Beyond the Blast Furnace

CRC Press
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This unique book presents an in-depth analysis of all the emerging ironmaking processes, supplementing the conventional blast furnace method. Various processes for producing solid and liquid iron are discussed, including important features such as process outline, techno-economics, and process fundamentals. The present global status of each process is examined, projections for the future are made, and processes are compared.
Beyond the Blast Furnace is valuable reading for process developers, because it gives them a complete picture of various process options. Conventional iron- and steelmakers as well as researchers and practitioners working in the area of alternative processes of ironmaking will also benefit from this ready reference. The book is an ideal text for undergraduate and postgraduate students in metallurgy.
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Additional Information

Publisher
CRC Press
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Published on
Nov 22, 2017
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Pages
272
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ISBN
9781351464239
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Language
English
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Genres
Technology & Engineering / Materials Science / General
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Available on Android devices
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Eligible for Family Library

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This book, in its second edition, continues to offer a comprehensive treatise on smelting reduction of iron oxide—an emerging alternative method of producing hot metal without using coke. This technique is being increasingly used for hot metal production, which has till date, been dominated by the traditional blast furnace method. Shortage of coking coal, high cost of coke and the recent enforcement of stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the advent of smelting reduction as a supplementary method of hot metal production. The book covers the details of this rapidly emerging method that holds particular relevance for countries like India, endowed with relatively large reserves of high grade iron ore but unfortunately, not matched by the availability of coking coal. The book offers an in-depth analysis of the theoretical as well as the practical aspects of smelting reduction. It begins by acquainting the readers with the current worldwide status of ironmaking, followed by the classification of the various smelting reduction processes. It then focuses on explaining the fundamentals of smelting reduction before proceeding with a critical appraisal of the various smelting reduction processes that are currently available. The future of this methodology in India and in the rest of the world is discussed in the concluding chapter. The book contains numerous illustrations to provide a clear understanding of the different processes, equipment and quality parameters relevant to smelting reduction-based ironmaking. The book is intended mainly for undergraduate and postgraduate engineering (particularly metallurgical engineering) students seeking an insight into this emerging ironmaking technology. It would also be of immense interest to researchers and technologists engaged in the subject of smelting reduction of iron oxide. A variety of chapter-end references would enable teachers and students to get acquainted with the extensive knowledge already available in this field. HIGHLIGHTS OF SECOND EDITION • Two new sections on HIsarna process and Circosmelt process have been incorporated. • New figures and tables have been used in some sections to illustrate the concepts with better clarity and give the up-to-date information. • Some references have also been added, making the text suitable for further study.
This book provides a fascinating study of the very important emerging field of direct reduction in which iron ore is ‘directly reduced’ in the solid-state, using either natural gas or non-coking coal, to produce a highly metallised material, referred to as sponge iron (or direct reduced iron). This intermediate product is subsequently melted in electric arc furnaces or induction furnaces (sometimes even in basic oxygen furnaces) to produce liquid steel. Such a process combination enables steel to be produced without using coking coal, which is an expensive input in the normal blast furnace—basic oxygen furnace route of steelmaking adopted in integrated steel plants. The book offers comprehensive coverage and critical assessment of various coal-based and gas-based direct reduction processes. Besides dealing with the application of the theoretical principles involved in the thermodynamics and kinetics of direct reduction, the book also contains some worked-out examples on sponge iron production. The concluding part of this seminal book summarises the present and future scenario of direct reduction, including the use of gas generated from coal in direct reduction processes. The book is primarily intended for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of metallurgical engineering. It is also a must-read for researchers, technologists and process metallurgists engaged in the rapidly developing field of direct reduction of iron oxides, which is of critical importance for India and other developing nations that are beginning to play a major role in global steelmaking.
This book is designed to provide lecture notes (theory) and experimental design of major concepts typically taught in most Mechanics of Materials courses in a sophomore- or junior-level Mechanical or Civil Engineering curriculum. Several essential concepts that engineers encounter in practice, such as statistical data treatment, uncertainty analysis, and Monte Carlo simulations, are incorporated into the experiments where applicable, and will become integral to each laboratory assignment. Use of common strain (stress) measurement techniques, such as strain gages, are emphasized. Application of basic electrical circuits, such as Wheatstone bridge for strain measurement, and use of load cells, accelerometers, etc., are employed in experiments. Stress analysis under commonly applied loads such as axial loading (compression and tension), shear loading, flexural loading (cantilever and four-point bending), impact loading, adhesive strength, creep, etc., are covered. LabVIEW software with relevant data acquisition (DAQ) system is used for all experiments. Two final projects each spanning 2‒3 weeks are included: (i) flexural loading with stress intensity factor determination and (ii) dynamic stress wave propagation in a slender rod and determination of the stress‒strain curves at high strain rates.

The book provides theoretical concepts that are pertinent to each laboratory experiment and prelab assignment that a student should complete to prepare for the laboratory. Instructions for securing off-the-shelf components to design each experiment and their assembly (with figures) are provided. Calibration procedure is emphasized whenever students assemble components or design experiments. Detailed instructions for conducting experiments and table format for data gathering are provided. Each lab assignment has a set of questions to be answered upon completion of experiment and data analysis. Lecture notes provide detailed instructions on how to use LabVIEW software for data gathering during the experiment and conduct data analysis.

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