Infektionsepidemiologie: Methoden, moderne Surveillance, mathematische Modelle, Global Public Health

Springer-Verlag
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Infektionskrankheiten sind weltweit für ca. ein Drittel aller Todesfälle verantwortlich. Das Auftreten neuer Erreger und Wiederauftreten von alten Infektionskrankheiten stellt ständig neue Herausforderungen für Ärzte, Biologen, Public Health Experten und die Politik. Moderne Surveillance und Kontrollmaßnahmen müssen den ständig veränderten Situationen angepasst werden. Das vorliegende Buch vermittelt fundierte Kenntnisse einer modernen Infektionsepidemiologie durch problembasiertes Erlernen von Grundkenntnissen über Prinzipien und Konzepte der Infektionsepidemiologie, Mathematische Modellierung, Präventionsstrategien z.B. durch Impfungen. Es behandelt wichtige infektionsepidemiologische Problemstellungen von neuen Infektionskrankheiten, nosokomialen Infektionen, BSE und weltweit weiterhin zunehmenden Krankheiten wie Malaria, Dengue, Tuberkulose und Ebola. Dem Buch liegt eine CD-ROM mit einfach handhabbaren Programmen und Datensätzen für praktische Übungen bei.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Springer-Verlag
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Published on
Mar 7, 2013
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Pages
183
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ISBN
9783642556128
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Best For
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Language
German
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Genres
Mathematics / Probability & Statistics / General
Medical / Biostatistics
Medical / Clinical Medicine
Medical / Infectious Diseases
Medical / Microbiology
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Diplomarbeit aus dem Jahr 2011 im Fachbereich Biologie - Mikrobiologie, Molekularbiologie, Note: 1, Universität Wien, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: The protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomonosis which is – with more than 170 million new cases each year – the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) worldwide. Although trichomonosis is not a primarily lethal disease, the clinical picture can include severe urogenital inflammations. Chronic infections have been associated with cervical/prostate cancer and a predisposition of HIV infections. In case of pregnancy, chronic infections can also lead to preterm delivery and low birth weight. For more than 50 years, metronidazole, a nitroimidazole antibiotic, has been in use for the treatment of trichomonosis. It is applied orally and although it is mostly compliant, it can have serious side effects. It is also not applicable for pregnant women due to its ability to pass the placenta. Furthermore, an increasing number of emerging metronidazoleresistant T. vaginalis strains has lead to more treatment failures in the last few years. To this day, however, there is no effective alternative drug against trichomonosis available. Pentamycin is a polyene antimycotic and has been in use in the treatment of candidiasis, in preliminary studies it also turned out to be effective against trichomonads. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pentamycin against T. vaginalis and the ability to develop resistances in vitro. For these purposes, the dose-effect relationship between pentamycin and four differently metronidazole-sensitive T. vaginalis strains was investigated. Moreover, the protein composition before and after the treatment was compared. To induce resistance, strains were treated with sublethal concentrations of pentamycin within a time of six months. It could be shown that pentamycin is highly effective against T. vaginalis. A 100% eradication of trichomonads was reached with a concentration of 15 ;g/ml and an incubation time of 1h. All four differently metronidazole-sensitive strains showed almost the same sensitivity to pentamycin. The comparison of the protein profiles of untreated and treated cells analysed by SDS-PAGE showed that the mode of action of pentamycin is based on an interaction and subsequent damage of the cell membrane which consequently leads to total lysis and death of the cell. [...]
Concise and practical handbook for all those who have responsibility for the identification and control of infectious disease


Why Buy this Book?:


Clear and concise - combining science, attention to detail and a practical approach
Covers basic principles of communicable disease control and health protection, major syndromes, control of individual infections, main services and activities, organizational arragements for all EU countries and sources of further information
All chapters updated inline with recent changes in epidemiology, new guidelines for control and adminstrative changes
New or expanded chapters on immunization queries, smallpox, SARS, West Nile virus, delibrate release / bioterrorism and on-call response


"This comprehensive and practical handbook will provide a very accessible source of detailed information for everyone in the field of communicable disease control."
Sir Liam Donaldson, Chief Medical Officer (from the foreword)


"This handbook will be a valuable resource for all those who are interested in control of communicable disease, including public-health physicians, epidemiologists, infection control nurses, microbiologists and those training to work in these related fields."
The Lancet Infectious Diseases


"This book fulfils all the needs of a practical handbook, being easy to use and packed with practical information."
Epidemiology and Infection


"This would be the first book to reach for in any number of day-to-day or crisis situations in communicable disease control."
British Journal of Infection Control


"If you undertake on-call public health duties, just buy the book."
Journal of Public Health Medicine

Hardly a day goes by without news headlines concerning infectious disease threats. Currently the spectre of a pandemic of influenza A|H1N1 is raising its head, and heated debates are taking place about the pro’s and con’s of vaccinating young girls against human papilloma virus. For an evidence-based and responsible communication of infectious disease topics to avoid misunderstandings and overreaction of the public, we need solid scientific knowledge and an understanding of all aspects of infectious diseases and their control.

The aim of our book is to present the reader with the general picture and the main ideas of the subject. The book introduces the reader to methodological aspects of epidemiology that are specific for infectious diseases and provides insight into the epidemiology of some classes of infectious diseases characterized by their main modes of transmission. This choice of topics bridges the gap between scientific research on the clinical, biological, mathematical, social and economic aspects of infectious diseases and their applications in public health.

The book will help the reader to understand the impact of infectious diseases on modern society and the instruments that policy makers have at their disposal to deal with these challenges. It is written for students of the health sciences, both of curative medicine and public health, and for experts that are active in these and related domains, and it may be of interest for the educated layman since the technical level is kept relatively low.

Diverse driving forces, processes and actors are responsible for different trends in the development of megacities and large urban areas. Under the dynamics of global change, megacities are themselves changing: On the one hand they are prone to increasing socio-economic vulnerability due to pronounced poverty, socio-spatial and political fragmentation, sometimes with extreme forms of segregation, disparities and conflicts. On the other hand megacities offer positive potential for global transformation, e.g. minimisation of space consumption, highly effective use of resources, efficient disaster prevention and health care options – if good strategies were developed.

At present in many megacities and urban areas of the developing world and the emerging economies the quality of life is eroding. Most of the megacities have grown to unprecedented size, and the pace of urbanisation has far exceeded the growth of the necessary infrastructure and services. As a result, an increasing number of urban dwellers are left without access to basic amenities like clean drinking water, fresh air and safe food. Additionally, social inequalities lead to subsequent and significant intra-urban health inequalities and unbalanced disease burdens that can trigger conflict and violence between subpopulations.

The guiding idea of our book lies in a multi- and interdisciplinary approach to the complex topic of megacities and urban health that can only be adequately understood when different disciplines share their knowledge and methodological tools to work together. We hope that the book will allow readers to deepen their understanding of the complex dynamics of urban and megacity populations through the lens of public health, geographical and other research perspectives.
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