did you go there?

(B). Use Of An Interjection In The Middle Of A Sentence

Examples:
Hundreds of people, alas, feared killed in a massive landslide.
Albert Einstein was born in...er…Germany.
You deleted my folder…um…my file!

(C). Use Of An Interjection At The End Of A Sentence

Example:
So got married, huh!
What do you think of me, eh?

This Book Covers The Following Topics:

What are “Causative Sentences”?
Causative Sentences -- HAVE
Structure 1(A) ---- Active Causative Structure
Structure 1(B) ---- Passive Causative Structure
Structure 2(A) ---- Active Causative Structure
Structure 2(B) ---- Passive Causative Structure
Structure 3(A) ---- Active Causative Structure
Structure 3(B) ---- Passive Causative Structure
Causative Verb ‘Have’ and Tense Change
Causative Sentences -- GET
Structure (1) ---- Active Causative Structure
Structure (2) ---- Passive Causative Structure
Causative Verb ‘Get’ and Tense Change
Causative Sentences -- MAKE
Causative Sentences -- LET
Causative Sentences -- HELP
Sentences with Verb ‘Cause’
Other ‘Causative Verbs’
Use of ‘Modal Verbs’ with Causative Verbs
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)
Exercises: 3(A) and 3(B)
Exercises: 4(A) and 4(B)


Sample This:

What are “Causative Sentences”?

In a causative, a person or thing does not perform an action directly. The subject (person or thing) causes it to happen by forcing, persuading, assisting, etc. an agent (another person or thing) to perform it. The subject (person or thing) does not carry out an action oneself but rather has the action done by an agent (another person or thing).

Examples:
Faulty design caused a bridge to collapse.
Modern lifestyles cause children and adults to spend most of their time indoors.
Rain caused water to collect on the road.
She caused needle to run.


Causative verbs – Have, Get, Make, Let, Help -- Comparison
Causative ‘Have’ has less force and authority than Causative ‘Get’.
Causative ‘Get’ has less force and authority than Causative ‘Make’

Causative Verb ‘Have’ -- used to express “arrangement/duty/responsibility” [Less Forceful]
Causative Verb ‘Get’ -- used to express “encouragement/persuasion". [Forceful]
Causative Verb ‘Make’ -- used to express "compulsion/insistence/requirement” [Most Forceful]
Causative Verb ‘Let’ -- used to express “permission". [No Force]
Causative Verb ‘Help’ -- used to express “assistance". [No Force]

Causative ‘Have’ is more formal than causative ‘Get’.
In the imperative form, causative ‘Get’ is more frequent than causative ‘Have’.


Types of Causative Verbs
Causative structures are of two types –
(1). ‘Active’ in Nature – (Done By Somebody/Something)
(2). ‘Passive’ in Nature – (Done To Somebody/Something)
Passive causatives are used to take attention away from the doer of the action, and give more attention to the action being done.

ALSO NOTE:
“Have somebody do something” is more common in American English.
“Get somebody to do something” is more common in British English.

All causative verbs are transitive.


CAUSATIVE VERB – HAVE
Structure 1(A) ---- Active Causative Structure

Subject + Have (Causative Verb) + Agent (Someone/Something) + Base Form of Verb + Object (Someone/Something)

Example: I have him take my photograph. (Present)
Explanation:
I arrange for my photograph to be taken by him.
[I cause him to take my photograph.]
Therefore, this is like active causative structure.

Example: I had him take my photograph. (Past)
Explanation:
I arranged for my photograph to be taken by him.
[I caused him to take my photograph.]
Therefore, this is like active causative structure.

Example: I will have him take my photograph. (Future)
Explanation:
I will arrange for my photograph to be taken by him.
[I will cause him to take my photograph.]
Therefore, this is like active causative structure.

OTHER EXAMPLES:

CAUSATIVE - HAVE --
Have/Has + Someone/Something + Base Form of Verb
Note: This pattern may denote past, present, or future tense based on another verb in the sentence.

Her desire to have me write a memoir only raised my stress level.
We are so blessed to have her sing on one of our songs.
It is one thing to have somebody else ask him about what he has done and it is quite another to have me ask him.
He refused to have investigation officers search his home.
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

What are “Interrogative Sentences”?
Structure (1) -- Wh-Question Word + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(1A). What + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(1B). When + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(1C). Where + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(1D). Which + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(1E). Who + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(1F). Whom + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(1G). Whose + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(1H). Why + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(1I). How + Be/Do/Have/Modal
Structure (2) -- Wh-Question Word + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(2A). What + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(2B). When + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(2C). Where + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(2D). Which + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(2E). Who + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(2F). Whom + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(2G). Whose + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(2H). Why + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
(2I). How + Word/Words + Be/Do/Have/Modal
Structure (3) -- Wh-Question Word + Main Verb (Present or Past)
Structure (4) – Interrogatives Sentences – Be/Do/Have/Modal
(4A). Interrogatives Starting From – Am, Is, Are, Was, Were
(4B). Interrogatives Starting From – Do, Does, Did
(4C). Interrogatives Starting From – Have, Has, Had
(4D). Interrogatives Starting From – Modal Verbs
Structure (5) -- Question Tags
Structure (6) -- What if
Structure (7) – How Long/How Much/How Many
Structure (8) -- Wh-Question Word + To + Verb Word
Structure (9) – “What About” and “How About”
Structure (9) – “What About” and “How About”
Structure (10) – Alternative Questions
Structure (11) – Indirect Questions
Formation of Interrogatives from Affirmatives
Exercises

Sample This:

What are “Interrogative Sentences”?

Interrogative sentences are used to ask questions. An interrogative sentence ends with a question mark.
Most common interrogative words are as follows:
What, When, Where, Which, Who, Whom, Whose, Why, How

Interrogative words and what they refer:
What – refers ‘specific information’ or confirmation/repetition
When – refers ‘at what time’ or ‘on what occasion’
Where – refers ‘in what place, position or situation’
Which – refers ‘choice or alternative’
Who – refers ‘identity’ of a subject (person/people)
Whom – refers ‘identity’ of a object (person/people)
Whose – refers ‘who something belongs to’
Why – refers ‘reason, explanation or purpose’
How – refers ‘way or manner’, ‘condition or quality’

These words are called 'Wh-question words' because all these words contain letter ‘w’ and ‘h’. All these words (except ‘how’) even start from ‘Wh’.

NOTE: The following words are also used to ask questions:
Whatever, Whenever, Wherever, Whoever
These forms show ‘surprise, confusion, or emphasis.

Besides ‘Wh-question words’, Auxiliary Verbs ‘Be’, ‘Do’, ‘Have’, and ‘Modal Verbs’ are also used to form interrogative sentences. Following is the list of auxiliary and modal verbs:
Auxiliary Verb-- Be-- Am, Is, Are, Was, Were
Auxiliary Verb-- Do-- Do, Does, Did
Auxiliary Verb-- Have-- Have, Has, Had
Modal Verbs-- May, Might, Can, Could, Will, Would, Shall, Should, Must, Need, Used (To), Ought (To), Dare
You can begin sentences with these verbs to form Yes/No interrogative sentences.


(1A). What + Be/Do/Have/Modal

What is a good pet to give a five-year-old child?
What is a long way away?
What is a reasonable grocery budget?
What is age got to do with it?
What is all that?
What is Australia's national food?
What is behind nation's food shortages?
What is better for your company: happy staff or short-term profits?
What is Brazil to you?
What is going on in India?
What is going to take place over the next 90 minutes?
What is in the haze we are breathing?
What is it about the first day of the year that gets us so excited?
What is it and does it work?
What is it like to be sectioned?
What is it like to fly an Airbus A380?
What is it like to have won an unlimited supply of something?
What is it like to live in a hut?
What are “Capitonyms”?

CAPITONYMS ----
[Capital- capital letter; -Onym: Name]
Capitonym is a word that changes its meaning (and sometimes pronunciation) based on whether or not it is capitalized.
Capitonym [singular] | Capitonyms [plural]
Capitonyms may be nouns, pronouns, verbs, or adjectives.

Characteristics of Capitonyms:
Same spelling except for capitalization
Different meaning when capitalized
Same or different pronunciation

Examples:
Polish and polish
Polish: connected with Poland [adjective]
polish: to make a surface smooth and glossy [verb]

Piedmonts and piedmonts
Piedmont: a region of North West Italy (noun)
piedmont: a slope leading from the foot of mountains to a region of flat land (noun)

Traveler and traveler
Traveler: traveling people of Irish origin [noun]
traveler: a person who is traveling [noun]

Roman and roman
Roman: connected with the Rome
roman: the ordinary type of printing [adjective]

Rosemary and rosemary
Rosemary: a common first name for females in English speaking countries [noun]
rosemary: a bush with small narrow leaves that smell sweet and are used in cooking as a herb [noun]

Regency and regency
Regency: in the style of the period 1811–20 in Britain [adjective]
regency: government by a regent (a person who rules a country in place of the king or queen) [noun]

Scot and scot
Scot: a native of Scotland [noun]
scot: a charge, tax, or payment [noun]

Self and self
Self: a popular American magazine [noun]
self: character or personality [noun]

Warren and warren
Warren: a common name in English speaking countries [noun]
warren: a system of holes and underground tunnels where wild rabbits live [noun]

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Capitonyms are case-sensitive words. However, when capitonyms appear at the beginning of a sentence, there is no way to understand which meaning is being referred to except the context in which they are used.
Capitonyms also create confusion in the aspect of listening. Because there is no way to understand which meaning is being referred to except the context in which they are used.

Capitonyms generally occurs due to one form being a proper noun. Proper noun is a word that is the name of a person, a place, an establishment, etc. and is written with a capital letter.
Thus, capitonyms may include:
A name of a person (Jack/jack)
A name of a place, city, country, etc. (Japan/japan)
A name of a language (Ewe/ewe)
A name of a company (Fiat/fiat)
A name of a publication (Time/time)
A name of a river/lake/hill/mountain, etc.

DETAILED LIST OF PAIRS OF CAPITONYMS
THIS BOOK CONTAINS MEANINGS OF MORE THAN 3400 ADVANCED ENGLISH WORDS (including phrasal verbs and idioms).

Learn Difficult English Words & Their Meanings

Sample This:

("sb" implies somebody, "sth" implies something)

abate to become, or make sth less strong
abed in bed
aberrant not socially acceptable
abet to help, or encourage sb to do sth wrong
in abeyance not being used for a period of time
ablutions act of washing yourself
aboard on a ship, plane, bus etc.
abode where sb lives
abolition ending of sth
abominate to feel hatred, or disgust
abomination extremely unpleasant, disgusting
abortive unsuccessful
above board legal and honest; in a legal and honest way
abridge to make book, etc. shorter
absent minded forgetful
abstainer who chooses not to vote, who never drinks alcohol
abstruse difficult to understand
abundant plentiful
abysmal extremely bad
abyss deep wide space, or hole that seems to have no bottom
accede to agree, to become king, or queen
accommodating willing to help, obliging
accomplish to achieve sth
in accord with sb/sth in agreement with
accord with sth to agree with sth
accountable responsible
accoutrements pieces of equipment for a particular activity
accredited officially recognized
accrue to increase over a period of time
accursed suffering from a curse, or black magic
ace person who is very good at doing sth
Achilles heel weak point in sb's character attacked by other people
acme peak
acquaintance with sb slight friendship
make sb's acquaintance to meet sb first time
acquiesce to accept sth, even if you do not agree
acrimonious bitter
acrobat rope dancer
acronym a word formed using initial letters of other words
act up to behave badly
acumen ability to understand and decide things quickly
ad hominem against person's character
ad nauseam again and again in boring and annoying way
Adam's apple lump at the front of the throat
adamantine very strong and impossible to break
add up to seem reasonable
add-on a thing that is added to sth else
adieu goodbye
ad-infinitum for ever
adjourn to postpone
adjudicate to make official decision
adjure to order sb to do sth
Adonis extremely attractive young man
adorable attractive
adoration great love, or worship
adore to love very much, to like very much
adrenalin hormone produced in the body due to excitement, fear, or anger
adulation excessive praise
the advent of sb/sth coming of invention, etc.
adventitious happening by accident; not planned
advisable sensible
advise sb of sth to inform
advisory official warning
aeon thousands of years
aerodrome small airport
aesthete who love art and beautiful things
affaire love affair
affectation behaviour, action to impress other people
affectionate loving
affections person's feelings of love
affective connected with emotions, attitudes
affliction pain and suffering, or sth that causes it
afforestation process of planting areas of land with trees
aficionado who likes a particular subject, etc. very much and knows a lot about it
afloat floating on water
afoot being planned
afore mentioned mentioned earlier
aftermath situation existing after a war, an accident, etc.
her mouth was agape wide open, because of surprise or shock
come of age to become mature
age of consent legal age to have sex
aggrandizement increase in the power, or importance of a person, or country
aggravate to worsen
agonize over sth to spend a long time thinking and worrying about sth
agreeable pleasant and easy to like
aggrieved feeling that you have been treated unfairly
aghast horrified
ahead of earlier than
agog excited
What are “Imperative Sentences”?

The word "imperative" is derived from the term "emperor".
Imperative sentences are used to give commands (orders).
Imperative sentences are also used to give instruction/advice/suggestion/warning/invitation/appeal.
Imperative sentences are also used to make a request. You should use ‘please’ (or other polite word) in the beginning or at the end of the sentence to make a request.
An imperative sentence begins with the base (first) form of a verb which is also called verb word. In imperative sentence, subject - ‘you’ - is understood. However, for first and third person imperative, imperative sentence begins with ‘let’.
You can end imperative sentence with period (.) or exclamation (!). Exclamation is used to show direct and firm command.
‘Imperative’ is one of the three moods of an English verb (indicative, imperative and subjunctive).

EXAMPLES OF IMPERATIVE SENTENCES:

(A). DIRECT ORDER
Attend the meeting.
Discharge your duty.
Enforce the law.
Quash the previous order.
Return to work.
Vacate this place.

(B). INSTRUCTION
Climb the stair.
Fill out this form.
Go on foot.
Hang a painting.
Light a candle.
Note this down.
Open up the cage.
Push a trolley.
Spell it out.
Tie your shoe laces.
Unpack the luggage.

(C). INFORMAL ADVICE
Book a hotel room.
Improve your appearance.
Mend your ways.
Walk elegantly.

(D). SUGGESTION
Follow your dreams
Keep up your English.

(E). WARNING
Don’t Jump that gate!
Watch out for traffic signal!

(F). INVITATION
Come to the party with me.
Have a meal with us.
Let’s stay in my house.

(G). APPEAL
Be Silent.
Let’s curb the menace of drugs addiction.

(H). REQUEST
Give me five hundred dollars, please.
Come soon, please.

Other Uses of Imperative Sentences:
1. Wish -- Have a safe journey.
2. Apology -- Pardon me.
3. Permission -- Join us if you want.
4. Public Notice --
Imperatives are used on signboards or notice board:
Keep off the grass.
Insert your ATM card.
Pull the door.
Push inside.

Important Note -- An imperative sentence can imply different senses (command/instruction/advice, etc.) based on the intonation. [Note: ‘Intonation’ is defined as the rise and fall of the voice in speaking, as this affects the meaning of what is being said.]


English Imperative Sentences -- A

Abide by the commission’s verdict.
Accept his decision.
Achieve your target.
Acknowledge achievements of women.
Acquire land for road infrastructure.
Act quickly. / Act swiftly.
Add details to this report.
Address a press conference.
Address his concerns regarding payments next week.
Address their demands.
Adhere to dos and don’ts of the pilgrimage.
Adhere to the standard operating procedure.
Adjust the rules to help consumers.
Adjust to a new location.
Admire your parents.
Adopt ‘do it right’ approach.
Adopt a good strategy in choosing right candidates.
Adopt long-term vision for industry.
Adopt modern technology.
Adopt wait and watch policy.
Adopt zero tolerance against underage driving.
Aim it.
Airlift the injured to the state capital for treatment.
Allow her to explain herself completely without interrupting her.
Allow him to return home.
Alter the course of your life.
Amend the act.
Analyze the reasons for your defeat.
Analyze the sample.
Announce a compensation for the victim’s family.
Announce your candidacy.
Answer the question.
Anticipate rate hikes.
Apologize if you hurt someone.
Apply band aid / Apply ointment.
Apply colours on his forehead.
Apply for a job.
Apply for marks verification.
Apply for passport.
Appoint a manager.
Appreciate compassionate behaviour.
Approach him for help.
Approach the court.
Approve the plan.
Arrange everything before it is late.
Arrange for cash to meet your expenses.
Arrange funds from your relatives.
Arrange funds on your own.
Arrive early on the scene.
Ask for a receipt.
Ask for more information.
Ask him his name.
Ask him what had happened.
Ask politely.
Ask the right questions.
HOMONYMS
Homonym a word that is spelt like another word (or pronounced like it) but which has a different meaning, for example Key meaning ‘set of answer to problems’ and Key meaning ‘button on computer keyboard’.

The state of being a homonym is called homonymy.

Very Important Note:

In Strict Sense, Homonyms have same spelling, same pronunciation, and different meaning.

HOMONYMS in Strict Sense:

Same Spelling / Same Pronunciation / Different meaning
Homonyms are also known as “Multiple Meaning Words”.

Examples: fare, principal, etc.

Fare -- a passenger | Fare -- price
Principal -- most important | Principal -- head of a school


In Wider Sense, Homonyms can also include words that have same or similar pronunciation (but different spelling) or same spelling (but different pronunciation).
In first situation, they are called ‘HOMOPHONES’
In second situation, they are called ‘HOMOGRAPHS’

HOMONYMS In Wider Sense:

HOMOPHONES:
Different Spelling / Same or Similar Pronunciation / Different meaning
Note: ‘Homophones’ are also called ‘Heterographs’.
Homophones are also known as “Sound-Alike Words”.

Examples: ad/add, know/no, etc.

ad -- advertisement | add -- to include
know -- to have information | no -- refusal


HOMOGRAPHS:
Same Spelling / Different Pronunciation / Different meaning
Note: ‘Homographs’ are also called ‘Heterophones’.

Examples: bow, lead, etc.

Bow (noun) -- [Pronunciation -- boʊ] -- a weapon used for shooting arrows
Bow (verb) -- [Pronunciation -- baʊ] -- to move your head forwards and downwards

Lead (noun) -- [Pronunciation -- led] -- a metallic element
Lead (verb) -- [Pronunciation -- li:d] -- to go in front


100 HOMONYMS ALONG WITH THEIR MEANINGS:
Sample This:

01. Accident
1. Accident -- an event in which injury or damage is caused in or by vehicle
2. Accident -- something that happens unexpectedly

02. Action
1. Action -- a legal process
2. Action -- fighting in a war

03. Alight
1. Alight -- on fire
2. Alight -- to get out of a vehicle

04. Angle
1. Angle -- inclination of two lines with each, measure in degrees
2. Angle -- to catch fish

05. Arch
1. Arch -- curve; semicircle
2. Arch -- mischievous


600 HOMOPHONE PAIRS ALONG WITH THEIR MEANINGS:
Sample This:

01. Abhorrent / Aberrant
1. Abhorrent -- causing hatred for moral reasons
2. Aberrant -- unusual and socially unacceptable

02. Accede / Exceed
1. Accede -- to agree
2. Exceed -- to surpass

03. Accept / Except
1. Accept -- to admit
2. Except -- apart from

04. Acclamation / Acclimation
1. Acclamation -- loud and enthusiastic welcome
2. Acclimation -- process of getting used to a new climate or situation

05. Adapt / Adept / Adopt
1. Adapt -- to adjust or modify
2. Adept -- skillful
3. Adopt -- to become legal parents of somebody’s child


150 HOMOGRAPHS ALONG WITH THEIR MEANINGS:
Sample This:

01. Absent
1. Absent (adjective) -- not present
2. Absent (verb) -- to not be in a place

02. Abuse
1. Abuse (noun) -- misuse
2. Abuse (verb) -- to misuse something

03. Accent
1. Accent (noun) -- pronunciation
2. Accent (verb) -- to put emphasis on a part of something

04. Address
1. Address (noun) -- details of the place where you live or work; postal address
2. Address (verb) -- to make a formal speech

05. Advocate
1. Advocate (noun) -- supporter of something
2. Advocate (verb) -- to support something publicly
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