Creating Long Sentences in English

English Daily Use

Book 8
Manik Joshi
9
Free sample

This Book Covers The Following Topics:

Patterns For Creating Long Sentences
01 -- Using ‘-ING Form of Verbs’ (I)
02 -- Using ‘-ING Form of Verbs’ (II)
03 -- Using ‘-ING Form of Verbs’ (III)
04 -- Using ‘With + -ING Form of Verbs’
05 -- Using ‘Series’
06 -- Using ‘From – To’
07 -- Using ‘Connecting Words or Phrases’
08 – Using ‘Parenthesis’
09 – Miscellaneous Patterns


Sample This:

01 -- Using ‘-ING Form of Verbs’ (I)

Example 01:
The ongoing drought in the state is being described as the country's worst in many decades, causing agricultural distress and forcing villagers to move to urban areas looking for work.
Main verb – described
-ING form of verbs – causing, forcing
Explanation:
The ongoing drought in the state is being described as the country's worst in many decades.
Drought is causing agricultural distress.
Drought is also forcing villagers to move to urban areas looking for work.

Example 02:
Offering huge relief to ten thousand families belonging to the below poverty line category in the state, minister directed Power Corporation Limited to waive pending domestic power bills for last 10 months.
Main verb – directed
-ING form of verbs – offering, belonging
Explanation:
Minister directed Power Corporation Limited to waive pending domestic power bills for last 10 months.
Minister offered huge relief to ten thousand families.
Families belonged to the below poverty line category in the state.

Example 03:
A deadly winter storm blanketed a huge swath of the US, grounding flights, turning highways into the ice rinks and knocking out power to tens of thousands preparing for the New Year holiday.
Main verb – blanketed
-ING form of verbs – grounding, turning, knocking, preparing
Explanation:
A deadly winter storm blanketed a huge swath of the US.
Storm grounded flights.
Storm turned highways into the ice rinks.
Storm knocked out power to tens of thousands who were preparing for the New Year holiday.

Example 04:
From undertaking constructions activities when it did not have funds, never submitting utilization certificates for works it did, charging high centage than all other procuring excess expenditure and rarely accounting for unspent balances, the department indulged in financial jugglery that could put the best accountants to shame.
Main verb – indulged
-ING form of verbs – undertaking, submitting, charging, accounting
Explanation:
The department indulged in financial jugglery that could put the best accountants to shame.
Department undertook constructions activities when it did not have funds.
Department never submitted utilization certificates for works it did.
Department charged high centage than all other procuring excess expenditure.
Department rarely accounted for unspent balances.

Example 05:
City continued to reel under massive traffic jams due to water-logging as heavy rains lashed the city for second consecutive day, flooding several arterial roads and leaving commuters stranded for hours while exposing civic bodies’ lack of preparedness to deal with the perennial problem.
Main verbs – continued, lashed
-ING form of verbs – flooding, leaving, exposing
Explanation:
City continued to reel under massive traffic jams due to water-logging.
Heavy rains lashed the city for second consecutive day.
Heavy rains flooded several arterial roads.
Heavy rains left commuters stranded for hours.
Heavy rains exposed civic bodies’ lack of preparedness to deal with the perennial problem.
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About the author

Manik Joshi was born on Jan 26, 1979 at Ranikhet and is permanent resident of Haldwani, Kumaon zone of India. He is an Internet Marketer by profession. He is interested in domaining (business of buying and selling domain names), web designing (creating websites), and various online jobs (including 'self book publishing'). He is science graduate with ZBC (zoology, botany, and chemistry) subjects. He is also an MBA (with specialization in marketing). He has done three diploma courses in computer too.

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Additional Information

Publisher
Manik Joshi
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Published on
Oct 25, 2014
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Pages
79
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ISBN
9781492742135
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Language
English
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Genres
Language Arts & Disciplines / Public Speaking
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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How to use numbers correctly when writing, writing numbers in English sentences, use of numbers in English conversation | use of numbers in daily English | Types of Numbers, Standard words for numbers, Various expressions, structure (1) ---- multiple number [in the beginning or middle of the sentence], structure (2) ---- multiple number + of + noun, structure (3) ---- multiple number + of + noun + of, structure (4) ---- multiple number (less) + of + multiple number (more), structure (5) ---- multiple number (less) + of + multiple number (more) + of + noun, structure (6) ---- multiple number + and + multiple number, structure (7) ---- number + times, structure (8) ---- half/double/twice/thrice/fraction, structure (09) ---- number + as many + (noun, etc. + as), structure (10) ---- as much (as), structure (11) ---- number + ‘as likely’ or ‘more likely’


Sample This:

Structure (1) -- Multiple Number [In the Beginning or Middle of Sentence]

Hundreds gathered in front of the parliament building early on Monday.
Hundreds injured in two days of clashes.
Thousands evacuated after explosions at munitions depot.
Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of Cubans and Haitians have lost their lives at sea seeking freedom and opportunity.

Millions marched against government in over 400 cities.
Industry produced several hundred million units a year.
Exact loss of the property is not yet known but rough estimates put the losses to ten million dollars.
More than three million Australians lack access to critical financial services.
Trillions dong spent to build ports which have been left idle.
Trillions will need to be spent on infrastructure very soon.
Agriculture and tourism are a trillion dollar economy.
Mobiles are a multi-trillion-dollar industry, even bigger than pharmaceuticals.
It would add more than a trillion dollars to the economy every year.
There are spiral galaxies out there with more than a trillion stars, and giant elliptical galaxies with 100 trillion stars.
Our inability to comprehend the sheer magnitude of 1 billion has been eclipsed by our inability to comprehend 1 trillion.
Global loss to fraud ran into trillions.
She said she would have donated most of her $4 trillion to charity.
The universe is estimated to be somewhere between 13 billion to 14 billion years old.


Structure (2) -- Multiple Number + of + Noun

2-A. HUNDREDS OF
Hundreds of stocks saw much more dramatic gains.
Hundreds of new jobs were being created every year.
Hundreds of homes destroyed in wildfires.
Hundreds of police officers had taken off their bullet-proof vests.
Hundreds of students participated in the competition.
Hundreds of wannabe leaders are roaming our streets.
Hundreds of candidates were standing for parliamentary elections.
Hundreds of angry residents surrounded the police post to protest against the incident and demanded the arrest of the culprits.
Hundreds of railway officials would be deployed to manage the smooth running of special trains.
Hundreds of residents remained without electricity and water Monday evening.
Hundreds of riot police continued to fire tear gas and jets of water during the agitation.
Hundreds of protestors from a wide variety of activist groups staged protests.
He has received hundreds of awards.
Stories behind these and the hundreds of other Asian bus accidents are same.
He was welcomed to University by hundreds of students and fans.
The flames torched hundreds of homes now.
The explosion killed 15 people and destroyed or damaged hundreds of homes.
Medical laboratory admitted to paying bribes to hundreds of doctors in the city.
Many have walked hundreds of miles fleeing fighting in the capital.
Just one severe typhoon could leave behind hundreds of people dead.
Wildfires fueled by hot, gusty winds were burning hundreds of acres and forcing evacuations.
He posted hundreds of messages on a public Internet forum.
The process will involve hundreds of community meetings.
There's little sense in having hundreds of followers who don't know what you do.
Every year, hundreds of people across the country get infected with contagious diseases.
He had hundreds of hats which were on display at the museum.
There are hundreds of young writers in India.
What about the hundreds of illegal refineries 'discovered' every day?
The Corps of Engineers operates hundreds of reservoirs across the nation.
We found maps of hundreds of houses.
Heavy rainfall, cloud bursts, landslides and floods have caused widespread loss of life and property displacing hundreds of people.
The fire has wiped out hundreds of homes.
The police raid left hundreds of protesters injured.
A squall line is a line of thunderstorms that extend for hundreds of miles.
Police detained hundreds of illegal migrants.
Many hundreds of fun activities exist on each Hawaiian Island.

This Book Covers The Following Topics:
 
Structure (1a) ---- Comparison of Actions - I
Structure (1b) ---- Comparison of Actions - II
Structure (2a) ---- Comparison of Qualities - I
Structure (2b) ---- Comparison of Qualities - II
Structure (3a) ---- Specific Similarity – Quality Adjectives
Structure (3b) ---- Specific Similarity – Quality Nouns
Structure (4) ---- Comparison of Number/Quantity
Structure (5a) ---- As + Much/Many, etc. + Word/Words + As
Structure (5b) ---- Comparative Estimates – Multiple Numbers
Structure (6) ---- Parallel Increase or Decrease / Gradual Increase
Structure (7) ---- Illogical Comparatives
Structure (8) ---- General Similarity and Difference
Structure (9) ---- Using Word ‘Compare’ or ‘Comparison’
Structure (10) ---- Comparison Degrees
10a. Regular and Irregular Forms of Adjectives
10b. Interchange of Positive and Comparative Degrees
10c. Interchange of Positive and Superlative Degrees
10d. Interchange of Comparative and Superlative Degrees
10e. Interchange of Positive, Comparative and Superlative Degrees
EXERCISE – 1
EXERCISE – 2

Sample This:

Structure (1a) ---- Comparison of Actions - I

PATTERN 1:
AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCE
-ING form of Verb + Verb ‘Be’ + As + Adjective + As + -ING form of Verb
Or
It + Verb ‘Be’ + As + Adjective + To + Ordinary Verb + As + Ordinary Verb

Writing is as easy as thinking.
Jogging is as easy as exercising.
Closing is as easy as opening.
Designing is as easy as publishing.

It is as easy to write as think.
It is as easy to jog as exercise.
It is as easy to close as open.
It is as easy to design as publish.


PATTERN 2:
NEGATIVE SENTENCE
-ING form of Verb + Verb ‘To Be’ + Not + As + Adjective + As + -ING form of Verb
Or
It + Verb ‘To Be’ + Not + As + Adjective + To + Ordinary Verb + As + Ordinary Verb

Studying is not as easy as playing.
Swimming is not as easy as running.
Singing is not as easy as talking.
Reading is not as easy as listening.

It is not as easy to study as play.
It is not as easy to swim as run.
It is not as easy to sing as talk.
It is not as easy to read as listen.


Structure (1b) ---- Comparison of Actions - II

PATTERN
(A). Prefer/Would Prefer + -ING form of Verb + To + -ING form of Verb, OR
(B). Prefer/Would Prefer + To + Ordinary Verb + Rather Than + Ordinary Verb, OR
(C). Had Better/Had Rather/Had Sooner/Would Rather/Would Sooner + Ordinary Verb + Than + Ordinary Verb

Example 1:
I prefer studying to playing.
I would prefer studying to playing.

I prefer to study rather than play.
I would prefer to study rather than play.

I had better study than play.
I had rather study than play.
I had sooner study than play.
I would rather study than play.
I would sooner study than play.

Example 2:
You prefer writing to talking.
You would prefer writing to talking.

You prefer to write rather than talk.
You would prefer to write rather than talk.

You had better write than talk.
You had rather write than talk.
You had sooner write than talk.
You would rather write than talk.
You would sooner write than talk.
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

1. AS---AS
1A. AS EARLY AS
1B. AS FAR AS
1C. AS LONG AS
1D. AS MANY AS
1E. AS MUCH AS
1F. AS SOON AS
1G. AS WELL AS
2. EITHER---OR
3. NEITHER---NOR
4. WHETHER---OR
5. BARELY/HARDLY/SCARCELY---WHEN
6. NO SOONER---THAN
7. RATHER---THAN
8. NOT ONLY---BUT ALSO
9. ALTHOUGH---YET
10. TOO---TO
11. BETWEEN---AND
12. BOTH---AND
13. SO THAT
14. UNLESS
15. UNTIL
16. OTHERS
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)
Exercises: 3(A) and 3(B)


Sample This:

1. AS---AS

Correlative Words connect words, phrases, and clauses. They are generally used in the form of pair of words.

As -- As
This Pattern Is Used When You Are Comparing or Linking Two People Or Things, Or Two Situations

EXAMPLES:
AS EARLY AS
AS FAR AS
AS LONG AS
AS MANY AS
AS MUCH AS
AS SOON AS
AS WELL AS


1A. AS EARLY AS
‘As Early As’ Is Used To Show --
Done Before the Expected, Usual or Planned Time

Elections will be held as early as possible.
As early as 7:30 a.m. on Sunday, he was surprised to see the policemen.
Companies could announce the agreement as early as Tuesday.
Given their importance, it makes sense to nurture good values in children as early as possible.
I woke up as early as 4 a.m.
International sanctions on it could start to be lifted as early as spring next year.
We demand that the government acts firmly and culprits are booked as early as possible.
Latest refund mechanism facility will help its customers get refunds as early as within 24 hours of returning the product.
Our company is looking to invest in Australia as early as next year.
Reserve Bank will cut interest rates again, possibly as early as this month.
Scores of people visit the beaches of East Coast Road as early as 5 a.m. for their daily exercises.
Company is in process to complete the audit as early as possible and will submit the audited financial results in due course of time.
Government planned to overhaul the corporate debt market by pushing all issuance onto an electronic platform as early as November.
She could return to China as early as this month, the media reported on Tuesday.
She had as early as 1815 directed that the state should settle the entire cost of education of its people.
A special report is scheduled to be released as early as this month.
First signs of global warming felt as early as 1940s.
Forecasters predicted national capital could experience sub-zero temperatures as early as next month.
Street clearance in the areas surrounding the art museum is scheduled to begin as early as Sunday at 6:00 p.m.
This year's flu outbreak can happen as early as October and can last as late as May.
Tropical Storm Erika was expected to hit the Southeast as early as Sunday.
Government should make sure that construction of the college starts as early as possible.
Police commissioner is all set to complete the probe into the case as early as possible.
The Centre today asked the states to take steps in making special courts functional as early as possible.
School principal wanted all files as early as possible.
About 100 people lined up outside security barricades as early as 3 a.m.
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

Active and Passive Voice
Interchange of Active and Passive Voice
1. First or Second Form of Verb
2. Auxiliary Verb ‘Be’ + -ING Form of Verb
3. Have/Has/Had + Past Participle
4. Present/Future Modals + Verb Word
5. Past Modals + Past Participle
6. Verb + Preposition
7. Main Verb + Object + Complement
8. Main Verb + Object + Object
9. Have/Has/Had + Infinitive (To + Verb)
10. Auxiliary Verb ‘Be’ + Infinitive (To + Verb)
11. Verb + Object + Infinitive (Without ‘To’)
12. There + Verb ‘Be’ + Noun + Infinitive
13. Interrogative Sentences
14. Imperative Sentences
15. Principal Clause + That + Noun Clause (Object)
16. Verb followed by --ING form or an Infinitive
17. Use of Prepositions
18. The Passive With Get
19. Middle Voice
Exercise -- 01
Exercise -- 02
Exercise -- 03

Sample This:

VOICE - Definition
Voice refers to the form of a verb that shows whether the subject of a sentence performs the action or is affected by it.

ACTIVE VOICE - Definition
The form of a verb in which subject is the person or thing that performs the action.
Example:
They finished the work.
[subject -- “they”, verb -- “finished”, object -- “work”]
In this sentence, the subject (they) acts on the object (work).

Other Examples:
The teacher praises him.
She posted the letter.
I buy new books.
We will celebrate his birthday.

PASSIVE VOICE - Definition
The form of a verb in which subject is affected by the action of the verb.
Important Note -- The object of the active voice becomes the subject in the passive voice.
Example:
The work was finished by them.
[subject -- “work”, passive verb -- “was finished”, object -- “them”]
In this example, the subject (work) is not the doer; it is being acted upon by the doer ‘them’)

Other Examples:
He is praised by the teacher.
The letter was posted by her
New books are bought by me.
His birthday will be celebrated by us.


WHEN TO USE PASSIVE VOICE
(1). You should use passive voice when you do not know the active subject.
(2). When you want to make the active object more important.
(3). When active subject is obvious.
(4). When you want to emphasize the action of the sentence rather than the doer of the action.
(5). Passive voice is frequently used to describe scientific or mechanical processes
(6). Passive voice is often used in news reports:
(7). When active voice does not sound good.
(8). When you want to make more polite or formal statements.
(9). You can use passive voice to avoid responsibility.
(10). You can also use passive voice for sentence variety in your writing.
(11). You can also use passive voice when you want to avoid extra-long subjects.

Changing Active Voice Into Passive Voice
Rule 1:
Move the object of the active voice into the position of subject (front of the sentence) in the passive voice. And move the subject of the active voice into the position of object in the passive voice.

Rule 2:
Passive voice needs a helping verb to express the action. Put the helping verb in the same tense as the original active sentence. The main verb of the active voice is always changed into past participle (third form of verb) in different ways.

Rule 3:
Place the active sentence's subject into a phrase beginning with the preposition ‘by’.

Rule 4:
If the object in an active voice sentence is a pronoun (me, us, you, him, her, they, it), it changes in passive voice sentence as follows:
me -- I; us -- we; you -- you; him -- he; her -- she; them -- they; it – it

Rule 5:
Subject- Verb Agreement
Make the first verb agree with the new subject in passive voice.

Rule 6:
When there are two objects (direct object and indirect object), only one object is interchanged. The second object remains unchanged.

Following Tenses Cannot Be Changed Into Passive Voice:
1. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
2. Past Perfect Continuous Tense
3. Future Continuous Tense
4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

What is “Repetition of Words”?
Structure (1) ---- Word + and + Word
Structure (2) ---- Comparative + and + Comparative
Structure (3) ---- Word + after + Word
Structure (4) ---- Word + by + Word
Structure (5) ---- Word + to + Word
Structure (6) ---- Word + on/upon + Word
Structure (7) ---- Word + against/of/for/in/with + Word
Structure (8) ---- The more, less, etc…, the more, less, etc…
Structure (9) ---- Combination of the Same Words
Structure (10) ---- Repetition of Various Words
Structure (11) ---- Repetition of Words More than Once
Structure (12) ---- Repetition of ‘Group of Words’
Structure (13) ---- Repetition of ‘Two Different Words’
Structure (14) ---- Miscellaneous Patterns
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)

What is “Repetition of Words”?

Repetition in English Language is the repeating of a word, within a sentence in order to PROVIDE EMPHASIS. ‘Repetition of words’ could be classified into many groups based on the placement of the words in a sentence. Different terms have been devised to denote different kinds of repetitions. Some of these terms are as follows: Adnominatio, Conduplicatio, Diacope, Epistrophe, Mesodiplosis, Palilogia, Polyptoton, Symploce, etc.

Not going into the details of these ‘hard-to-pronounce’ terms, I have covered only most popular patterns of ‘Repetition of words’ in this book.

Structure (1) ---- Word + and + Word

This pattern is generally used to show ‘continuation or repetition of an activity’, or ‘presence of many things or people of the same kind’.

1. -- She asked and asked about the money.
2a. -- Stars, planets, and galaxies emerged and evolved billions and billions of years ago.
2b. -- They have got billions and billions of dollars lying around in vaults.
3. -- There has been campaign and campaign against us for a very long time.
4. -- Wastage of water must be discouraged and discouraged.
5. -- Workers dug and dug the road.
6. -- We have eras and eras coming.
7. -- He called after her, “Where are you going?” She went further and further.
8a. -- His confidence grew and grew.
8b. -- Once he started telling family about his challenge, the support just grew and grew.
9a. -- ‘How long did the match last?’ ‘Oh, hours and hours’
9b. -- Oats are a complex carbohydrate which means they will fuel your body for hours and hours.
10. -- Merit and merit alone can be criterion.
11. -- The road went on for miles and miles.
12. -- My travel plan was mired and mired in utter confusion.
13. -- He has nurtured and nurtured his reputation as a master tactician.
14. -- They played and played cards all night.

NOTE:
(A). ‘Again and again’
[meaning -- many times]
She was wiping her tears again and again.
Many people do not repeat their mistakes again and again.

(B). ‘By and by’
[meaning -- after a short period; before long; soon | eventually]
By and by you will make your deficiency.
The hours just kept on going by and by.

(C). ‘Half and half’
[meaning -- in equal parts]
We are lucky that it is an affordable rent, and sharing half and half helps

(D). ‘Less and less’
[meaning -- continuing to become smaller]
We are having less and less snow each year.
Old people seem to sleep less and less actually.

(E). ‘More and more’
[meaning -- continuing to become larger in amount or number]
You always ask for more and more.
More and more girls are giving priority to their career.

(F). ‘Neck and neck’
[meaning -- level with somebody in competition]
Democrats and Republicans were neck and neck on 50 seats.
These two candidates are neck and neck in recent polls.

NOTE: Great Stress—
Word + And + Word + And + Word
1a. -- He just smacked him with a ruler again and again and again.
1b. -- If at first you don't succeed, try again and again and again.
2. -- Their pain and the anger grew and grew and grew,
3. -- They are paying him millions and millions, and more millions.
4. -- There is a huge problem in this town and it has been going on and on and on.
How to use numbers correctly when writing, writing numbers in English sentences, use of numbers in English conversation | use of numbers in daily English | Types of Numbers, Standard words for numbers, Various expressions, structure (1) ---- multiple number [in the beginning or middle of the sentence], structure (2) ---- multiple number + of + noun, structure (3) ---- multiple number + of + noun + of, structure (4) ---- multiple number (less) + of + multiple number (more), structure (5) ---- multiple number (less) + of + multiple number (more) + of + noun, structure (6) ---- multiple number + and + multiple number, structure (7) ---- number + times, structure (8) ---- half/double/twice/thrice/fraction, structure (09) ---- number + as many + (noun, etc. + as), structure (10) ---- as much (as), structure (11) ---- number + ‘as likely’ or ‘more likely’


Sample This:

Structure (1) -- Multiple Number [In the Beginning or Middle of Sentence]

Hundreds gathered in front of the parliament building early on Monday.
Hundreds injured in two days of clashes.
Thousands evacuated after explosions at munitions depot.
Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of Cubans and Haitians have lost their lives at sea seeking freedom and opportunity.

Millions marched against government in over 400 cities.
Industry produced several hundred million units a year.
Exact loss of the property is not yet known but rough estimates put the losses to ten million dollars.
More than three million Australians lack access to critical financial services.
Trillions dong spent to build ports which have been left idle.
Trillions will need to be spent on infrastructure very soon.
Agriculture and tourism are a trillion dollar economy.
Mobiles are a multi-trillion-dollar industry, even bigger than pharmaceuticals.
It would add more than a trillion dollars to the economy every year.
There are spiral galaxies out there with more than a trillion stars, and giant elliptical galaxies with 100 trillion stars.
Our inability to comprehend the sheer magnitude of 1 billion has been eclipsed by our inability to comprehend 1 trillion.
Global loss to fraud ran into trillions.
She said she would have donated most of her $4 trillion to charity.
The universe is estimated to be somewhere between 13 billion to 14 billion years old.


Structure (2) -- Multiple Number + of + Noun

2-A. HUNDREDS OF
Hundreds of stocks saw much more dramatic gains.
Hundreds of new jobs were being created every year.
Hundreds of homes destroyed in wildfires.
Hundreds of police officers had taken off their bullet-proof vests.
Hundreds of students participated in the competition.
Hundreds of wannabe leaders are roaming our streets.
Hundreds of candidates were standing for parliamentary elections.
Hundreds of angry residents surrounded the police post to protest against the incident and demanded the arrest of the culprits.
Hundreds of railway officials would be deployed to manage the smooth running of special trains.
Hundreds of residents remained without electricity and water Monday evening.
Hundreds of riot police continued to fire tear gas and jets of water during the agitation.
Hundreds of protestors from a wide variety of activist groups staged protests.
He has received hundreds of awards.
Stories behind these and the hundreds of other Asian bus accidents are same.
He was welcomed to University by hundreds of students and fans.
The flames torched hundreds of homes now.
The explosion killed 15 people and destroyed or damaged hundreds of homes.
Medical laboratory admitted to paying bribes to hundreds of doctors in the city.
Many have walked hundreds of miles fleeing fighting in the capital.
Just one severe typhoon could leave behind hundreds of people dead.
Wildfires fueled by hot, gusty winds were burning hundreds of acres and forcing evacuations.
He posted hundreds of messages on a public Internet forum.
The process will involve hundreds of community meetings.
There's little sense in having hundreds of followers who don't know what you do.
Every year, hundreds of people across the country get infected with contagious diseases.
He had hundreds of hats which were on display at the museum.
There are hundreds of young writers in India.
What about the hundreds of illegal refineries 'discovered' every day?
The Corps of Engineers operates hundreds of reservoirs across the nation.
We found maps of hundreds of houses.
Heavy rainfall, cloud bursts, landslides and floods have caused widespread loss of life and property displacing hundreds of people.
The fire has wiped out hundreds of homes.
The police raid left hundreds of protesters injured.
A squall line is a line of thunderstorms that extend for hundreds of miles.
Police detained hundreds of illegal migrants.
Many hundreds of fun activities exist on each Hawaiian Island.

This Book Covers The Following Topics:

How to Start a Sentence
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘AS’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘AFTER’ and ‘BEFORE’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘BY’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘FOR/FROM
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘IF’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘OF/ON/OUT’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘TO’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘IN’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘WITH’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘QUESTION WORDS’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘ING’ FORM of VERBS
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘PAST PARTICIPLES’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘-LY Words’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘PRONOUNS’
Start a Sentence – Miscellaneous
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)

Sample This:

There are different ways to start a sentence in English. Using pronoun (I, we, you, they, he, she, it) is the most popular way to begin a sentence. But there are many other words which are widely used to start a sentence. They might be question words (what, where, etc.). They might be words formed from verbs, ending in –ing, -ed, -en, etc. Besides, words such as ‘to’ ‘in’ ‘with’, ‘if’, ‘after’ are also used to begin a sentence.
Here, you will learn various words and phrases to start a sentence with.

Important Note:
Starting a sentence with ‘and’ or ‘but’ is correct or not!

Using ‘And’ or ‘But’ to begin a sentence is generally considered grammatically Incorrect. But there is no hard and fast rule in this regard. So, you can use ‘And’ or ‘But’ to begin a sentence. But avoid excessive use of these words to begin a sentence. Use these words in the beginning of a sentence only when they really give strength to your language.

Note: It is said that a sentence should not be begun with a conjunction of any kind, especially one of the FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). But this is not hard and fast rule. Particularly in spoken English, starting a sentence with ‘And’ or ‘But’ is common.


How to start a sentence -- Using ‘AS’

As a matter of fact no notice was given to anyone.
As a policeman myself, I am aware of all the laws.
As against last time four days, the fair will last for five days this year.
As always, he won the match.
As an interim arrangement, we directed the authorities not to return the land.
As fate would have it, he crossed the international border.
As for David, he is doing fine.
As he got busy, she picked up his son.
As he grew older, he developed his communications skills.
As if the bad power situation in the city wasn’t enough, the hike in power tariff has come as the last straw for residents.
As in the past, party president distanced herself from the government’s unpopular decision.
As long as here is violence by unruly mobs, use of police force is inevitable.
As often happened, he forgot to send me reply.
As part of the deal, they will hand-over control of five west bank towns.
As penance, he vowed to never scold any kid ever again.
As per his version, nobody had got injured in the incident.
As per rules, the same bill should be passed by the two Houses of the Parliament before it is sent to the President for his signature and promulgation for implementation.
As sanitary workers are absent on most of the days, sweeping of that road is also irregular resulting in trash along the road.
As the bus was nearing, / As the bus neared him, he moved aside.
As the day progressed, over a hundred men protestors gathered at the office.
As the electric cables are hanging loosely, it may anytime lead to major accident if any passer-by comes into contact.
As the mercury levels are dropping each day, difficulties for the poor are constantly rising.
As the war widened, they had to leave the city.
As we progresses, it is going to become more and more difficult.
As you know, I have sent him a letter.
HOMONYMS
Homonym a word that is spelt like another word (or pronounced like it) but which has a different meaning, for example Key meaning ‘set of answer to problems’ and Key meaning ‘button on computer keyboard’.

The state of being a homonym is called homonymy.

Very Important Note:

In Strict Sense, Homonyms have same spelling, same pronunciation, and different meaning.

HOMONYMS in Strict Sense:

Same Spelling / Same Pronunciation / Different meaning
Homonyms are also known as “Multiple Meaning Words”.

Examples: fare, principal, etc.

Fare -- a passenger | Fare -- price
Principal -- most important | Principal -- head of a school


In Wider Sense, Homonyms can also include words that have same or similar pronunciation (but different spelling) or same spelling (but different pronunciation).
In first situation, they are called ‘HOMOPHONES’
In second situation, they are called ‘HOMOGRAPHS’

HOMONYMS In Wider Sense:

HOMOPHONES:
Different Spelling / Same or Similar Pronunciation / Different meaning
Note: ‘Homophones’ are also called ‘Heterographs’.
Homophones are also known as “Sound-Alike Words”.

Examples: ad/add, know/no, etc.

ad -- advertisement | add -- to include
know -- to have information | no -- refusal


HOMOGRAPHS:
Same Spelling / Different Pronunciation / Different meaning
Note: ‘Homographs’ are also called ‘Heterophones’.

Examples: bow, lead, etc.

Bow (noun) -- [Pronunciation -- boʊ] -- a weapon used for shooting arrows
Bow (verb) -- [Pronunciation -- baʊ] -- to move your head forwards and downwards

Lead (noun) -- [Pronunciation -- led] -- a metallic element
Lead (verb) -- [Pronunciation -- li:d] -- to go in front


100 HOMONYMS ALONG WITH THEIR MEANINGS:
Sample This:

01. Accident
1. Accident -- an event in which injury or damage is caused in or by vehicle
2. Accident -- something that happens unexpectedly

02. Action
1. Action -- a legal process
2. Action -- fighting in a war

03. Alight
1. Alight -- on fire
2. Alight -- to get out of a vehicle

04. Angle
1. Angle -- inclination of two lines with each, measure in degrees
2. Angle -- to catch fish

05. Arch
1. Arch -- curve; semicircle
2. Arch -- mischievous


600 HOMOPHONE PAIRS ALONG WITH THEIR MEANINGS:
Sample This:

01. Abhorrent / Aberrant
1. Abhorrent -- causing hatred for moral reasons
2. Aberrant -- unusual and socially unacceptable

02. Accede / Exceed
1. Accede -- to agree
2. Exceed -- to surpass

03. Accept / Except
1. Accept -- to admit
2. Except -- apart from

04. Acclamation / Acclimation
1. Acclamation -- loud and enthusiastic welcome
2. Acclimation -- process of getting used to a new climate or situation

05. Adapt / Adept / Adopt
1. Adapt -- to adjust or modify
2. Adept -- skillful
3. Adopt -- to become legal parents of somebody’s child


150 HOMOGRAPHS ALONG WITH THEIR MEANINGS:
Sample This:

01. Absent
1. Absent (adjective) -- not present
2. Absent (verb) -- to not be in a place

02. Abuse
1. Abuse (noun) -- misuse
2. Abuse (verb) -- to misuse something

03. Accent
1. Accent (noun) -- pronunciation
2. Accent (verb) -- to put emphasis on a part of something

04. Address
1. Address (noun) -- details of the place where you live or work; postal address
2. Address (verb) -- to make a formal speech

05. Advocate
1. Advocate (noun) -- supporter of something
2. Advocate (verb) -- to support something publicly
THIS BOOK CONTAINS MEANINGS OF MORE THAN 3400 ADVANCED ENGLISH WORDS (including phrasal verbs and idioms).

Learn Difficult English Words & Their Meanings

Sample This:

("sb" implies somebody, "sth" implies something)

abate to become, or make sth less strong
abed in bed
aberrant not socially acceptable
abet to help, or encourage sb to do sth wrong
in abeyance not being used for a period of time
ablutions act of washing yourself
aboard on a ship, plane, bus etc.
abode where sb lives
abolition ending of sth
abominate to feel hatred, or disgust
abomination extremely unpleasant, disgusting
abortive unsuccessful
above board legal and honest; in a legal and honest way
abridge to make book, etc. shorter
absent minded forgetful
abstainer who chooses not to vote, who never drinks alcohol
abstruse difficult to understand
abundant plentiful
abysmal extremely bad
abyss deep wide space, or hole that seems to have no bottom
accede to agree, to become king, or queen
accommodating willing to help, obliging
accomplish to achieve sth
in accord with sb/sth in agreement with
accord with sth to agree with sth
accountable responsible
accoutrements pieces of equipment for a particular activity
accredited officially recognized
accrue to increase over a period of time
accursed suffering from a curse, or black magic
ace person who is very good at doing sth
Achilles heel weak point in sb's character attacked by other people
acme peak
acquaintance with sb slight friendship
make sb's acquaintance to meet sb first time
acquiesce to accept sth, even if you do not agree
acrimonious bitter
acrobat rope dancer
acronym a word formed using initial letters of other words
act up to behave badly
acumen ability to understand and decide things quickly
ad hominem against person's character
ad nauseam again and again in boring and annoying way
Adam's apple lump at the front of the throat
adamantine very strong and impossible to break
add up to seem reasonable
add-on a thing that is added to sth else
adieu goodbye
ad-infinitum for ever
adjourn to postpone
adjudicate to make official decision
adjure to order sb to do sth
Adonis extremely attractive young man
adorable attractive
adoration great love, or worship
adore to love very much, to like very much
adrenalin hormone produced in the body due to excitement, fear, or anger
adulation excessive praise
the advent of sb/sth coming of invention, etc.
adventitious happening by accident; not planned
advisable sensible
advise sb of sth to inform
advisory official warning
aeon thousands of years
aerodrome small airport
aesthete who love art and beautiful things
affaire love affair
affectation behaviour, action to impress other people
affectionate loving
affections person's feelings of love
affective connected with emotions, attitudes
affliction pain and suffering, or sth that causes it
afforestation process of planting areas of land with trees
aficionado who likes a particular subject, etc. very much and knows a lot about it
afloat floating on water
afoot being planned
afore mentioned mentioned earlier
aftermath situation existing after a war, an accident, etc.
her mouth was agape wide open, because of surprise or shock
come of age to become mature
age of consent legal age to have sex
aggrandizement increase in the power, or importance of a person, or country
aggravate to worsen
agonize over sth to spend a long time thinking and worrying about sth
agreeable pleasant and easy to like
aggrieved feeling that you have been treated unfairly
aghast horrified
ahead of earlier than
agog excited
This Book Covers The Following Topics:
 
Structure (1a) ---- Comparison of Actions - I
Structure (1b) ---- Comparison of Actions - II
Structure (2a) ---- Comparison of Qualities - I
Structure (2b) ---- Comparison of Qualities - II
Structure (3a) ---- Specific Similarity – Quality Adjectives
Structure (3b) ---- Specific Similarity – Quality Nouns
Structure (4) ---- Comparison of Number/Quantity
Structure (5a) ---- As + Much/Many, etc. + Word/Words + As
Structure (5b) ---- Comparative Estimates – Multiple Numbers
Structure (6) ---- Parallel Increase or Decrease / Gradual Increase
Structure (7) ---- Illogical Comparatives
Structure (8) ---- General Similarity and Difference
Structure (9) ---- Using Word ‘Compare’ or ‘Comparison’
Structure (10) ---- Comparison Degrees
10a. Regular and Irregular Forms of Adjectives
10b. Interchange of Positive and Comparative Degrees
10c. Interchange of Positive and Superlative Degrees
10d. Interchange of Comparative and Superlative Degrees
10e. Interchange of Positive, Comparative and Superlative Degrees
EXERCISE – 1
EXERCISE – 2

Sample This:

Structure (1a) ---- Comparison of Actions - I

PATTERN 1:
AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCE
-ING form of Verb + Verb ‘Be’ + As + Adjective + As + -ING form of Verb
Or
It + Verb ‘Be’ + As + Adjective + To + Ordinary Verb + As + Ordinary Verb

Writing is as easy as thinking.
Jogging is as easy as exercising.
Closing is as easy as opening.
Designing is as easy as publishing.

It is as easy to write as think.
It is as easy to jog as exercise.
It is as easy to close as open.
It is as easy to design as publish.


PATTERN 2:
NEGATIVE SENTENCE
-ING form of Verb + Verb ‘To Be’ + Not + As + Adjective + As + -ING form of Verb
Or
It + Verb ‘To Be’ + Not + As + Adjective + To + Ordinary Verb + As + Ordinary Verb

Studying is not as easy as playing.
Swimming is not as easy as running.
Singing is not as easy as talking.
Reading is not as easy as listening.

It is not as easy to study as play.
It is not as easy to swim as run.
It is not as easy to sing as talk.
It is not as easy to read as listen.


Structure (1b) ---- Comparison of Actions - II

PATTERN
(A). Prefer/Would Prefer + -ING form of Verb + To + -ING form of Verb, OR
(B). Prefer/Would Prefer + To + Ordinary Verb + Rather Than + Ordinary Verb, OR
(C). Had Better/Had Rather/Had Sooner/Would Rather/Would Sooner + Ordinary Verb + Than + Ordinary Verb

Example 1:
I prefer studying to playing.
I would prefer studying to playing.

I prefer to study rather than play.
I would prefer to study rather than play.

I had better study than play.
I had rather study than play.
I had sooner study than play.
I would rather study than play.
I would sooner study than play.

Example 2:
You prefer writing to talking.
You would prefer writing to talking.

You prefer to write rather than talk.
You would prefer to write rather than talk.

You had better write than talk.
You had rather write than talk.
You had sooner write than talk.
You would rather write than talk.
You would sooner write than talk.
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