Compound Words in English

English Word Power

Book 10
Manik Joshi
4
Free sample

What are “Compound Words”?

A compound word consists of two or more base words. Meaning of Compound word is often different from the separate base words.

Compound Words and Parts of Speech
Compound words are mostly nouns, adjectives, and verbs.

Kinds of Compound Words
Compound words are of three types:

(A). Closed Compound Words:
Words are joined together. There is no space or hyphen between the words.
Examples: firefly / softball / redhead / keyboard / makeup / notebook

(B). Hyphenated Compound Words:
Words are joined together by a hyphen.
Examples: daughter-in-law / over-the-counter / six-year-old

(C). Open Compound Words:
Words are not joined together. Words are open or separate. In other words, there is a space between the words.
Examples: post office / real estate / full moon / half sister

Some general rules regarding use of hyphens:-
Compound Adjectives are often hyphenated.
If compound adjective precedes a noun, they are hyphenated
Examples:
low-paying job [low- paying is a compound adjective; job is a noun]
easy-going celebrity [easy-going is a compound adjective; celebrity is a noun]

Adverbs that end in –ly and compounded with another modifier are generally not hyphenated:
Examples:
deeply held beliefs
genetically modified foods
highly placed sources
quietly organized meeting


ALSO NOTE:
1. Some compound words may have more than one form but these forms may belong to different parts of speech.

Examples:
bread and butter [open form] [noun]
bread-and-butter [closed form] [adjective]

charge sheet [open form][noun]
chargesheet [closed form] [verb]

fast track [open form] [noun]
fast-track [hyphenated form] [adjective, verb]

first degree [open form] [noun]
first-degree [hyphenated form] [adjective]

full time [open form] [noun]
full-time [hyphenated form] [adjective, adverb]

gift wrap [open form] [noun]
gift-wrap [hyphenated form] [verb]

hard core [open form] [noun]
hard-core [hyphenated form] [adjective]

hard line [open form] [noun]
hard-line [hyphenated form] [adjective]

road test [open form] [noun]
road-test [hyphenated form] [verb]

second hand [open form] [noun]
second-home [hyphenated form] [adjective]


2. Some compound words which are hyphenated in American English are not hyphenated in British English.
Example: cash-back [American English]; cashback [British English]


3. Compound words are mainly formed in the following ways:
(a). adjective + adjective [example: bittersweet]
(b). adjective + noun [example: blackboard]
(c). adjective + verb [example: broadcast]
(d). adjective + past participle [example: cold-blooded]
(e). adjective + present participle [example: free-standing]
(f). adverb (or preposition) + adjective [example: ingrown]
(g). adverb (or preposition) + noun [example: afterlife]
(h). adverb (or preposition) + verb [example: cutback]
(i). adverb + past participle [example: brightly lit]
(j). adverb + present participle [example: long-lasting]
(k). noun + adjective [example: blood red]
(l). noun + adverb (or preposition) [example: hanger-on]
(m). noun + noun [example: airman]
(n). noun + verb [example: air-condition]
(o). noun + past participle [example: sun-dried]
(p). verb + adverb (or preposition) [example: breakdown]
(q). verb + noun [example: bathroom]
(r). gerund + noun [example: bleaching powder]
(s). noun + gerund [example: air-conditioning]

Detailed list of Compound words in Alphabetical Order. [All compound words have been grouped according to the parts of speech they belong to.)
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About the author

Manik Joshi was born on Jan 26, 1979 at Ranikhet and is permanent resident of Haldwani, Kumaon zone of India. He is an Internet Marketer by profession. He is interested in domaining (business of buying and selling domain names), web designing (creating websites), and various online jobs (including 'self book publishing'). He is science graduate with ZBC (zoology, botany, and chemistry) subjects. He is also an MBA (with specialization in marketing). He has done three diploma courses in computer too.

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Additional Information

Publisher
Manik Joshi
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Published on
Oct 25, 2014
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Pages
56
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Language
English
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Genres
Language Arts & Disciplines / Public Speaking
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Informal Words are connected with normal communication to your colleagues, acquaintances, family members, etc. | Informal words are more common in speech than in writing. | Informal words are used in ‘unofficial’ language. These words are not used in ‘official’ or formal writing | This book covers around 1400 Informal words (including name of parts of speech they belong to) and their meanings | IMPORTANT NOTE: Many informal words are used in both American and British English in the same way. However, some informal words are particularly used in American English only. Similarly, some informal words are particularly used in British English only. | INFORMAL WORDS – A -- A1 [adjective] -- very good | abs [noun] -- the muscles of the abdomen | ace [adjective | noun] -- very good | number one | achy [adjective] -- affected by an uninterrupted pain that is small in degree | ack-ack [noun] -- the non-stop firing of guns at aircraft | ad [noun] -- advertisement | adman [noun] -- a person who works in advertising or promotion | adore [verb] -- to be very fond of something | aggravate [verb] -- to intentionally irritate somebody | a gogo [adjective] -- in large quantities | airhead [noun] -- an unintelligent or stupid person | all [adverb] -- enormously | allergic [adjective] -- having an aversion of somebody/something | all right [adverb] -- used to emphasize something | almighty [adjective] -- enormous or severe | alphabet soup [noun] -- extremely difficult language with abbreviations or symbols | ammo [noun] -- ammunition [supply of bullets, etc; very important information for argument] | amp [noun] -- amplifier [a type of electrical device] | appalling [adjective] -- extremely bad or poor | arm candy [noun] -- a beautiful woman accompanied by a man in a public event | arm-twisting [noun] -- the use of physical power or great pressure to convince somebody to do something | artsy (arty) [adjective] -- enormously interested in the arts | artsy-fartsy (arty-farty) [adjective] -- connected with the arts | Aussie [noun] -- a person or native from Australia | awful [adjective] -- very bad | used to emphasize a large quantity or sum of something | axe (ax) [verb] -- to kill somebody with an axe | to get rid of a scheme, service, system, etc. | to dismiss somebody from their job | **** |  INFORMAL WORDS -- Particularly Used In AMERICAN ENGLISH: | ace [verb] -- to be successful | all-nighter [noun] -- a time when somebody stay awake all night, mainly for studying | ambulance chaser [noun] -- a lawyer connected with cases of accident claims | amped [adjective] -- excited | antsy [adjective] -- unable to keep still | any [adverb] -- ‘at all’ [used at the end of negative sentences] | A-OK [adjective] -- in satisfactory or perfect condition, manner or style. | attaboy / attagirl [exclamation] -- used to admire or encourage a boy or man / girl or woman | awesome [adjective] -- first-rate, excellent or pleasurable | awful [adverb] -- extremely or enormously | INFORMAL WORDS -- Particularly Used In BRITISH ENGLISH: | admin [noun] -- Administration [activities connected with organizing something] | afters [noun] -- a sweet dish that is eaten after meal | ages -- [noun] a very long time | aggro [noun] -- cruel, hostile and aggressive behavior | airy-fairy [adjective] -- impractical, unreasonable, unclear | all right [exclamation] -- used to say hello | all-singing, all-dancing [adjective] -- (of a machine) having a advanced features | anorak [noun] -- a boring person who is very fond of learning facts or collecting things | appro [noun] -- on approval [connected with shopping activities] | argy-bargy [noun] -- noisy argument or difference of opinions |
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

01. Category Words -- Sounds
02. Category Words -- Ways of Thinking
03. Category Words -- Ways of Walking
04. Category Words -- Ways of Movement
05. Category Words -- Ways of Changing
06. Category Words -- Ways of Laughing and Smiling
07. Category Words -- Ways of Seeing
08. Category Words -- Ways of Saying Something
09. Category Words -- Ways of Writing and Marking
10. Category Words -- Ways of Continuing
11. Category Words -- Feelings
12. Category Words -- Cooking
13. Category Words -- Disturbance
14. Category Words -- Situation of Confusion
15(A). Category Words -- Smells
15(B). Category Words -- Tastes
16. Category Words -- Cries of Creatures
17. Category Words -- Colors
18. Category Words -- Remarks
19. Category Words -- Body Marks
20. Category Words -- Body and Body Shape
21. Category Words -- ‘Old’
22. Category Words -- Time and Numbers
23. Category Words -- Zodiac Sign and Birthstones
24. Category Words -- Fabrics
25. Category Words -- Shapes
26. Category Words -- Religion
27(A). Category Words -- Nature
27(B). Category Words -- Biomes
28. Category Words -- People and Family
29. Category Words -- Currencies
30. Category Words -- Measurement Units
31. Category Words -- Government
32. Category Words -- Miscellaneous

Sample This:

01. Category Words -- Sounds

01. Babble -- the sound of many people speaking all together
Example: Babble of Voices

02. Bang -- sudden loud noise
Example: Bang of a Gun

03. Beat -- sound made by a series of regular blows to something
Examples: Beating of Drums | Beating of Wings

04. Blast -- the sound of an explosion | sound made by blowing of musical instruments
Examples: Blast of a Bomb | Blast of a siren

05. Blow -- to produce a sound by forcing your breath out when your lips are closed
Examples: Blowing of Bungles | Blowing of Trumpet | Blowing of Whistle

06. Boom -- loud deep sound
Example: Booming of Guns

07. Chatter -- a series of short high sounds
Examples: Chattering of Birds | Chattering of Monkeys | Chattering of Teeth

08. Chink -- light ringing sound
Example: Chinking of Glass

09. Clang -- loud ringing sound of metals
Examples: Clanging of Arms | Clanging of Bells

10. Clank -- loud sound of metal objects hitting together
Example: Clanking of Chains

11. Clap -- the sound of hitting something by hand | sudden loud noise
Examples: Clapping of Hands | Clapping of Thunder

12. Clatter -- loud noise made by knocking of hard objects
Examples: Clattering of Hoofs | Clattering of Knife

13. Crackle -- a series of light sharp sounds
Examples: Crackling of Fire-Wood | Crackling of Gunfire | Crackling of Flames

14. Creak -- a series of sharp sounds
Examples: Creaking of a Whip | Creaking of Shoes

15. Din -- loud, unpleasant sound that lasts for a long time
Example: Din of a Crowd

16. Ding -- sound made by a bell
Example: Ding of a Bell

17. Explode -- to make loud, violent sound
Examples: Exploding of Guns | Exploding of Bombs | Exploding of Rocket

18. Flap -- quick noisy movement
Examples: Flapping of Wings | Flapping of Newspaper | Flapping of Steam

19. Jingle -- a sound like small bells ringing
Example: Jingling of Coins

20. Knock -- the sound of somebody hitting a door, gate, window, etc.
Examples: Knocking of a Door | Knocking of a Window
One-Word Substitutes: A Word that is used in place of a complete sentence

This book covers the following topics:
(01). Related Words
(02). Scientific Studies
(03). That Which Cannot Be…
(04). Types of Behavior
(05). Types of Doctors
(06). Different Instruments
(07). A Particular Type of Place
(08). A Particular Type of Person
(09). Phobia and Mania
(10). Connected With…
(11). Country-Government
(12). Types of States
(13). Types of Statements
(14). Money-Related
(15). Other Topics
(A). Professions
(B). A Collection of Things
(C). Act of Killing
(D). Physical Appearance of A Person
(16). Various One-word Substitutes

Sample This:

(01). Related Words

01a. A person who looks at the bright side of things -- Optimist
01b. A person who looks at the dark side of things -- Pessimist

02a. All the animals living in a particular area -- Fauna
02b. Plants and vegetation in a particular area -- Flora

03a. A government tax on goods brought into the country -- Customs
03b. A government tax on goods made within a country -- Excise

04a. A person who is more interested in others -- Extrovert
04b. A person who keeps himself to himself -- Introvert

05a. That which cannot be harmful or dangerous -- Innocuous
05b. Causing serious harm in gradual or unnoticeable way -- Insidious

06a. A person who is taking examination -- Examinee
06b. A person who examine the copies of examinees -- Examiner

07a. A person who talks too much -- Garrulous/Loquacious
07b. A person who eats too much -- Glutton

08a. To suddenly change direction -- Deflect
08b. To keep on changing direction during movement -- Meander

09a. Ability to know something on the basis of feelings rather than reasoning -- Intuition
09b. Ability to speak without moving your lips -- Ventriloquism

10a. To change a law in order to improve it -- Amend
10b. To correct the mistakes in manuscript, etc. -- Emend

11a. A person between 70 and 79 years old -- Septuagenarian
11b. A person between 80 and 89 years old -- Octogenarian

12a. Animals having spinal column -- Vertebrate
12b. An animal with thick skin -- Pachyderm

13a. Obeying rules and requests -- Compliance
13b. Open refusal to obey -- Defiance

14a. The state of being married -- Matrimony
14b. The state of being unmarried -- Bachelorhood

15a. A woman whose husband has died -- Widow
15b. A man whose wife has died -- Widower

16a. Things of different nature -- Heterogeneous
16b. Things of same nature -- Homogeneous

17a. A religious song -- Hymn
17b. A pleasant song used for causing children to sleep -- Lullaby

18a. To rise in value -- Appreciate
18b. To go down in value -- Depreciate

19a. A disorder in which person eats too less because of abnormal fear of being fat -- Anorexia
19b. A disorder in which person repeatedly eats too much -- Bulimia

20a. To increase the intensity of a disease -- Aggravate
20b. To go from bad to worse – Deteriorate

21a. A school for small children -- Kindergarten
21b. A student who has left school or class without permission -- Truant

22a. To free somebody from all blame -- Exonerate
22b. To free a person from a charge by verdict -- Acquit

23a. A co-worker in the same institution -- Colleague
23b. Equal in rank -- Peer

24a. An office with high salary but no work -- Sinecure
24b. A position in an organization without salary -- Honorary

25a. An assembly of hearers at a lecture or concert -- Audience
25b. An assembly of worshippers -- Congregation
What are “Hypernyms and Hyponyms”?

HYPERNYM ----
[Hyper- Over; -Onym: Name]
Hypernym is a word that denotes general category.
Hypernym [singular] | Hypernyms [plural]
Examples: game, bird, etc.
Hypernym is also called ‘Generic term’, ‘Super-ordinate’, ‘Super-type’, or ‘Superset’.

Derived terms related to ‘Hypernyms’:
Hypernymous
Words that are hypernyms are said to be hypernymous.
Hypernymy
The state of being a hypernym is called hypernymy.

HYPONYM ----
[Hypo- Under; -Onym: Name]
Hyponym is a word that denotes particular item from general category.
Hyponym [singular] | Hyponyms [plural]
Examples: football/hockey/cricket, eagle/peacock/sparrow, etc.
Hyponym is also called ‘Subordinate’, ‘Subtype’ or ‘Subset’.

Derived terms related to ‘Hyponyms’:
Hyponymous
Words that are hyponyms are said to be hyponymous.
Hyponymy
The state of being a hyponym is called hyponymy.

In above examples, ‘game’ is the hypernym (or supertype) of ‘cricket’, ‘football’ and ‘hockey’.
‘Cricket’, ‘football’ and ‘hockey’ are hyponyms (or subtypes) of ‘game’.

Similarly, ‘bird’ is the hypernym (or supertype) of ‘eagle’, ‘peacock’ and ‘sparrow’.
‘Eagle’, ‘peacock’ and ‘sparrow’ are hyponyms (or subtypes) of ‘bird’.


IMPORTANT NOTE 1:
Relationship between hypernym and hyponym is termed as ‘is-a relationship’.
Pattern:
Hyponym + is-a/an + Hypernym

Example 1:
Hypernym: game
Hyponym: cricket, football, hockey

Cricket is a game.
Football is a game.
Hockey is a game.

Example 2:
Hypernym: bird
Hyponym: eagle, peacock, sparrow

Eagle is a bird.
Peacock is a bird.
Sparrow is a bird.


Hypernyms and Hyponyms -- A

Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A1 --
Hypernym -- acid
Hyponyms -- amino acid / ascetic acid / ascorbic acid / boric acid / carbonic acid / citric acid / hydrochloric acid / hydrofluoric acid / lactic acid / nitric acid / nucleic acid / oxalic acid / phosphoric acid / sulfuric (sulphuric) acid


Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A2 --
Hypernym -- account
Hyponyms -- budget account / checking account / current account / deposit account / savings account


Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A3 --
Hypernym -- affix
Hyponyms -- prefix / suffix


Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A4 --
Hypernym -- African
Hyponyms -- Algerian / Congolese / Egyptian / Kenyan / Liberian / Libyan / Moroccan / Senegalese / Sudanese / Ugandan


Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A5 --
Hypernym -- algae
Hyponyms -- anabaena / cowstail / cuvie / dabbylocks / featherweed / flans / grapestone / gulf weed / honeyware / laver / liadhaig / murlins / nostoc / pod weed / pompon / oscillatoria / rockweed / seaweed / thong weed / watersilk


Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A6 --
Hypernym -- age [a particular period of history
Hyponyms -- bronze age / iron age / new age / stone age


Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A7 --
Hypernym -- agent
Hyponyms -- double agent / estate agent / land agent / press agent / secret agent / special agent / travel agent


Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A08 --
Hypernym -- alloy
Hyponyms -- amalgam / billon / brass / bronze / iron / magnalium / megallium / nichrome / scandium / solder / steel / stellite

Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A09 --
Hypernym -- amphibian
Hyponyms -- frog / salamander / toad

Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A10 --
Hypernym -- angle
Hyponyms -- acute angle / adjacent angle / exterior angle / interior angle / obtuse angle / reflex angle / right angle
What are “Holonyms and Meronyms”?

HOLONYMS ----
[Holo- Whole; -Onym: Name]
Holonym is a word that denotes a thing that is complete in itself and whose part, member or substance is represented by another word.
Holonym [singular] | Holonyms [plural]
Example: ‘Bird’ is a holonym of ‘Feather’.

Derived terms related to ‘Holonyms’:
Holonymous
Words that are Holonyms are said to be Holonymous.
Holonymy
The state of being a Holonym is called Holonymy.

MERONYMS ----
[Mero- Part; -Onym: Name]
Meronym is a word that denotes a constituent part, member or substance of something that is complete in itself.
Meronym [singular] | Meronyms [plural]
Example: ‘Feather’ is a meronym of ‘Bird’.

Derived terms related to ‘Meronyms’:
Meronymous
Words that are Meronyms are said to be Meronymous.
Meronymy
The state of being a Meronym is called Meronymy.


Holonyms and Meronyms -- A

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A1 --
Holonym -- air-conditioner
Meronyms -- blower / compressor / condenser coil / control panel / cooling coil / evaporator coil / expansion valve / fan / motor / temperature sensing bulb / thermostat

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A2 --
Holonym -- airplane (aeroplane)
Meronyms -- aileron / altimeter / black box / cabin / cargo / cockpit / cowling / elevator / fin / flap / flight deck / fuselage / galley / hatch / jet engine / leading edge / nose / propeller / rudder / seat / slat / tail / trailing edge / undercarriage / wing

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A3 --
Holonym -- airport
Meronyms -- airplane / airstrip / air terminal / control tower / hangar / lounge / taxiway / terminal

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A4 --
Holonym -- algae
Meronyms -- cell membrane / cell wall / chloroplast / cytoplasm / flagellum / nucleolus / nucleus / starch vacuole

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A5 --
Holonym -- atom
Meronyms -- electron / neutron / proton

Other Examples:
Holonym / Meronym -- Example A6 –
‘abacus’ is the holonym of ‘wire’
wire’ is a meronym of ‘abacus’

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A7 –
‘album’ is the holonym of ‘photograph’
‘photograph’ is a meronym of ‘album’

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A8 --
‘asparagus’ is the holonym of ‘spear’
‘spear’ is a meronym of ‘asparagus’

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A9 --
‘atmosphere’ is the holonym of ‘stratosphere’
‘stratosphere’ is a meronym of ‘atmosphere’
Informal Words are connected with normal communication to your colleagues, acquaintances, family members, etc. | Informal words are more common in speech than in writing. | Informal words are used in ‘unofficial’ language. These words are not used in ‘official’ or formal writing | This book covers around 1400 Informal words (including name of parts of speech they belong to) and their meanings | IMPORTANT NOTE: Many informal words are used in both American and British English in the same way. However, some informal words are particularly used in American English only. Similarly, some informal words are particularly used in British English only. | INFORMAL WORDS – A -- A1 [adjective] -- very good | abs [noun] -- the muscles of the abdomen | ace [adjective | noun] -- very good | number one | achy [adjective] -- affected by an uninterrupted pain that is small in degree | ack-ack [noun] -- the non-stop firing of guns at aircraft | ad [noun] -- advertisement | adman [noun] -- a person who works in advertising or promotion | adore [verb] -- to be very fond of something | aggravate [verb] -- to intentionally irritate somebody | a gogo [adjective] -- in large quantities | airhead [noun] -- an unintelligent or stupid person | all [adverb] -- enormously | allergic [adjective] -- having an aversion of somebody/something | all right [adverb] -- used to emphasize something | almighty [adjective] -- enormous or severe | alphabet soup [noun] -- extremely difficult language with abbreviations or symbols | ammo [noun] -- ammunition [supply of bullets, etc; very important information for argument] | amp [noun] -- amplifier [a type of electrical device] | appalling [adjective] -- extremely bad or poor | arm candy [noun] -- a beautiful woman accompanied by a man in a public event | arm-twisting [noun] -- the use of physical power or great pressure to convince somebody to do something | artsy (arty) [adjective] -- enormously interested in the arts | artsy-fartsy (arty-farty) [adjective] -- connected with the arts | Aussie [noun] -- a person or native from Australia | awful [adjective] -- very bad | used to emphasize a large quantity or sum of something | axe (ax) [verb] -- to kill somebody with an axe | to get rid of a scheme, service, system, etc. | to dismiss somebody from their job | **** |  INFORMAL WORDS -- Particularly Used In AMERICAN ENGLISH: | ace [verb] -- to be successful | all-nighter [noun] -- a time when somebody stay awake all night, mainly for studying | ambulance chaser [noun] -- a lawyer connected with cases of accident claims | amped [adjective] -- excited | antsy [adjective] -- unable to keep still | any [adverb] -- ‘at all’ [used at the end of negative sentences] | A-OK [adjective] -- in satisfactory or perfect condition, manner or style. | attaboy / attagirl [exclamation] -- used to admire or encourage a boy or man / girl or woman | awesome [adjective] -- first-rate, excellent or pleasurable | awful [adverb] -- extremely or enormously | INFORMAL WORDS -- Particularly Used In BRITISH ENGLISH: | admin [noun] -- Administration [activities connected with organizing something] | afters [noun] -- a sweet dish that is eaten after meal | ages -- [noun] a very long time | aggro [noun] -- cruel, hostile and aggressive behavior | airy-fairy [adjective] -- impractical, unreasonable, unclear | all right [exclamation] -- used to say hello | all-singing, all-dancing [adjective] -- (of a machine) having a advanced features | anorak [noun] -- a boring person who is very fond of learning facts or collecting things | appro [noun] -- on approval [connected with shopping activities] | argy-bargy [noun] -- noisy argument or difference of opinions |
500 Words and Their Synonyms

Synonym is a word that has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word.

Sample This:

English Synonyms – A

001. ABET -- (meaning) to encourage somebody to do something illegal
Synonyms for ‘Abet’ --
incite / instigate / provoke

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002. ABEYANCE -- (meaning) being stopped for a period of time
Synonyms for ‘Abeyance’ --
dormancy / intermission / suspension

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003. ABILITY -- (meaning) the fact that somebody is able to do something
Synonyms for ‘Ability’ --
aptitude / capability / competence / knack / potential / proficiency / skill / talent

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004. ABLAZE -- (meaning) burning; on fire
Synonyms for ‘Ablaze’ --
aflame / afire / alight

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005. ABRASIVE -- (meaning) not smooth
Synonyms for ‘Abrasive’ --
coarse / harsh / rough

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006. ABSENCE -- (meaning) not available, present, etc.
Synonyms for ‘Absence’ --
nonexistence / nonappearance / nonattendance

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007. ABSTRUSE -- (meaning) difficult to understand
Synonyms for ‘Abstruse’ --
arcane / complicated / convoluted / esoteric / garbled / inarticulate / incoherent / incomprehensible / indecipherable / inexplicable / intricate / obscure / rarefied / recondite / unfathomable / unintelligible / unplumbed

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008. ABUSE -- (meaning) unfair or cruel treatment
Synonyms for ‘Abuse’ --
brutality / cruelty / exploitation / ill-treatment / maltreatment / mistreatment / misuse / spitefulness / viciousness

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009. ABYSS -- (meaning) a very deep crack in the ground
Synonyms for ‘Abyss’ --
chasm / gulf

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010. ACCEDE -- (meaning) to agree to a demand, request, proposal, etc.
Synonyms for ‘Accede’ --
acquiesce / approve / assent / commend / comply / endorse / grant / permission / ratify / sanction

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011. ACCENTUATE -- (meaning) to make something more noticeable
Synonyms for ‘Accentuate’ --
emphasize / highlight / underline / underscore

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012. ACCLIMATIZE -- (meaning) to get used to new situation
Synonyms for ‘Acclimatize’ --
adapt / adjust

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013. ACCOMPLISH -- (meaning) to succeed in getting something
Synonyms for ‘Accomplish’ --
attain / conquer / manage

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014. ACCOST -- (meaning) to come near to somebody/something
Synonyms for ‘Accost’ --
advance / approach / confront

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015. ACCREDITED -- (meaning) officially recognized
Synonyms for ‘Accredited’ --
certified / endorsed / licensed

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016. ACCRUAL -- (meaning) increase in something over a period of time
Synonyms for ‘Accrual’ --
accretion / addition / amassing / buildup / gathering

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017. ACCUSE -- (meaning) to say somebody is guilty of something
Synonyms for ‘Accuse’ --
arraign / blame / charge / impeach / indict / prosecute

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018. ACQUIT -- (meaning) to say officially that somebody is not guilty for a crime
Synonyms for ‘Acquit’ --
absolve / exculpate / exonerate

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019. ADMIRATION -- (meaning) praise or approval
Synonyms for ‘Admiration’ --
acclaim / accolade / applause / approbation / commendation / ovation

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020. ADMIRING -- (meaning) behavior that shows that you respect somebody/something
Synonyms for ‘Admiring’ --
chivalrous / considerate / courteous / deferential / gracious / respectful / reverent / reverential

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021. ADROIT -- (meaning) skillful and accurate
Synonyms for ‘Adroit’ --
agile / deft / dexterous / natty / nifty / nimble / swift

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022. ALARMING -- (meaning) causing feeling of fear and worry
Synonyms for ‘Alarming’ --
baffling / bewildering / confounding / disconcerting / disquieting / distressing / perplexing / puzzling / tormenting / upsetting / worrying

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This Book Covers the Following Topics:

Transitional Expressions -- Definition
Transitional Expressions – Punctuation Rules
01. Transitional Expressions -- Addition
02. Transitional Expressions -- Cause and Effect
03. Transitional Expressions -- Concession
04. Transitional Expressions -- Condition
05. Transitional Expressions -- Consequence
06. Transitional Expressions -- Contrast
07. Transitional Expressions -- Dismissal
08. Transitional Expressions -- Illustration
09. Transitional Expressions -- Emphasis
10. Transitional Expressions -- Exception
11. Transitional Expressions -- Explanation
12. Transitional Expressions -- Generalization
13. Transitional Expressions -- Location
14. Transitional Expressions -- Purpose
15. Transitional Expressions -- Quantifier
16. Transitional Expressions -- Reference
17. Transitional Expressions -- Sequence
18. Transitional Expressions – Similarity
19. Transitional Expressions -- Summary
20. Transitional Expressions -- Time
Exercise: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercise: 2(A) to 2(C)


SAMPLE THIS:

Transitional Expressions -- Definition

Meaning of ‘Transition’ -- to go from one point to another
“Transitional Expressions” = “Transitional Words” + “Transitional Phrases”
“Transitional (or Transition) Words” are also known as “connecting words”, “linking words” or “signal words“
“Transitional (or Transition) Phrases” are also known as “connecting phrases”, “linking phrases” or “signal phrases“

“Transitional Expressions” (also “Transitions”) could be defined as follows:
•    ‘Transitional expressions’ are words or phrases that provide bridges between sentences, parts of sentences, paragraphs and sections.
•    ‘Transitional expressions’ connect and relate sentences and paragraphs.
•    ‘Transitions expressions’ signal the relationship between sentences and paragraphs.
•    ‘Transitions expressions’ state the connections between ideas.
•    ‘Transitions expressions’ help carry over a thought from one part of a sentence to another, from one sentence to another, from one paragraph to another, from one section to another, or from one idea to another.
•    ‘Transitional expressions’ connect ideas from sentence to sentence and paragraph to paragraph.
•    ‘Transitional expressions’ are placed in the beginning, middle, or end of the sentences/paragraphs to explain connections between two or more ideas.
•    ‘Transitional expressions’ help carry over a thought from one idea to another.
•    ‘Transitional expressions’ produce clearer expression, by eliminating the excessive use of such words as ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘for’ ‘nor’, ‘or’ ‘so’ ‘yet’, etc.

Choosing Transitional Expression --
Some transitional words and transitional phrases belong to more than one category. A transitional expression can change the whole meaning of a sentence. Therefore, you should choose the transition that best conveys your meaning. You should also avoid repetition and use different transition words or phrases in the same category if necessary.

Placing transitional words:
There are three options for placing transitional words:
• The beginning of a sentence [Most common]
• The middle of a sentence
• The end of a sentence [Least Common]

Example:
Their products come with an insurance pack that covers accidental damage, theft, and breakage for a year. Furthermore, customers can also avail for an additional year of warranty. [Use of transitional word ‘furthermore’ at the beginning of a sentence]

Their products come with an insurance pack that covers accidental damage, theft, and breakage for a year. Customers, furthermore, can also avail for an additional year of warranty. [Use of transitional word ‘furthermore’ in the middle of a sentence]

Their products come with an insurance pack that covers accidental damage, theft, and breakage for a year. Customers can also avail for an additional year of warranty, furthermore. [Use of transitional word ‘furthermore’ in the end of a sentence]
The Art of Public Speaking is a fantastic introduction to public speaking by the master of the art, Dale Carnegie. Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners. It is closely allied to "presenting", although the latter has more of a commercial connotation.

In public speaking, as in any form of communication, there are five basic elements, often expressed as "who is saying what to whom using what medium with what effects?" The purpose of public speaking can range from simply transmitting information, to motivating people to act, to simply telling a story. Good orators should be able to change the emotions of their listeners, not just inform them. Public speaking can also be considered a discourse community. Interpersonal communication and public speaking have several components that embrace such things as motivational speaking, leadership/personal development, business, customer service, large group communication, and mass communication. Public speaking can be a powerful tool to use for purposes such as motivation, influence, persuasion, informing, translation, or simply entertaining. A confident speaker is more likely to use this as excitement and create effective speech thus increasing their overall ethos.

Dale Breckenridge Carnegie (originally Carnagey until 1922 and possibly somewhat later) (November 24, 1888 – November 1, 1955) was an American writer, lecturer, and the developer of famous courses in self-improvement, salesmanship, corporate training, public speaking, and interpersonal skills. Born in poverty on a farm in Missouri, he was the author of How to Win Friends and Influence People (1936), a massive bestseller that remains popular today. He also wrote How to Stop Worrying and Start Living (1948), Lincoln the Unknown (1932), and several other books.

Perhaps one of Carnegie’s most successful marketing moves was to change the spelling of his last name from “Carnagey” to Carnegie, at a time when Andrew Carnegie (unrelated) was a widely revered and recognized name. By 1916, Dale was able to rent Carnegie Hall itself for a lecture to a packed house. Carnegie's first collection of his writings was Public Speaking: a Practical Course for Business Men (1926), later entitled Public Speaking and Influencing Men in Business (1932). His crowning achievement, however, was when Simon & Schuster published How to Win Friends and Influence People. The book was a bestseller from its debut in 1936, in its 17th printing within a few months. By the time of Carnegie's death, the book had sold five million copies in 31 languages, and there had been 450,000 graduates of his Dale Carnegie Institute. It has been stated in the book that he had critiqued over 150,000 speeches in his participation in the adult education movement of the time. During World War I he served in the U.S. Army.

One of the core ideas in his books is that it is possible to change other people's behavior by changing one's reaction to them.
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

01. Category Words -- Sounds
02. Category Words -- Ways of Thinking
03. Category Words -- Ways of Walking
04. Category Words -- Ways of Movement
05. Category Words -- Ways of Changing
06. Category Words -- Ways of Laughing and Smiling
07. Category Words -- Ways of Seeing
08. Category Words -- Ways of Saying Something
09. Category Words -- Ways of Writing and Marking
10. Category Words -- Ways of Continuing
11. Category Words -- Feelings
12. Category Words -- Cooking
13. Category Words -- Disturbance
14. Category Words -- Situation of Confusion
15(A). Category Words -- Smells
15(B). Category Words -- Tastes
16. Category Words -- Cries of Creatures
17. Category Words -- Colors
18. Category Words -- Remarks
19. Category Words -- Body Marks
20. Category Words -- Body and Body Shape
21. Category Words -- ‘Old’
22. Category Words -- Time and Numbers
23. Category Words -- Zodiac Sign and Birthstones
24. Category Words -- Fabrics
25. Category Words -- Shapes
26. Category Words -- Religion
27(A). Category Words -- Nature
27(B). Category Words -- Biomes
28. Category Words -- People and Family
29. Category Words -- Currencies
30. Category Words -- Measurement Units
31. Category Words -- Government
32. Category Words -- Miscellaneous

Sample This:

01. Category Words -- Sounds

01. Babble -- the sound of many people speaking all together
Example: Babble of Voices

02. Bang -- sudden loud noise
Example: Bang of a Gun

03. Beat -- sound made by a series of regular blows to something
Examples: Beating of Drums | Beating of Wings

04. Blast -- the sound of an explosion | sound made by blowing of musical instruments
Examples: Blast of a Bomb | Blast of a siren

05. Blow -- to produce a sound by forcing your breath out when your lips are closed
Examples: Blowing of Bungles | Blowing of Trumpet | Blowing of Whistle

06. Boom -- loud deep sound
Example: Booming of Guns

07. Chatter -- a series of short high sounds
Examples: Chattering of Birds | Chattering of Monkeys | Chattering of Teeth

08. Chink -- light ringing sound
Example: Chinking of Glass

09. Clang -- loud ringing sound of metals
Examples: Clanging of Arms | Clanging of Bells

10. Clank -- loud sound of metal objects hitting together
Example: Clanking of Chains

11. Clap -- the sound of hitting something by hand | sudden loud noise
Examples: Clapping of Hands | Clapping of Thunder

12. Clatter -- loud noise made by knocking of hard objects
Examples: Clattering of Hoofs | Clattering of Knife

13. Crackle -- a series of light sharp sounds
Examples: Crackling of Fire-Wood | Crackling of Gunfire | Crackling of Flames

14. Creak -- a series of sharp sounds
Examples: Creaking of a Whip | Creaking of Shoes

15. Din -- loud, unpleasant sound that lasts for a long time
Example: Din of a Crowd

16. Ding -- sound made by a bell
Example: Ding of a Bell

17. Explode -- to make loud, violent sound
Examples: Exploding of Guns | Exploding of Bombs | Exploding of Rocket

18. Flap -- quick noisy movement
Examples: Flapping of Wings | Flapping of Newspaper | Flapping of Steam

19. Jingle -- a sound like small bells ringing
Example: Jingling of Coins

20. Knock -- the sound of somebody hitting a door, gate, window, etc.
Examples: Knocking of a Door | Knocking of a Window
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